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Loaned by American Museum of Natural History 


f'-Vw v. 

:V/ YORK. ^ 




VOL. YL 1^52, 1853. 


By Merrihew & Thompson, Merchant street, above Fourth, 





Abell, John, deposit in museum, Ixiv. 
Abert, Col. J. J., don. to lib., xxviii., 

xxxii., Ixxiii. 
Acad. C. L. C. Nat.- Curiosorum, don. 

to lib. xiv., xlix., lix Ixxvi. 
Acad. Nationale des Sci. &c. de Lyon, 

don. to lib. Ixix. 
Adams, Prof. C. B., don. to lib., xxxvi, 

xlviii. > 

Agardh, J. G., don. to lib., xlv. 
Agassiz, Prof., communication from, in 

relation to Cambarus Gambelii, 375. 
Agnew, Rev. Wm. G., don. to mus. 

Albany Institute, don. to lib., Ivi. 
American Academy of Arts aod Sci., 

don. to lib., Ixix. 
American Philosophical Society, don. 

to lib., ix., XXV., Ixxvi. 
American Pomolog. Society, don. to 

lib., xlix. 
Anatomical Collection of the late Dr. 

S. G. Morton, presented by members 

and others, Ixiv. 
Annals of Science, don. of by Editor, 

Ixv, ixvi, Ixix, Ixxi, Ixxii, Ixxiii, 

Andrews, Israel D., don. t lib., Ixxvi. 
Ashmead, Chas. C, don. to mus.,xxxv. 

Ashmead, Samuel, don. to mus., xvi., 

XXXV., xliv., Ixxii. Remarks on a 

collection of Marine Algoe, 147. 
Audubon and Bachman, description of 

a new American Fox, 114. 

Baird, Prof. S. F., note in reference to 
Vulpes Utah, 124. 

Baird, Prof, and C. Girard, on the cha- 
racters of some new Reptiles in the 
Museum of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 68, 125, 173; Descriptions of 
new species of Reptiles, collected by 
the U. 6. Expl. Exp., Capt. Wilkes, 
174, 420 ; List of iReptiles collected 
in California by Dr. J. Le Conte, with 

descriptions of new speciesj 300 ; 
Descriptions of some new Fishes from 
the River Zuni, 368 ; Description of 
new species of Fishes, collected by 
Mr. John H. Clark, on the U. S and 
Mexican Boundary Commission, 387; 
Description of new species ef Fishes, 
collected by Capts. Marcy and Mc- 
Clellan in Arkansas, 390. 

Bache, Prof. F., don. to lib., Ixxviii. 

Bailey, Prof. J. W., (see Harvey.) 

Barry, Rev. A. C, don. to mus., Ixviii. 

Bathygnathus borealis, lower jaw of, 
presented by Dr. Leidy, Mr. Lea and 
\V. S. Vaux, Ixxiv. 

BischofF, Dr.G. G., don. to lib., xxxviii. 

Blagoe, Benj., don. to mus., xliv. 

Bland, Thomas, don. to lib., xlv. 

Boston Soc of Nat. History, don. to lib. 
by, ii., vi., xi., xiv., xvii., xxviii., 
xxxiii., xlix., Ivi., Iviii., Ixvii., Ixx. 

Botto, G. D., don. to lib., ii. 

Boue, Dr. Ami, don. to lib., Ixxvii. 

Brasier, A. J., don. to lib., Ixvii. 

Bridges, Dr. R., don. to lib., xiv. 

Brown, F., Jr., don. to mus., Ixiv. 

Browne, Peter A., don. to lib., xxii. 

Budd, Dr. C. H.,don. to mus., viii.jxvi. 

Burtt, Dr., U. S. N., don. to mus., i., 
viii., xvi., xvii., xxvii., xxxii. ; don. 
to lib., xxii. ; on the influence of Sul- 
phuretted Hydrogen arising from the 
Bay of Callao on Fishes in its waters, i. 

Butler, Pierce, don. to mus., liii. 

By-Laws, amendmients to, 375, 403. 

Carson, Prof. Jos., don. to lib., xiv.l. 

Carter, Dr. Charles, don. to mus., Ixiv. 

Cassin, John, don. to mus.,i. ; remarks 
on the Birds from the Arctic regions, 
presented by Dr. Kane, 107 ; an- 
nouncement of Dr. Heermann's re- 
turn from California, 147 ; Descrip- 
tion of new species of Birds in the 
collection of the Acad. Nat. Sci., 184 ; 



Catalogue of Halcyonidae, 188 ; Re- 
marks on a new species of Scalops 
^ from Oregon, 242 ; Catalogue of Hi- 
rundinidae in Collection of Acad. Nat. 
Sci., 369; Description of new species 
of Hirundinidae and Psittacidas, in 
Collection of A. N. S., 369 ; Synop- 
sis of Falconidae of America north of 
Mexico, 450. 

Charleston Med. Journal and Review, 
don. of, by Editors, vii., xiv., xxx., 
xxxviii., 1., Iviii., Ixvii., Ixx., Ixxii., 

Clapp, Dr. A., don. to lib., Ixv. 

Clay, Jos. A., don. to mus., Ixiv. 

Coates, Dr. B. H., don. to mus., vii.; 
correction of an error in Dr. Smyth's 
work on the Unity of the Human 
Races, 191. 

Cole, Mrs., don. to lib., Ixxviii. 

Committee on Proceedinsis, Report by, 


Committee on Mammalogy, Report by, 

Committee to communicate with Com. 
Perry, in relation to making collec- 
tions in India, by the U. S. Japan 
Exp., 55. 

Committee on the purchase of Dr. Mor- 
ton's Anatomical collection, 304. 

Committee on the occasion of the de- 
cease of J. Price Wetherill, 376. 

Committees, Standing, for 1852, 30; for 
1853, 239. 

Committees on Scientific Papers : By 
Dr. Wetherill; Examination of Mo- 
lybdate of Lead, from Phcenixville, 
Penna., 52 and 117; Chemical Inves- 
tigation of the Honey Ant, 107 ; on 
the food of the Queen Bee, 117; on 
Mr. Sumner's Analyses of the Cotton 
Plant and Seed, as communicated by 
Dr. Wetherill, 195: By Mr. Lea; 
description of a new species of Sym- 
phynote Unio, 52; description of a 
fossil Saurian, from the New Red 
Sandstone of Penna., 72 ; on some 
new fossil Molluscs in the Carbonife- 
rous Slates of Penna., 72 ; Descrip- 
tion of a new species of Eschara, lOG; 
Notice of the Mya nodulosa VV^ood, 
325 : By Col. G. A. McCall : descrip- 
tion of a new species of Carpodacus, 
56: By Dr. Woodhouse ; Description 
of new species of Vireo and Zonotri- 
chia, 56j Description of a new species 
of Lcpus, 72 ; of a now species of 
Ectopistes, 72 ; Description of a new 
species of Sciurus, 100 ; description of 
a new species of Numenius, 192 ; new 

species of Geomys and Perognathus, 
195 ; new species of Struthus, 196 ; a 
nev/ species of Dipodomys, 224 ; a 
new species of Hesperomys, 24U: By 
Dr. Leconte ; Remarks on Coleop- 
tera from Arkansas and New Mexico, 
58 ; Synopsis of the Anthicites of the 
United States, 71 ; Synopsis of the 
species of Pterosticus, 107 ; on the 
Coccinellidas of the U. S., and on a 
new species of Trorabidium, 124; no- 
tice of fossil Dicotyles from Missouri, 
and on some fossil Pachyderms from 
Illinois, 1 ; Hints towards a natural 
classification of the family Histrini,34; 
Synopsis of the Parnidse of the U. S., 
34; Synopsis of thelEucnemidce oftem- 
perate N. America, 34 ; Description 
of a new species of Sciurus, 147 ; 
Catalogue of Melyrides of the U.S., 
147 ; Synopsis of the Scydmaenidae of 
the U. S., 148; Synopsis of the genus 
Geomys Raf., 148 ; description of 20 
new species of Coleoptera of the U. 
S., 223 ; Synopsis of the Silphales of 
America north of Mexico, and Synop- 
sis of the Scaphidilia of the U. S., 
240; Synopsis of the species of Abrfeus 
inhabiting the U. S., 241 ; Synopsis 
of the Meloides of the U. S., and Sy- 
nopsis of the EndomychidcB, Rhipi- 
ceridae and Cyphonidae of the U. S.," 
323 ; Description of new Coleoptera 
from Texas, 438: ByC. Girard: Ob- 
servations on N. American Astaci, 
58 ; descriptions of new Nemerteans 
and Planarians from the coast of 
Carolina, 325 ; Observations on the 
American species of Esox, and note 
on a nest constructed by Catfishes, 
377 ; Researches upon Nemerteans 
and Planarians, 434 : By Prof. Baird 
and C. Girard; On new Reptiles in 
the Museum of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, 59, 117 and 148; descrip- 
tion of new Reptiles collected by U. 
S. Expl. Exp., Capt. Wilkes, 171; 
description of new species of Reptiles 
from California, collected by Dr. Le 
Conte, 241 ; description of new fishes 
from the River Zuni, 326 ; description 
of Fishes collected in Arkansas by 
Capts. Marcy and McClelland, and 
descriptions of Fishes collected by 
Mr. Clarke oa the U. S. and Mexican 
Boundary Survey, 379: By Dr. Hallo- 
well; on new species of Reptiles from 
Western Africa, 58 ; descriptions of 
new Reptiles from Oregon, 172 ; on 
some new Reptiles inhabiting North 



America, 172 ; on a new genus and 
two new species of Reptiles inhabit- 
ing N. America, 195 ; on a new genus 
and new species of African Serpents, 
198 ; on new Reptiles from California, 
225 : By Prof. Dana ; Crustacea of 
Expl. i' xp., 59: By Dr. Leidy; 
on the Osteology of the head of the 
Hippopotamus, &c., 59 ; description 
of Bathygnathus borealis, 438. By 
Dr. Owen ; notice of a Mineral from 
California, 72 : By Dr. Genth , on 
some minerals which accompany 
Gold from California, 107 ; on Rhodo- 
phyllite, 118 ; on a probably new ele- 
ment with Iridosmene and Platinum 
from California, 198 ; on a new va- 
riety of gray Copper, and on Uvvenite, 
a new mineral, 241: By the Rev. Mr. 
Longstreth ; on the impregnation 
of the eggs of the Queen Bee, 34: 
By Mr. Cassin ; Catalogue of Hal- 
cyonidae, in the Collection of the 
Acad. Nat. Sci., 172 ; on new species 
of Birds in the Collection of the Aca- 
demy, 172 ; description of a new spe- 
cies of Scalops from Oregon, 241 ; 
Catalogue of Hirundinidas in the Col- 
lection of the Acad. Nat. Sci., and on 
Jiew species of Swallows and Parrots 
in same collection, 326 : Synopsis of 
the Falconidaa of America north of 
Mexico, 439: By ^Ir. Tuomey ; des- 
criptions of fossil shells from the Ter- 
tiary of the Southern States, 192: By 
Dr. Heermann ; Notes on the Birds 
of California, 195 ; Catalogue of the 
Oological Collection of the Acad. Nat. 
Sci., 241 : By Mr. Conrad ; descrip- 
tion of new fossil shells of the United 
States, and remarks on the Tertiary 
Sl;rata of St. Domingo and of Vicks- 
burg. Miss., 196; Notes on Shells and 
descriptions of new species, 197 ; Sy- 
nopsis of the N. American Naiades, 
240 ; description of a new species of 
Unio, 315, and monograph of the ge- 
nus Fulgur, 315; Monograph of the 
genus Argonauta, and synopsis of the 
genus Cassidula, and description of a 
new genus Athleta, 438 ; omissions 
and corrections to Synopsis of North 
American Naiades, 438 : By Dr. Hoy ; 
descriptions of Owls from Wisconsin, 
197; Notes on the Ornithology of 
Wisconsin, 240: By Major Le Conte ; 
on the Vine's of N. America, 395; de- 
scription of a new species of Pa- 
cane nut, 395 ; description of three 
new species of Arvicola, &c., 403 ; 

Observations on Crotalus durissusand 
C. adamanteus, 404 : By Dr. F. 
Greene ; on the chemical inves- 
tigation of the remains of fossil 
Mammalia, 241 :^By the Rev. Mr. 
Berkeley and Rev. M. A. Curtis ; 
on the Exotic Fungi from the 
Schweinitz Herbarium in the Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 242 : By Lieut. Maury : 
Observations on Atmospheric Pres- 
sure, 304 : By Prof. Haldeman ; des- 
cription of new species of Insects, 
325 : By Dr. M. C. Read;' Notes on 
the Birds of northern Ohio, 395 : By 
Professors Harvey and Bailey ; De- 
scription of new species of Diato- 
maceae, collected by U. S- Exploring 
Exp., Capt. Wilkes, 430 : By Dr. S". 
Weir Mitchell ; On the influence of 
the Respiration on the Pulse, 435. 
Conrad, ^T. A., don. to mus.,xvii.,xliv. 
Remarks on the Tertiary Strata of 
St. Domingo, and of Vicksburg, Miss., 
198; Notes on Shells, 199,320; Sy- 
nopsis of the Naiades of North Ame- 
rica, 243 ; Monograph of the genus 
Fulgur, 316 ; Synopsis of the genus 
Cassidula and of a proposed new ge- 
nus Athleta, 448 ; Omissions and cor- 
rections to Synopsis of N. A. Naiades, 
Correspondents elected. 

Antisell, Dr. Thos., New York, 171. 
Barry, Rev. A. C, Wisconsin, 403. 
Dalton, Dr. H. G., Dernerara, 124, 
Daniel, Dr. Wm. F., Africa, 146. 
De Candolle, Prof. Alphonse, Geneva, 

Ford, Dr. H. A., Africa. 56. 
Foster, J. W., New York, 50. 
Fox, Rev. Charles, Michigan, 403. 
Hartlaub, Dr. G., Bremen, 315. 
Hartmann, Dr. Wm. D., Westchester, 

Pa., 373. 
Hoy, Dr. Philo R., Wisconsin, 403. 
Kennedy, Dr. H. W., Buenos Ayres, 

Le Confb, Prof. John, Georgia, 458. 
Lynch, Commander Wm. F., U. S. 

N., 146. 
Maury, Lieut. M. F., U. S. N., 239. 
Marsh, Dexter, Mass., 146. 
Newberry, Dr. J. S., Ohio, 403, 
Perley,M.H., St. John-s, N. B., 171. 
Porter, Rev. Thos. G., Penna., ^94. 
Potter, Rt. Rev. Alonzo, Penna. 171. 
Schaum, Dr. H., Berlin, 315. 
Smith, J. Broome, California, 195. 
Wagner, Prof. A.j Munich, 315. 
Webber, Dr. Samuel, N. H., 30. 



Whitney, J. D., New York, 50. 
Cotting, Dr.B. E., don. to lib., xlviii. 
Costa, Achille, don. to lib., Ixviii. 
Cramer, Charles, don. to mus., Ixi. 
Creot, Alfred, don. to nnus., Ixxii. 
Curators, Report of, for 1852, 218; for 

1853,456. _ 
Curtis, Rev. M. A, don. to mu?.,xvii., 

don. to lib , v. 
Cuttle, John, don. to mus., i. 

Dalton, Dr. H. G., don. to mus., xvii. 

Dana, Prof. J. D., Conspectus of the 
Crustacea of the Exploring; Expedi- 
tion, Capt. Wilkes, 73. 

Daniel, Dr. Wm. F., don. to lib., xviii. 

Darlington, Dr. Wm., don. to lib., 

Daubree, Wm. A., don. to lib., xxiv. 

Dawson, J. W.,don. to mus.,lxiv.,don. 
to lib, Ixviii. 

De la Berge, M., don. to mus., xxxv. 

Delafield, Dr. E., don. to lib., lii. 

DowJer, Dr. B., don. to lib., xxx. Ixix. 

Durand, Elias, don. to lib., lii. 

Ecole des Mines, don. by, of Annalesdes 

Mines, ix., xxxi., Iv., Ixix., Ixxxi. 
Edwards, Amory, don. to mus., vii. 
Edwards, Mr., don. to mus.,liii., Iviii., 

Elwyn, Dr. A. L., don. to lib. xiii. ; 

deposit in lib. xxxvi. 
Engelmann, Dr. Geo., don. to mus. 

Eschricht, Dr. D. E., don. to lib. Ixxvi. 

Fahnestock, G. W.,don. tomus.xxxvi., 
xliv., liii. 

Faraday, M., don. to lib. xv. - 

Fisher, Dr. J.C., remarks on the aurora 
borealis 51 ; don. to lib. vi. 

Fisher, Thomas, don. to mus. i., xvii, 
xliv. ; don. to lib. Ixxiii. 

Flourens, M.,don. to lib. Ixxviii. 

Ford, Dr. H. A., don. to mus. i., Ixviii.; 
on the characteristics of the Troglo- 
dytes gorilla, 30. 

Foster, J. W., don. to lib. 1. 

Frazer, Prof., don. to lib. Ixxii. 

Gambel, Mrs., letter from, presenting 

the MSS..of the late Dr. Gambel, of 
his last overland journey to Cali- 
fornia, 439. 

Geological Society of London, don. to 
lib., ii., xiv., xxiii., xxiv., liv , Ixvii., 
Ixix., Ixxv. 

Geological Society of Germany, don. to 
lib., Ixxvi., Ixxvii. 

Genth, Dr. F. A., don. to mus. xvii. ; 
on some minerals which accompany 
gold in California, 113 ; on Stron- 
tiano-calcite, 114; on Rhodophyllite, 
121 ; on some salts of Cobalt and 
Ammonia, 147 ; on a probably new 
element with Iridosmine and Pla- 
tinum from California, 209 ; on a new 
variety of Gray Copper, 296 ; on 
Owenite, 297, 

Germain, L. J., don. to mus. Ixxii. 

Gibbes,Dr. R. W., don. To mus. Ixxiv.: 
don. to lib. Ixxii.; letter from, pre- 
senting an aboriginal cranium from 
South Carolina, 433. 

Gibbons, Dr., don. to mus. lix. 

Gilliams, H., don. to mus. viii. 

Gilliams, J., don. to mus. xxxvi. 

Gillou, Constant, don. to mus., liii. 

Girard, Charles, don. to lib., vi., xxx., 
Ixxii.; Revision of the North Ameri- 
can Astaci, 87 ; description of New 
Nemerteans and Planarians from the 
Carolina Coast, 365 ; observations on 
a species of Rana, and of Bufo, from 
Oregon, 37S ; description of a sup- 
posed new species of Salmo, 380 ; re- 
marks on Professor Agassiz' commu- 
cation on Cambarus Gambelii, &c., 
380 ; on the American species of 
Esox, 386; on a nest constructed by 
Catfishes, 387. 

GistljDr. J., don. to lib. xxx. 

Graham, Col. J. D., don to lib. Ivi. 

Grant, Wm., don. to mus. xvii. 

Greene, Dr. F. V., Chemical investiga- 
tion of the remains of fossil Mam- 
malia, 292. 

Gries, Wm., don. to lib. xxiii. 

Grube, Prof. E., don. to lib. Ixxv. 

Haidinger, Wm., don. to lib. xlv., xlvi. 

Haldeman, Prof. S. S., don. to mus. 
xxvii., xxviii., Ixiv., Ixviii.; 
lib. xxiii. ; remarks on some albino 
specimens of Tamias Lysteri, 198; 
description of new species of insects, 
361 ; proposition to change Meloc par- 
vus to M. ]iarv2il7is, 404. 

Hallovvell, Dr. E., don. to mus. Ixxii., 



Ixxiv. ; on new reptiles from Western 
Africa, 62 ; on some new reptiles in- 
habiting N. America, 177 ; on new 
species of reptiles from Oregon, 182 ; 
on a new genus and new species of 
African Serpents, 203; on a new 
genus and new species of reptiles in- 
habiting N. America, 206; on some 
new rpptiles from California, 236. 

Hanley, M., don. to mus. viii. 

Harris, Edward, don. to mus. xvii. 

Harris, Mr., don. to mus. viii. 

Hartmann, Dr. Wm. D., don. to mus. i., 
viii., xxvii. ; don. to lib. Ixii. 

Harvey, Profs. W. H., & J. W. Bailey, 
on new species of Diatomaceae, col- 
lected by the U. S. Exploring Expe- 
dition, Capt. Wilkes, 430. 

Hayes, Dr. Isaac, remarks on a tooth 
of the fossil Tapir, 53; don. to mus. 
i., vii., Ixviii. 

Henderson, Dr. A., don. to mus. i., viii. 

Heermann, Dr. A. L., don. to mus., 
xxviii., XXXV., xxxvi., xliv., liii., 
Iviii., Ixiv. ; Catalogue of the Oolo- 
gical Collection of the Acad. Nat. 
Sci-, 313. 

Henry, Dr. T. Charlton, don. to mus., 

Hiester, Dr., don. to mus. xvi. 

Hildreth, Dr. S. P., don. to lib., Ixxvi. 

Historical Society of Penna., don. to 
lib., Ixxiii. 

Histoire Nat., &c., de Pile de Cuba, 
don. of by members, xi., Ixxxiii. 

Holmes, Prof. F. S., don. to mus., 
xxxvi.,, circular from 124. 

Hoopes, B. H., don. to mus., xliv. 

Hooper, John, don. to lib., xiii. 

Hopkins, Wm., don. to lib., xxiv. 

Horsfield, Dr. Thomas, don. to lib., 
xxviii., Ivi. 

Hoy, Dr. Philo R., description of new 
Owls, from Wisconsin, 210; Notes 
on the Ornithology of Wisconsin, 304, 
381, 425. 

Imperial Geological Institute of Vien- 
na, don. to lib., Ixv., Ixxvii. 

Jackson, Dr. Charles T., don. to lib., 
iii., 1. 

Jackson, Dr. J. B. S., don. to lib., Ixix. 

Janney, Dr. A., don. to mus., xvi. 

Jessup A., don. to mus., xvi., lix.. Ixiv. 

Journal of the Indian Archipelago and 
Eastern Asia, don. of by editors, vii., 
XV., xxiv., xxxii., xxxvi., xlv., Iviii., 
Ixviii., Ixix., Ixxv. 

Kane, Dr. E. K., don. to mus., xvii., 
liii., Ixviii., don. to lib., Ixviii., 
Ixxviii ; announcement by, of a new 
Amer. Arctic Expedition, in search 
of Sir John Franklin, 196. 

Keefer, T. C, don. to lib., lix. 

Kennedy, Dr. H. W., don. to mus., 
xxxvi., don. to lib., xl., xlii., xliv. 

Kern, E. L., don. to mus., viii. 

Kern, R. H., don. to mus., vii., xxvii. 

Kilvington, Robert, don. to mus., viii., 
xvii., xxvii. 

King, Dr. A. T., don. to mus., Ixiv. 

Kirtlanu, Dr. 7. P., don. to mus., xxvii., 

Kneeland, Dr. S., Jr., don. to lib., Ix. 

Krider, John, don. to mus., i., xvii., 
xxvii., lix., Ixviii., Ixxv. 

Lambert, John, don. to mus., viii. 

Langstroth, Rev. L. L., don. to lib., 
Ixix. ; on the Honey Ant, of Mexico, 
71 ; on the impregnation of the eggs 
of the Queen Bee, 49. 

Latham, R. T., don to lib., liii. 

Latour, M. Huguet, don. to lib., liii., 
liv., Iv., Iviii., Ixi., Ixiv. 

Lawrence, Geo. N., don. to mus. viii. 

Lea, Isaac, don. to mus., viii., xvii., 
Ixxv., don. to lib., vi., ix., xxii., ; on 
Dipsas plicatus Leach, 53 ; periodi- 
city of the family Unionidae, 54; de- 
scription of a new species of Sym- 
phynote Unio, 54 ; definition of the 
term " Species," 57 ; on some im- 
pressions of human feet in sandstone, 
from Illinois, 106; on some shells 
from the Drift, near Philadelphia, 
106 ; description of a new species of 
Eschara, 109; notice of Myanodulo- 
sa, 368 ; on the Castalia sulcata 
Krauss, and other Naiades, 376; on 
the MuUeria Ferussac, Acostoea D'- 
Orbigny, 435 ; on a specimen of 
Gneiss bored by Pholas dactylus, 438. 

Lea, L., don. to lib., xviii. 

Leasure, Dr. D., don. to lib., xviii. 

Le Conte, Prof. J., don. to lib., Ixxvi. 

Le Conte, Major John, don. to mus., 
viii., xvii , xxvii., liii., don. to lib., 
Ivi. ; enumeration of the Vines of N. 
America, 269 ; remarks on a speci- 
men of Dipsas plicatus containing ar- 
tificial pearls, 326 ; description of a 
new species of Pacane Nut, 402 ; de- 
scription of nine new species of Arvi- 
cola, with remarks on other North 
American Rodents, 404 ; observations 



on the so-called Crotalus durissus, 
and C. adamanteus of authors, 415. 

Le Conte, Dr. John L., don. to mus., 
i., vii., viii., xvi., xxvii., xliv. ; don. 
to lib., Ixvi. ; on some fossil Suiline 
Pachydernas, from Illinois, 3 : notice 
of a fossil Dicotyles, from Missouri, 
5 ; on the difference between primor- 
dial and introduced races, 35 ; on a 
natural classification of the Histrini, 
36; synopsis of the Parnidae of the 
United States, 41 ; synopsis of the 
Eucnemides of teinperate N. Ameri- 
ca, 45; remarks on a new locality 
for Casteroides Ohioensis, 53 ; on 
some fossil Pachyderms, from Illi- 
nois, 56; on some Coleoptera, from 
Missouri and New Mexico, collected 
by Dr. Woodhouse, 65 ; synopsis of 
the Anthicites of the United States, 
91; on the Coccinellidse of the U. 
States, 129 ; description of a new 
species of Trombidium, 145; descrip- 
tion of a new species of Sciurus, 149; 
synopsis of the Scydmaenidae of the 
United States, 149 ; attempt at a 
synopsis of the genus Geomys Raf., 
157 ; Catalogue of the Melyrides of 
the United States, 163; remarks on 
the genus Dipodomys, 224 ; on the 
Mexican Ant, 225; descriptions of 
twenty new species of Coleoptera in- 
habiting the United States, 226 ; 
synopsis of the Silphales of America, 
north of Mexico, 274 ; synopsis of the 
species of Abraeus inhabiting the U. 
States, 287 ; remarks on the speci- 
mens of Scalops in the collection of 
the Academy, 326 ; synopsis of the 
Meloides of the U. States, 328; syn- 
opsis of the Atopidag Rhipiceridae and 
Cyphonidae of the United States, 350; 
synopsis of the Endomychidae of the 
United States, 357 ; description of 
new Coleoptera from Texas, collect- 
ed by the Mexican Boundary Com- 
mission, 439. 

Leidy, Dr. Joseph, don. to mns., xxvii., 
Ixviii.; don. to lib., v., xviii., xxviii., 
liv.,lv., lix., Ixii., Ixvii.; remarks on a 
fossil vertebra, from Ouachita, La., 
52; osteology of the Hippopotamus, 
52, 53 ; on the fossil Tortoises, from 
Nebraska, 59 ; on " Red Snow," from 
the Arctic regions, 59 ; on two crania 
of extinct species of Ox, 71 ; on the 
Honey Ant, of Mexico, 72 ; reference 
to a fossil tooth of a Tapir, 106 ; re- 
marks on the fossil Ox, 117 ; remarks 
on the fossil Edentata of N. America, 

117 ; remarks on some fossil teeth of 
Rhinoceros, from Nebraska, 2 ; on a 
fossil Turtle, from Nebraska, 34; re- 
marks on a fossil Delphinus, from the 
Miocene of Virginia, and a fossil Cro- 
codileaYi reptile, from New Jersey, 
35; remarks on Tapirus Haysii, 148; 
remarks on various fossil teeth, 241 ; 
on some fossil fragments from Nat- 
chez, Miss., 303 ; observations on re- 
mains of extinct Cetacea, from the 
green sand of New Jersey, and from 
South Carolina and Virginia, 377 ; 
remarks on a collection of fossil 
Mammalia and Chelonia, from the 
Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, 392 ; 
remarks on a fragment of a jaw of an 
extinct Saurian, from Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, 404 : character ex- 
plained of nodular bodies found in the 
tails and fins of fishes, from Cold 
Pond, N. H., 433. 

Le Gal, E., don. to lib., xiv. 

Lepsius, Dr. R., don. to lib., xxxi. 

Letters from Individuals 
Adams, Com., U. S. N., 71. 
Bache, Prof. A. D., 105. 
Baird, Prof. S. F., 438. 
Barry, Rev. C, 433. 
BischofF, Dr. G. G., 147. 
Blanding, Dr. Wm., 240. 
Boue, Dr. M., 435. 
Boyd, Lieut., U. S., 125. 
Chambers, Dr. R. C, 241. 
Costa, Sig. Achille, 325. 
Cresson, Prof. J. C, 323. 
Curtis, Rev. M. A., 105. 
Daniel, Dr. Wm. F., 71. 
Davis, J. Barnard, 395. 
Dawson, J. W., 325. 
Ducachet, Rev. Dr., 71. 
Dun^lison, Dr. R., 240. 
Durand, E., 191. 
Edwards, Amory, 52. 
Ehrlich, Prof., 125. 
Espinoza, Signor Juan, 324. 
Fahnestock, G. W., 147. 
Ford, Dr. H. A., 375. 
Fox, Rev. Charles, 433. 
Frazer, Prof. J. F., 223. 
Gibbes, Dr. R. W., 403. 
Gilman, Charles, 438. 
Gibbons, Dr. H., 304. 
Gistl, Dr. J., 117. 
Grube, Prof. E., 433. 
Haidinger, Wm., 189. 
Hamilton, James M., 378. 
Hartlaub, Dr. G., 325. 
Hoy, Dr. Philo R., 404. 
Kane, Hon. J. K., 438. 



Kennedy, Hon. J. P., 223. 
Kennedy, Dr. H. W., 196. 
Kirkbride, Dr. T., 172. 
Kirtland, Prof. J. P., 117. 
Lapham, J. P., 223. 
Laporte, M., Sr., 125- 
Lawson, Thomas, U. S. A., 51. 
Lea, Isaac, 325. 
Lepsius, Prof., 118. 
Marsh, Dexter, 195. 
Maury, Lieut. U. S. N., 304. 
Marston, Com'r. U. S. N., 433. 
McCluney, Capt. U. S. N., 59. 
Merrick, S. V., 37S. 
Miller, Jacob S., 304, 
Moore, Wm. E., 433. 
Ord, George, 1. 
Paine, Dr. Martyn, 172. 
Peale, T. R., 1. 

Perry, Commodore, U. S. N., 58. 
Prescott, Wm. H., 58. 
Potter, Rt. Rev. Alonzo, 196. 
Ravenel, H. W., 323. 
Retzius, Prof. A., 71. 
Sheafer, P. W., 323. 
Shumard, Dr. B. F., 1. 
Troschel, Dr. F. H., 56. 
Tschudi, Dr. J. J., 434. 
Wagner, Dr. 433. 
Webber, Dr. Samuel, 51, 433. 
Wood, Richard D., 375. 
Letters from Societies, &c. 

Acad. C. L. C. Nat. Curiosorum, 192, 

240, 303, 433. 
Acad, of Sciences, Belles Lettres, 

&c., of Lyons, 375. 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, 195. 
Agricultural Soc of Lyons, 375. 
Albany Institute, 240. 
Amer. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, 

107, 325. 
Amer. Philosoph. Soc, 1, 51, 117, 

147, 240, 323,326, 395, 433. 
Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, 189. 
British Museum, 53, 105, 189. 
Ecole des Mines, 303. 
Faculty of Harvard University, 53. 
Geological Soc. of London, 34, 107, 

Geolog. Soc. of Germany, 403. 
Historical Soc. of Penna., 315, 404, 

Imperial Geolog. Institute of Vienna, 

323, 435. 
Leeds Literary & Philosoph. Society, 

Linnean Soc. of London, 51, 124. 
Linnean Soc. of Lyons, 375. 
Lyceum of Nat. History of N. York, 

58, 316, 403. 

Manchester Library & Museum, 172. 

Naturwissen. Verein in Hamburg, 

Naturwissen. Verein in Halle, 195. 

New York State Library, 1, 34, 72, 
107, 147, 172, 196, 240, 323, 325, 
395, 403. 

Royal Acad, of Sci. of Brussels, 59, 

Royal Acad, of Sci. of Naples, 56, 

Royal Acad, of Sci. of Stockholm, 
34, 303, 435. 

Royal Acad, of Sci. of Vienna, 56, 
189, 323,433, 435. 

Royal Acad, of Sci. of Amsterdam, 
303, 381. 

Royal Bavarian Academy, 379, 433, 

Royal Asiatic Soc. of London, 240. 

Royal Geograph. Soc. of London, 241. 

Royal Geograph. Institute of Vienna, 

Royal Mineralog. Society of St. Pe- 
tersburg, 403. 

Royal Soc. of Sciences of Liege, 172. 

Smithsonian Institution, 51, 71, 107, 
225, 303, 323,434. 

Theological Society of London, 172. 

Troy, (N. Y.) Young Men's Associ- 
ation, 303. 

Wurtemburg Soc. of Sciences, 324, 

Zoological and Botanical Soc. of Vi- 
enna, 437. 
Le Vaillant, Gen., don. to mus., xxxv. 
Lewis, Dr. F. W., don. to mus., Iviii. 
Lewis, Dr, Samuel, don. to mus., xliv. 
Librarian, Report of for 1852, 216; for 

Linnean Society of London, don. to lib., 

xxxiii., Ixxvi. 
Linnean Soc. of Lyons, don. to lib., 

Lyceum of Nat. History of New York, 

don. to lib., xxxii., xxxvi., Ixvii., 

Ixx., Ixxiii. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, don. to lib., xxxix. 
Lynch, Commander W. F., don. to lib., 


Mantell, Gideon A., don. to lib., xxxii. 
Marston, Capt., U. S. N., don. to mus., 

Maury, Lieut. M. F., observations on 

atmospheric pressure, 313. 
Maximilian, Prince de Wied, don. to 

lib., xiii., Ixix. 



McAndrew, Mr., don.' to mus., viii.j 


McCall, Col. G. A., don. to mus.,xliv., 

Ixiv. ; on Carpodacus familiaris, &c., 

McEuen, Dr. Thomas, announcement 

by, of decease of J. Price Wetherill, 

Mears, James, don. to mus., Ixiv. 
Meigs, Dr. C D., don to mus., xvi., 

Ixiv.; don. to lib., Ixx.; remarks on 

the structure of the uterus of the Por- 
poise, 316. 
Members elected : 

Agnew, Wm. G. E., 324. 

Allen, J. M., M. D., 70. 

Ashhurst, Lewis R., 324. 

Benton, Dr. Charles C, 322. 

Biddle, Henry J., 146. 

Biddle, Dr. John B., 458- 

Biddle, Thomas, 324. 

BischofF, Dr. G., 124. 

Boiler, Henry J., 70. 

Booth, Prof. J. C, 171. 

Brown, David S., 324. 

Brown, John A. 324. 

Brown, Joseph D., 324. 

Budd, Dr. C. H., 56. 

Buckley, Edward S., 105. 

Bullitt, John C, 376.' 

Camac, Dr. Wm., 70. 

Claghorn, James L., 124. 

Collet, Dr. M. W., 171. 

Collins, Percival, 403. 

Corse, Dr. James M., 195. 

Cresson, Prof. J. C, 322. 

Da Costa, Dr. J., 50. 

Draper, Edmund, 324. 

Dunglison, Dr. R., 239. 

Darand, Elias, 70. 

Ducachet, Rev. Dr., 70. 

Edwards^ Amory, 56. 

Emerson, Dr. G., 394. 

Fahnestock, G. W., 146. 

Farnum, John, 324. 

Fisher, Charles Henry, 324. 

Fisher, J. Francis, 324. 

Gardette, Dr. E. B., 324. 

Genth, Dr. F. A., 70. 

Graff, Frederick, 324. 

Greene, Dr. F. A., 171. 

Grigg, John, 324. 

Griffith, R. E., 171. 

Hallo well, Morris L., 324. 

Hanson, H. Cooper, 302. 

Hewson, Dr. Addinell, 239. 

Hopkinson, Dr, Joseph, 50. 

Hutchinson, J. Pemberton, 324. 

Jeanes, Joseph, 324. 

Keim, George M., 124. 

Lang, Dr. Edmund, 322. 

Lea, Joseph, 116. 

Lea, Thomas T., 324. 

Lesley, Peter, 373. 

Lewis, A. J., 324. 

Lippincott, Joshua B,, 373. 

Lo^an, Dr. J. Dickinson, 315. 

Meigs, Dr. J. Aitken, 70. 

Meigs, Dr. J. F., 70. 

Mercer, Singleton A., 324. 

Merrick, Samuel V., 324. 

Meyers, John B., 324. 

Mitchell, Dr. S. Weir, 403. 

Morris, Jacob G., 70. 

Page, Dr. Wm. B., 322. 

Pepper, Henry, 324. 

Phillips, Dr. Dinwiddle B., 188. 

Piatt, William. 324. 

Price, Richard', 324. 

Remington, Thomas P., 324. 

Sanderson, Edward F., 403. 

Schaffirt, F., 315. 

Seal, Thomas F., 105. 

Sequard, Dr. E. Brown, 146. 

Sharpless, Caspar W., 30. 

Sheafer, P. W., ^15. 

Struthers, William, 50. 

Swift, Joseph, 324. 

Taggart, Dr. Wm. H., 322. 

Tingley, Dr. H., 116. 

Trautwine, J. C, 70. 

Welsh, William, 324. 

Whelen, Edward S., 373. 

Wood, Richard D., 324. 

Wythes, Rev. Joseph H., 437. 

Yeager, George, 70. 
Merrick, John, don. to lib., xi. ; don. 

to mus., Ixxiv. 
Mitchell, Dr. J. K., don. to lib., ii. 
Mitchell, Dr. S. Weir, on the influence 

of some states of Respiration on the 

Pulse, 435. 
Moore, Isaac W., don. to mus., viii. 
Morris, Miss M., don. to mus., Ixviii. 
Morton, Mrs. Dr., don. to mus., i. 
Morton, Dr. T. G., don. to lib., Ixii. 

Naturwissenschaftliche Verein in Ham- 
burg, don. to lib., xlii. 

Naturwissen. Verein in Halle, don. to 
lib., 1. 

Newcomb, Dr. W., don. to lib., Ixviii. 

Norris, 0. A., don. to mus., Ixxiv. 

Officers for 1853,221 ; do. for 1854,458. 
Oliver, Dr. Geo. P., don. to mus., xliv. 



Owen, Dr. D. D., don. to mus., xxvii., 
xliv. ; don. to lib., liv. ; remarks on 
human foot prints in limestone, 106 ; 
notice of a new mineral from Cali- 
fornia, 108; remarks on Fusilina lime- 
stone and Tutenmergel, US ; remarks 
on his geological map of Wisconsin, 
Iowa and Minnesota, 189 ; communi- 
cation in relation to his description 
of a supposed new Earth, 379. 

Ord, George, don. to lib., ix., xix., 
xxii., xxviii., lix., Ixiv. 

Page, Geo. W., don. to mus., Ixiv. 

Paine, Dr. Martyn, don. to lib., xl. 

Pearsall, Robert, don. to mus., vii. 

Peirce, Jacob, reference to a Hybrid 
between the Peacock and Guinea 
Fowl, 50. 

Penna. Farm Journal, don. of, by Edi- 
tors, ii., ix., xi., xiv. 

Perley, M. H., don. to lib., xxxiii. 

Peterson, R. E., don. to mus., xxviii. 

Phillips, John, don. to mus., viii., Ixxv. 

Piddington, Henry, don. to lib., lix. 

Powel, Samuel, don. to mus.,. vii., 
xxxvi., Ixxiv. 

Prescott, Wm. H., don. to lib., xiv. 

Proceedings, Committee on. Report by, 

Publication Committee, Reports by, 28, 
238 ; announcement by, of publication 
of Part 2, Vol. 2, new series of 
Journal, 29 ; do. of Part 3, 225 ; don. 
to lib., vi. 

Quetelet, M. A., don. to lib., xv. 

Rand, Dr. B. H., don. to mus., xxvii., 
Ixiv., Ixviii. ; don. to lib., Iv., Ixvii. 

Ravenel, H. W., don. to mus., Ixviii. ; 
don. to lib., Ixvi. 

Read, Dr. M. C., Catalogue of the Birds 
of Northern Ohio, 395. 

Recording Secretary, Report of for 1851, 
28; do. for 1852, 214 ; do. for 1853, 

Regents of the University of State of 
New York; don. to lib., Ixi., Ixix., 

Reports of Committees : on Dr. Leidy's 
paper on the Hippopotamus, 70 ; on 
Mr. Lea's description of a fossil Sau- 
rian from the new Red Sandstone of 

Penna., and on some new fossil Mol- 
luscs, &c., 105; on Dr. Le Conte's 
Synopsis of genus Pterostichus, 116 ; 
on Dr. Owen's description of a new 
Mineral and a new Earth, 3 ; on Dr. 
Heermann's notices of California 
Birds, 197 ; on a paper by the Rev. 
Drs. Berkeley and Curtis, on the 
Exotic Fungi from the Schweinitzian 
Herbarium, 302 ; on Mr. Conrad's 
description of a new species of Unio, 
316 ; on Mr. Girard's " Researches on 
Nemerteans and Planarians, 435 ; on 
Dr. Leidy's description of Bathyg- 
nathus borealis, 448; on Mr. Conrad's 
Monograph of Argonauta, &c., 448. 
RepoTt of Committee appointed to con- 
fer with Dr. Kane on the subject of 
his proposed American Arctic Expe- 
dition, 196. 
Report of Committee appointed to col- 
lect subscriptions for enlarging the 
Hall, 238. 
Report of Committee appointed to pro- 
cure funds for the purchase of the 
Anatomical Collection of the late Dr. 
S. G. Morton, 321. 
Resolutions ; to present a copy of the 
Proceedings to Dr. H. A. Ford, of 
Liberia, 55 ; to appoint a committee 
to communicate with Com. Perry in 
relation to making collections in In- 
dia by the U. S. Expedition, 55 ; of 
thanks to Major Le Conte for his Her- 
barium of N. A. Plants, 58 ; inviting 
the State Medical Society to visit the 
Museum, 105 ; giving to subscribers 
of SlOO, and upwards, to the fund for 
enlarging the Hall, the right during 
life to visit the collections and give 
orders of admission to JNIuseum, 28 ; 
directing the income from the Stott 
legacy to be applied to the Journal 
fund, 30: in reference to Dr. Rusch- 
enberger's "Notice of the Academy," 
33 ; appointing a Committee to confer 
with Dr. Kane in relation to his pro- 
posed Arctic Expedition, 196 ; urging 
upon Congress an appropriation for 
the geological survey of Oregon and 
the Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, 
239; directing a special meeting of 
the Academy to consider the expedi- 
ency of erecting a new Hall, 321 ; in 
relation to latter, 323 ; of thanks to 
Chas. Henry Fisher and Thos. Biddle, 
325; of thanks to W. S. Vaux, Dr. 
CD. Meigs and John Cooke, 324 ; 
in reference to the decease of J. Price 
Wetherill,376 ; granting the privilege 



of endorsing tickets of admission to 

Museum to Mrs. Maria K. Wetherill, 

Retzius, Prof. A., don. to lib., xix. 
Richardson, Dr. John, don. to lib., xix. 
Riddell, Dr. J. L., don. to lib._, xxxii. 
Roberts, Percival, don. to mus., viii. 
Robinson, John, don. to mus., xxvii. 
Robinson, Ludlow, don. to mu.,xxviii. 
Royal Acad, of Sciences of Brussels, 

don. to lib., xv., Ixvi. 
Royal Acad, of Sci. of Liege, don. to 

lib., Ixxvii. 
Royal Acad, of Sci. of Madrid, don. to 

lib., Ixx. 
Royal Acad of Sci. of Stockholm, don. 

to lib., lix. 
Royal Acad, of Sci. of Vienna, don. to 

lib., xiii., xlv. 
Royal Bavarian Academy, don. to lib., 

Ixix., Ixxi., Ixxvi. 
Royal Mineralog. Soc. of St. Peters- 
burg, Ixxiii. 
Royal Saxon Soc. of Sciences, don. to 

lib., Ixxvii. 
Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, don. to lib., 

vi., Ixxv. 
Ruschenberger, Dr. W. S., " Notice of 

the Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philada.," read 

by, 33 ; don. to mus., i.. xliv., liii., 


Say, Mrs. Lucy W., don. to mus., xxvii. 
Saussure, H. F. de, don. to lib., Ivi. 
Senseny, Dr., don. to mus., xliv. 
Sergeant, J. D., don. to mus., viii., xliv. 
Sharpless, Dr., don. to mus., i. 
Sheafer, P. W;, don. to lib., xlii. 
Shumard, Dr.. don. to mus., xxxvi. 
Silliman's Journal, don. of, by Editors, 

ii., ix., xviii., xxviii.. xxxvi., xlv., 

liii., Ix., Ixiv., Ixix.,* Ixxii., Ixxvi. 
Smith, Aubrey H., don. to mus., xvii., 

Smith, Charles E., don. to mus., xxxv., 

don. to lib., xviii., xlvi., Ixiii. 
Smithsonian Institution, don. to mus., 

Ixxiv. ; don. to lib., xxviii., Ivi., lix., 

Ixii., Ixviii., Ixix. 
Societe d'Agriculture du Bas-Canada, 

don. to lib., vii., ix., xiv., xxii., 

xxviii., xxxii., xxxix., liii. 
Society of Arts, &c., of London, don. to 

lib., Ixiii., Ixv., Ixvii., Ixix., Ixx., 

Ixxvi., Ixxviii., Ixxx. 
Societe de Physique et d'Hist. Nat. de 

Geneve, don. to lib., xlvi. 
Societe des Sciences de Neufchatel, don. 

to lib., Ixvi. 

Societe Nat. des Sciences de Lille, don. 

to lib., xxxu. 
Societe Nationale d'Agriculture, &c., 

de Lyon, don. to lib.; Ixix. 
Societa Reale Borbonica Academia delle 

Scienze, don. to lib., Ixvji. 
Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege, 

don. to lib., xlii. 
Spackman, Dr. Geo., don. to mus., 

Squier, E. Geo. don. to lib., xlvi. 
Stansbury, Capt. How^ard, don. to lib., 

Stev^^ardson, Dr. T., don. to mus., xvii. 
Storer, Dr. D. H., don. lo lib., Ixvi. 
Strickland, H. E., don. to lib., xxiv., 

xxxviii., xlix. 
Struthers, Wm., don. to mus., xvii. 

Taylor, J., don. to mus., liii. 
Thomas. Dr. R. P., don. to mus., Ixxii. 
Trautwine, J. C, don. to mus., xliv. 
Troschel, Dr. F. H., don. to lib., xiv., 

Trustees of New York State Library, 

don. to lib., xxiii., Ixi. 
Tschudi, Dr. J. J., don. to lib., Ixxvii., 
Tuomey, M., description of fossil shells 

from the Tertiary of the Southern 

States, 192. 
Turnbull, Dr. L., don. to lib., xlv. 

Updegraff, Dr. J. J., don. to mus., vii. 
U. S. Departments, don. to mus., xxxv., 

Ix., Ixxiii., Ixxviii.; don. to lib., 

xxii., xxviii. 

Vaux, William S., don. to mus., xxxvi., 

Verreaux, M. Jules, don. to mus., viii., 

Virginia Med. and Surg. Journal, don. 

of, by Editors, Ixvii., Ixix., Ixxi., 

Ixxii., Ixxiii., Ixxviii. 

Warren, Dr. J. C, don., to mus., Ixxv. 
Watmough, J. H., U. S. N., don. to 

mus., xxxvi. 
Watson, J. G., don. to mus., xvi. 
Watson, Dr. G., don. to mus., xxvii., 

liii., lix., Ixviii., Ixxv. 
Watson, Lieut., U. S. N.,don. to mus., 




Webber, Dr. Samuel, note from, accom- 
panying fresh water fishes containing 
nodular bodies embedded in the fins 
and tail, 118 ; don. to mus., Ixxii. 

Wells, D. A., don. to lib., xvii. 

Western Acad. Nat. Sciences, don. to 
lib., Ivi. 

Wetherill, J. Price, don. to mus. i. ; an- 
nouncement of decease of by Dr. Mc- 
Euen, 376, 

Wetherill, Dr. Charles M.,don. to mus., 
xxvii. ; don, to lib., Ixvi., Ixix., 
Ixxvii. ; examination of Molybdate of 
Lead from Phcenixville, Pa., 55, 119; 
Chem. investigation of the Honey 
Ant, 111; Chemical examination of 
the food of the Queen Bee, 119; ana- 
lysis of the Cotton Plant and Seed, 
by T. L. Sumner, communicated by 
Dr. Wetherill, 212 ; remarks on iron 
crystallized from slag, 434. 

Wheatley, Chas. M., don. to mus., 
xxxvi., liii., lix. 

Whitall, Mrs. M., don. to lib., xl. 

Williams, Henry J., don. to lib., Ixviii. 

Wilson, Dr. T. B., don. to mus., i., vii.. 

viu., xxxvi., xliv., Ixviii. 
lib., ii.,iii. 

don. to 

VI., Vll., IX., X., XI., XIV., 

XV., xvi., xviii., xix., xxii,, xxiii. 
xxiv., xxviii., xxxi;, xxxii., xxxiii., 
xxxvi., xxxvii., xxxviii., xxxix., xli., 
xlii., xlv., xlvii., xlviii., xlix., li., 
liv., Iv., Ivi., Iviii., lix., Ixi., Ixii., 
Ixiii., Ixv. Ixvi., Ixvii., Ixix., Ixx., 
Ixxi., Ixxii., Ixxiii., Ixxvi., Ixxvii., 
Wilson, Edward, don. to mus., xxvii., 
xxviii., XXXV., xxxvi., xliv. ; don. to 
lib., ii. , iii., iv., v., vi., xi., xii., xiii., 
xviii., xix., xx., xxi. xxii., xxiv., 

XXV, xxvi., xxvii., xxviii., xxix., 
xxx., xxxi., xxxiii., xxxiv., xxxv., 
xxxvii., xxxviii., xxxix., xl., xli.. 
xlii., xliii., xlv., xlvi., xlvii., xlviii., 
xlix., 1., li., Iii., liii., liv., Iv., Ivi., 
Ivii., Iviii., lix., Ixi., Ixii., Ixiii., Ixv., 
Ixvi., Ixx., Ixxi., Ixxiii., Ixxiv. 

Winthrop, Mr., don. to mus., Ixviii. 

Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Society, don. to 
mus., Ixxv. 

Wistar, Dr. Caspar, don. to mus. i. 

Wood, Prof. Geo. B., don. to lib., Ix. 

Wood, Wm., don. to mus., xvi., liii., 
Iviii., lix. 

Woodhouse, Dr. Samuel W., don to 
mus.,viii., xxvii., xliv. ; on new spe- 
cies of Vireo and Zonotrichia, 60 ; 
description of a new species of Ecto- 
pistes, 104; description of a new spe- 
cies of Sciurus, 110 ; description of a 
new species of Numenius, 194; des- 
cription of a new species of Perog- 
nathus, 200 ; description of a new 
species of Geomys, 201 ; description 
of a new species of Struthus, 202 ; 
change of name of Sciurus dorsalis to 
S. Aberti, 220 ; description of a new 
species of Hesperomys, 242. 

Wurtemberg Society of Sciences, don. 
to lib.. Ixvi., Ixxvi. 

Yarnall, Ellis, Jr., don. to mus., ixxii. 

Zoological and Botanical Society of Vi- 
enna, don. to lib., Ixxviii. 


Page 2, line 4 from bottom, for of read and. 

3, *^ 13 " top, for Cretacean read Cetacean. 
33, " 13 and 20 from bottom, for Nipongue read Mpongue. 
36, " 26 from top, for rmdeniable read U7ide7iiably . 
40, " 19 " bottom, for interstialis read inter stitialis. 

45, '' 5 <' top, for thorace read thorax. 

46, *' 18 " bottom, for simplicihus read fulcrantibus. 
48, in division (5) of Eucnemis, for serratce read i^ectinatce. 
66, " 10 from top, for is read are. 

114, " 2 " bottom, for /z^/rii- read //t;z<5. 
141, " 9 " bottom, for ^e?ierz<5 read o-e?A=y. 

149, in note (f) for /r read far. 

150, the three lines of the diagnosis of Cephennium corporosum have lost 
the initial letters : to the first add 1, to the second >7, to the third a. 

171, line 2 from bottom, for Africa xe's.d America. 
174, "22 " top, for inferior read anterior. 

180, for Hoinolosaurus read Homalosaurus. 

181, for Pituophis read Pityophis. 
229, line 21 from top, for Anchytursus read Anchytarsus. 

a a 40 (( top, for picea read hrunne^ts. 

231, after Tostegoptera, for Edwards read Blanchard. 

241, line 15 from top, for Enbradys read Eubradys. 

30-3, line 13 from top, for 1859 read 1849. 

327, " 31 " top, for Iceniata read t<sniata. 

329, " 22 " top, for pawns read parvulns, vide p. 414. 
c <' 26 " top, for Pe;-7J read 7fer7i. 

337, <^' 31 " top, for Fauna read Faunas. 

368, " 12 " top, for Traunfeld read Fraunfeld. 
a a 29 " top, for truncates read truncatus. 

311, top line, for read c??/;?. 

376, line 17 from bottom, for Prisidon read Prisodon. 

403, " 2 " bottom, for Lyce^im read State Library, 

439, '< 17 " bottom, for Agryppus read Agrypnus. 

454, " 9 < bottom, for EndomochydcB read Endomychidce. 
Ixviii, line 22 from bottom, add Mr. T. A. Conrad, 
Ixxiv, line 17 from top, for Vorselemque read Vorlesnngen. 

The following omissions of donations to the Library, Augugt 10th, 1852, oc- 
curred at page xxxiii : 

Description of a Skeleton of the Mastodon giganteus, of North America. By- 
John C. Warren, M. D. 4to. From the Author. 

Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah. By 
Howard Stansbury, Capt. U. S. Topograph. Eng. 8vo. and map. From Col. J. 
J. Abert. 

Experimental Researches in Electricity, 29th series. By Michael Faraday, 
Esq. From the Author. 

On the Physical Character of the Lines of Magnetic Force. By Michael Far- 
aday, Esq. From the Author. 

Zoology of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, (extracted from Capt. Stansbury's 
Report.) From Prof. S. F. Baird. 

Geognostische Wanderungen im Gebiete der nordostlichen Alpen. Von Carl 
Ehrlich. From the Author. 

Ueber die nordostlichen Alpen. Von Cafl Ehrlich. From the Author. 





January Qthf 1852. 
The President, Mr. George Ord, in the Chair. 

Letters were read : 

^ From Dr. Benjamin F. Shumard, dated Oregon City, Nov. 18th, 1851, 
giving a brief account of his geological observations in Oregon Territory. 

From the Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, dated 
Philadelphia, Dec. 19th, 1851, acknowledging the receipt of various Nos. 
of Vols. 4 and 5 of the Proceedings, furnished by request to complete the 
series of the same in the Library of that Society. 

From the Secretary of the Trustees of the New York State Library, 
dated Albany, Dec. 26th, 1851, acknowledging the receipt of late Nos. 
of the Proceedings, &c. 

From T. R. Peale Esq., dated Washington, D. C, Dec. 26th, 1851, 
suggesting the propriety of taking measures at this time to dispose of the 
collection of French Political Documents belonging to the Academy, to 

From George Ord, Esq., dated Philadelphia, Jan. 1st, 1852, presenting 
his acknowledgments for his election as President of the Institution. 
I Dr. Leidy read a continuation of Mr. Dana's paper on the Crustacea 
of the late U. S. Exploring Expedition, which was on motion referred to 
the Committee on the former portions of the paper. 

Dr. Leconte read a paper entitled '* Notice of fossil Dicotyles from 
Missouri," and also a *' Notice of some fossil Pachyderms from Illinois; 
both of which being intended for publication in the Proceedings, were 
referred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. Carson and Mr. Moss. 

Dr. Leidy read the following remarks by Dr. J. L. Burtt, U. S. N., 
on the influence of Sulphuretted Hydrogen arising from the bottom of 
the Bay of Callao on the fishes in its waters : 

'* One occurrence always excited much interest, whenever there was an evolu- 
tion of sulpho-hydric acid gas (a frequent occurrence) from the bottom ol the 
Bay of Callao. The first premonition of what was to produce a remarkable 


2 [January, 

destruction among fish, was the discoloration of the water of the bay, from a 
marine green to a dirty milk-white hue, followed by a decided odor of the gas; 
so much of it being present on many occasions as directly to blacken a clean piece 
of silver, and to blacken paint work in a few hours. 

The fish, during this evolution, rose in vast numbers from the bottom; and after 
struggling for sometime in convulsions upon the surface, died. 

I was particularly struck by this fact, that all of them during the time that they 
were under its influence, acted in precisely the same manner. The first thing 
noticeable with regard to its effect upon them, was that on coming near the surface, 
they seemed to have much difficulty in remaining below it at all. They then 
rose completely to the surface, struggling vainly to dive beneath. This was 
followed by violent springing and darting in various directions evidently with- 
out control of direction for they moved sideways, or upon the back, and some- 
times tail first, with great velocity. After a little time their motion became 
circular, and upon the back, the circle of gyration constantly diminishing, and the 
rapidity of the motion as constantly increasing, until there was a sudden cessation 
of all motion. The head then floated about the surface, the body being in a perpen- 
dicular position. A few convulsive movements shortly followed, and they were 

I have watched thousands of them so dying ; and in every instance such was the 
mode of death. Having taken them at the moment of death and immediately after, 
a rude examination showed in all the same appearances. The intestines and brain 
were gorged with blood, much darker than natural. The gills were almost black, and 
the air-bladder ruptured. A premonitory symptom that such destruction was about 
to occur, was the previous appearance of unaccountable numbers of fishing-birds, 
especially of the Pelicans. On one occasion, taking the known size of the Island 
of San Lorenzo as a guide for measurement, we concluded that there was a body 
of Pelicans 5 miles long, one mile wide, and 300 feet thick, filling the water and 
air as closely as possibly they could do. How many were there ? Can we wonder 
at the size of guano deposits ?'' 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to a fossil tooth and a 
fragment of a second, from the collection made by Mr. Culbertson in 
Nebraska Territory, which, he observed, belonged to a new species of 
Rhinoceros, or probably Acerotherium. The former specimen is proba- 
bly a third premolar, the latter a portion of the fourth. A great pecu- 
liarity in the teeth is the confluence of the inner lobes with each other, 
and their separation to the base from the outer lobes. They possess a 
remarkably strong basal ridge, and indicate an animal larger than any 
species of existing Rhinoceros : the greatest transverse diameter of the 
third premolar being 2^ inches; its antero-posterior diameter If inches. 
For the species the name Rhinoceros Americanus is proposed. 

Dr. Leidy also called the attention of thv9 members to the fine mounted 
specimen of Polar Bear now in the Hall, the skin of which had been 
lately presented by Dr. E. K. Kane, U. S. N. 

On motion of Dr, Fisher, the letter of Mr. Peale, read this evening, 
was referred to the Library Committee, with power to act. 

Dr. Fisher announced that the collection of fossil foot-prints of Fishes, 
belonging to Mr. Dexter Marsh, of Greenfield, Mass., was for sale. 

On motion of Mr. Moss, the suggestions contained in the Report of 
the Librarian for 1851, were referred to the Library Committee. 


January \^tli. 
Vice-President Wetherill in the Chair. 

Dr. Leidy presented an additional portion of Mr. Dana's communica- 
tion on the Crustacea of the hite American Exploring Expedition ; which 
was referred as before to the original Committee. 

Mr. Wetherill stated that the Phosphate of Lime, a specimen of which 
lie presented this evening, was being much used for agricultural pur- 
poses, after being decomposed by the action of sulphuric acid. 

Mr. Wetherill also stated that the Adipocire, also presented this even- 
ing, was the result of decomposition of the bodies of a number of sheep, 
which had been buried fifteen years since in a wet soil, on a farm in an 
adjoining county. 

Dr. Leidy, referring to the Ctetacean remains characterized by him 
at the meeting of December 9th, remarked that they were the first relics 
of Mammals that have been found in the Cretaceous Group. 

On leave granted, the Committee to which was referred Dr. D. D. 
Owen's paper describing a new Mineral and a new Earth, presented a 
report, recommending the same for publication in the forthcoming No. 
of the Journal, which was adopted. 

January 27th. 

Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

The Committee, to which was referred the following papers of Dr. 
Le Conte, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Notes on some Fossil Suillne Pachyderms from Illinois. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 


Hyops depressifrons Lee. Am. Journ. Sc. 2d series, Vol. 5, 103 (1848.) 

After a careful comparison of the fragments of this animal with Dicotyles 
torquatus, I have come to the conclusion that the differences are by no means 
of such a nature as to admit of the formation of a peculiar genus. 

The differences in the cranium which distinguish this animal from D. torquatus 
are : 1st, the greater depression of the front ; 2d, the greater expansion and less 
sudden declivity of the malar plates ; 3d, the less convex nasal bones. In con- 
sequence of this last character, the groove running forward from the frontal 
foramen is more or less superior in its whole extent and never lateral, as in the 
anterior part of the head of D. torquatus. 

The lower part of the skull and the anterior part of the nose are broken away, 
so that no teeth remain in the fragment. 

Accompanying this fragment are four teeth from the upper jaw, which differ 
from the corresponding teeth of Platygonus compressus Lee., from the same 
locality, by having the transverse ridges more distinctly connected with the 
basal margin ; this is especially the case at the posterior margin ; the ridges also 
show a tendency to unite together, and thus the transverse valley is rendered a 
little narrower than in Platygonus. In all these points the teeth agree exactly 
with Dicotyles torquatus, and on a careful comparison nothing worthy of notice, 
even as a specific difference, could be detected. A part of the socket of the left 
superior canine, with the adjoining portion of the palatal plate, shows no differ- 
ence on comparison with D. torquatus. 

4 [January, 

The base of the inferior left canine was found in its socket ; the remainder was 
found broken; the fragments were put together so as to make almost a complete 
tooth, which presents no specific characters of any importance ; the anterior 
margin is more rounded than in D. torquatus, and the grooves on the posterior, 
external, and internal faces of the fang are deeper ; the young of D. torquatus 
in the depth of the grooves agrees perfectly with our fossil, which, however, 
from the wearing of the tooth, must have been an adult. 

The condyloid process of the right lower jaw was found broken off just below 
the neck; in comparison with D. torquatus, it is less concave in its external out- 
line, and there is a slight depression externally just below the end of the articular 
surface ; the posterior face a little below the articular part is more compressed 
and less flattened than in D. torquatus. 

The inferior extremity of the humerus is perforated ; the articular faces are in 
no respect different from those of D. torquatus. 

The same is the case with the innominatum and the femur. 

Of the left posterior foot is preserved the calcaneum, the outer metatarsal, the 
first and second phalanges of the outer toe and the first phalanx of the inner toe ; 
all these bones completely resemble the corresponding parts of D. torquatus. 

As compared with Platygonus compressus, the calcaneum shows important 
characters, which may be used in separating the bones of these animals, if they 
should again be found mixed together. 

In Platygonus the astragalian face is not distinctly defined at its supero-external 
part, but is confluent with the depression existing in that part of the bone 
behind the fibular process. 

In Sus and Dicotyles this face is distinctly separated from the valley between 
the two processes, and the inferior part of the astragalian process is much less 
thickened than in Platygonus ; the whole bone is more slender and less flattened 
than in Platygonus. 

My reasons for considering the cuboides figured by me* as belonging to Platy- 
gonus, are as follows : 

From teeth there was evidence of two specimens of Platygonus of different 
ages; portions of three calcaneal bones of the left side were found, two of which 
were precisely similar ; the third is the one here mentioned as belonging to 
Dicotyles. The larger of the two similar bones fitted perfectly with the ex- 
tremity of a tibia, an astragalus and a cuboides forming a considerable portion 
of the tarsus ; to this cuboides, however, the metatarsal bone above described 
cannot be adapted. 

This will be the proper place for correcting an important error in the memoir 
on Platygonus already quoted: on page 270, pi. 4, figs. 23 and 24, is represented 
what was considered the iywier metatarsal. On comparison this bone is found to 
correspond accurately with the inner right metacarpal of Dicotyles ; there are 
two specimens of this bone, differing slightly in size, and the smaller one of 
which has lost its lower extremity, and evidently belonged to a young animal. 
We have therefore the same reason to refer this to Platygonus as the tarsal bones 
above mentioned. 

I should also notice here, that the superior canines of very young Dicotyles 
resemble very closely those of Platygonus, but are not so much compressed, and 
have only a single angulated line at the anterior part of the base of the tooth. 

On account of the very strong resemblance between the dentition of Platygonus 
and Dicotyles, I am inclined to consider the former as rather Suiline than Tapi- 
roid in its affinities; the undulated outline of the lower jaw in the Dicotyles 
group, reaches its maximum in the great dilatation of the angle of the jaw in 
Platygonus ; the compression of the canines is carried to a greater decree than in 
any other genus, and the molar structure is reduced to the simplest Pachydermal 
form by the absence of all accessary tubercles. 

The dimensions of the fragments of Dicotyles depressifrons indicate an animal 

w- _ -- 1 

* Memoirs Am. Acad- of Science and Arts, New Series, Vol. 3, pi. 4, figs. 25,26. 



a little larger than the adult D. torquatus ; the only measurements that can be 
given are the following, in English inches : 

Distance between the frontal foramina 1'2. 

Third premolar : lateral diameter -45 : antero-posterior diameter '4. 

Fourth premolar: lateral diameter '46 : antero-posterior diameter '5. 

First molar: lateral diameter 55 ; antero-posterior diameter '63. 

Inferior canine : length 3'75 ; posterior breadth '48 ; radius of curvature 2*75. 

Humerus: diameter of inferior extremity 1-52; breadth of larger articular groove, 
.75 ; smaller groove '4 ; least distance from lower margin of larger groove to fora- 
men 67. 

Innominatum : diameter of acetabulum 1-2; least breadth of ilium 1"0. 

Femur: length 6*85 ; from fovea on head,toextremity of trochanter major 1*72; 
breadth of tibial articular groove anteriorly '8 ; transverse diameter of condyles 
posteriorly 1'55. 

Metatarsal: length 2*87; of inferior articular surfaces, lateral diameter 46; 
antero-posterior diameter '57 ; length of first phalanx 1-25; second phalanx '95. 

Calcaneum : length 2*45: greatest breadth 1'12; from fibular to apical process "91. 

Condyle of lower jaw ; breadth 1*2 ; antero-posterior diameter of articular 
surface 6. 

Protochcerus prismaticus Lee. Am. Journ. Sc. 2nd series 5.105. 

To the description of the teeth of this animal, I have only to add that the fang 
of the canine is very similar to that of Sus babiroussa ; the posterior molar bears 
considerable resemblance to that of Sus babiroussa, as represented by Blainville, 
(plate VIII.) although the student will fail to find the resemblance in nature. The 
Anthracotherium tooth figured in Owen's Odontography, with which I formerly 
compared this tooth, differs in having the lobes connected by an elevated ridge. 

The dimensions of the teeth are as follows, and indicate an animal smaller than 
a Peccary. 

Inferior canine : length of worn surface 1*35 ; breadth -3 ; radius of curvature of 
posterior face and margin 2*46. 

First inferior molar : lateral diameter '39 ; antero-posterior diameter '52. 

Last inferior molar : breadth '5, from posterior lobe to middle lobe '26; to 
summit of anterior lobe '58, 

Notice of a fossil Dicotyles from Missoiiri. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

The Tooth which forms the subject of this communication, was found with 
some mastodon bones in Benton County, Missouri, and was presented to me by 
Dr. R. W. Gibbes. 

It is a right lower canine, wanting the fang, and attached to a small piece of 
jaw, containing alveoli of three incisors. 

The tooth has precisely the same direction as in D. torquatus, but is somewhat 
less compressed ; the anterior edge is very acute ; on the part of the fang which 
remains, no vestige of external and internal grooves exists ; the posterior groove 
is well marked as in D. torquatus; on the outer surface of the tooth, nearer the 
posterior than the anterior margin is an elevated ridge, acute at summit, which 
extends along the whole of the enamelled part of the tooth. This character is not 
to be found in T). torquatus ; the very obsolete elevation which exists there being 
a consequence of the continuation of the grooves impressed on the internal face of 
the fang; I have also failed to discover a similar elevated line on the canine of any 
species of Sus which has come under my observation. 

As this seems to be a character of sufficient importance to separate the species 
co-existent with the Mastodon, from any now living, 1 would give to it the name 

Although there is no character in this canine to make a reference to Dicotyles 
more certain than to Sus, yet as the latter genus has not been distinctly proved to 

6 [Januahy, 

have inhabited this continent, and as in the existing creation Dicotyles is the true 
equivalent of Siis in Annerica, the probability of our very distinct fossil species 
belonging to Dicotyles is much increased ; this probability is rendered almost 
certain, when we consider that remains of true Dicotyles have been found in 
Illinois in company with other singular forms, (Platygonus and Anomodon) which 
by their great peculiarities would seem to indicate a period anterior to that of 
the Mastodon. 

The measurements of the canine are : length of enamelled surface along anterior 
curvature 2-2 ; breadth of posterior surface -37 : radius of curvature of posterior 
edge 2*0 ; of anterior edge 2*1. 

The Committee to whicli was referred Mr, Dana's papers on the Crus- 
tacea of the Exploring Expedition^ reported in favor of publication in the 

Conspectus Crvstaceorum^ ^c. Conspectus of the Crustacea of the Exploring 
Expedition under Capt. Wilkes, U. S. N. By James D. Dana. 

PAGURIDEA, continued; and Subtribe MEGALOPIDEA. 
I. Paguridea, continued. 

Among the species of the genus Pagurus, as restricted in my former paper on 
the Paguridea, there are still three groups of distinct character ; one, having no 
trace of a beak, the front being truncate, and also having the fingers opening in a 
vertical plane, the hands being usually compressed, with commonly the left the 
larger; a second, having a short beak or triangular point in front, and the fingers 
opening like the preceding, with the hands subequal ; a third, having a beak like 
the last, but the fingers opening in a horizontal plane, the hands being subequal 
and more or less depressed, and never compressed. The first group has Pagiinis 
punctulatics for its type; the second, P. a7iic7cl?is ; the third, P. clibanarius . 
They form three genera with the following characters : 

1. Pagurus. Frons non rostratus, truncatus. Manus anticae saepius com- 
pressae, interdum subacquae, saspius sinistra majore, digitis apice cornels, in piano 
vertical! claudentibus. 

2. Aniculus, D. Frons triangulate rostratus. Manus anticae subaequae, 
digitis apice cornels, in piano verticali claudentibus. 

3. Clibanarius, D. Frons triangulate rostratus. Manus anticae subaequa?, 
plus minusve depressae, digitis apice cornels, in piano horizontali claudentibus. 
Species P. ceqrialis, zebra, Jmmilis, glohosi-mcouis, Clibanario pertinent. 

The species Pagurus aniculus may hereafter be named Aniculus tyjdcris ; the 
P. clibanarius, Cllhanarius vulgaris; and the P. Bernhardus, Bernhardus streh- 
lonyx. The name Bernhardus pubescens, (see preceding volume, p. 270,) we 
propose to change to B. scahricidus, as Kriiyer* has described a Pagurus pic- 
hesceyiSf which is probably a Bernhardus. 

Descriptiones Pagurideorum adhuc ineditce. 

Bernhardus obesi-carpus. Frons medio prominulus, obtusus. Regie cara- 
pacis antica paulo transversa, nudiuscula. Oculi crassi et perbreves, aciculo 
longiores, squama basali ovata, subacuta, Integra. Antennae externa5 nudac, 
basi multo longiore quam oculus, aciculo crasso, brevi, apicem articuli 3tii 
attingente. Pedes toti fere nudi et granulosi, non armati ; antici ina^qui; manu 
majore oblonga, convexa, symmetrica, granulis nitidis partim seriatis, carpo 
multo crassiore, parce latiore. Pares 2di et 3tii crassiusculi, articulo 3tio supra 

* Tidsk. ii, 25] , 252. 

1852.] 7 

scabri-rugato et breviter hirsute, tarso curvato, canaliculate. Hah. Valparaiso? 
Long. 2". 

Bernhardus .equimanus. Carapax sparsim pilosus, regione antica non ob- 
longa, fronte ad medium angulato, vix rostrato. Oculi cylindrici, aciculum an- 
teniialem longitudine aequantes, squama, basaliapice productaet 3 4-denticulata. 
Antennarum externarum flagellum infra elongate ciliatum. Pedes superficie 
granulati partim sparsim hirsuti, marginibus hirti ; antici aequi, mediocres, manu 
breviter elliptica, parce latiore et longiore quam carpus, non costata, marginibus 
subspinulosis, carpo supra subspinuloso et hirto. Pedum 4 sequentium tarsi 
bene canaliculati, infra ciliati. Hab. Valparaiso. Lo7ig. U". 

Bernhardus crimticornis. Frons medio parce angulatus. Regio carapacis 
antica non transversa. Oculi mediocres, aciculo antennali paulo longiores, 
squama basali apicem rotundata. Flagellum antennarum externarum infra crini- 
tum non ciliatum. Pedes antici valde inaequi, nudiusculi, manu majore oblonga, 
paulo longiore et latiore quam carpus, scabricula, spinulis subtilissimis 4 5-se- 
riatis, margine inferiore fere recto, carpo minute spinuloso. Pedes 2di 3tii laxe 
pubescentes, non spinulosi, tarso non canaliculato. Hab. portu "Rio Janeiro." 
Long. 910'''. 

Pagurus Etjopsis. -P. functulato affinis. Oculi fronte carapacis valde longi- 
ores, crassiusculi. Flagellum antennarum externarum nudum, articulis versus 
antennae extremitatem latere interno gibbosis ; aciculum parvulum. Pedes antici 
sat inajqui, manu majore carpoque oblongis, extus spinulosis et hirsutis. Pedes 
2di 3tii marginibus multo hirsuti, articulo 5to spinulis supra paulo armati, tarsis 
totis subteretibus, undique divaricate hirsutis. Hab. ad insulam *'Upolu" et in 
freto "Balabac.'' Long. 2k". 

Clibanarius striolatus. Regio carapacis antica fere quadrata. Oculi 
graciles, margine carapacis antico vix breviores, squama basali angusta, acu- 
minata, bidentata. Pedes antici subaequi, manubus brevibus carpisque supra 
spini-tuberculatis et pilosis, manu sinistra maris paulo majore. Pedes 2di 3tii 
supra infraque paulo hirsuti, multis lineis brunneis longitudinalibus ornati, tarso 
subterete, non breviore quam articulus penultimus, sinistro 3tii paris articulo 
5to extus parce convexo, acie rectangulata superne instructo. Hab. insula 
" Tongatabu," et archipelago " Viti." Long. 2'". Pagtcro lineato, Edvv. pro- 

CiiiBANARius BBASiLiENsis. Regio carapacis antica paulo oblonga. Rostrum 
bene triangulatum. Oculi gracillimi, margine carapacis antico non breviores, 
squama basali valde truncata et brevissima, pilis longis, margine apicali transverso 
instructa. Pedes antici aequi, manu dextra parce majore. Pedes 2di 3tiique 
persparsim hirsuti, subnudi, tarso perbrevi, articulo 5to paris 3tii extus sub- 
complanato, parce convexo, supra subcarinato. Pedes colore pauci-lineati. 
Hab, portu "Rio Janeiro.'' Long. \\" . 

Clibanarius globosi-raanus (Pag. globosi-manus, D.) P. corallino, Edw. adhuc 
partim descripto an difFert? In specimine globosi-mani non attrita, pedes 
2di 3tii marginibus hirsuti non nudiusculi. Clibanariis aliis totis nobis lectis 
differt, supeficie externa articuli 5ti sinistri paris 3tii omnino hirsuta. 

II. Megalopidea. 

The question of the maturity or immaturity of the Megalopae and that of their 
true place in the natural system, still remain in doubt. Without touching on 
these points, at this time, I propose to describe some new genera and species 
pertaining to the group. 

The species, however diverse, agree in the structure of the abdomen and its 
caudal appendages ; in the position of the four antennae beHvee/i the eyes ; in the 
articulations of the outer antennas j in the inner antennas folded longitudinally or 
obliquely either side of the beak ; in the general form of the outer maxillipeds ; 
in the large size and lateral position of the eyes without orbits; in the general 
structure of the legs ; and in their habits. The beak is either horizontal or 

8 [January, 

flexed downward, and has usually a sharp prominent tooth either side of it, 
exterior to the inner antennae. 

The genus Megalopa, Leach^ as now accepted, embraces two distinct sets of 
species the M. Montagui and armata for which it was instituted by Leach, 
and the M. mutica of Desmarest. The former (the true Megalopae) have the 
beak nearly horizontal, with rarely a tooth either side, and there is a reflexed 
spine on the ventral surface of the hrst joint of the 8 posterior legs. The latter 
has the beak bent downward vertically, and either side of it there is a prominent 
spine or tooth ; the ventral surface of the base of the legs is unarmed. The M. 
mutica is very closely related to Monolepis spinitarsus of Say, the only differ- 
ence being that the extremity of the posterior legs in this species of Monolepis 
bear 3 or 4 setae rather longer than the tarsus, while the descriptions of the 
mutica make mention of no such setae. The posterior legs in Monolepis fold up 
and overlie the carapax : but these legs are otherwise like the preceding, though 
somewhat smaller, and it is probable that this habit in the M. mutica has been 
overlooked, as these animals almost always swim with the posterior legs ex- 
tended like the others, when taken and kept in a jar for examination, and they 
also have them extended when walking. These legs do not resemble at all the 
posterior pair in Porcellana or Galathaea. I had examined several species before 
I discovered this habit with regard to the posterior legs. The animal also throws 
the fourth pair of legs forward along or over the borders of the carapax, so that 
the extremity overlies the bases of the eyes and the tarsi hang down in front ; 
and at the same time the two preceding pair are folded up and lie against the 
sides of the carapax outside of the 4th pair, or the 3d pair may be thrown for- 
ward like the 4th. A Sooloo species, and another common oflf Cape of Good 
Hope, were observed swimming with the legs thus disposed. 

Say's genus Monolepis* also embraces two groups, alike in the deflexed front 
and the longish setae at the extremity of the posterior tarsi. In one division, 
including the M. inermisi the tarsi are flattened styliform, and unarmed, with 
either lateral edge sparsely furnished with minute hairs ; the fossa of the sternum, 
along which the abdomen lies when inflexed, has a prominent trenchant border ; 
the depression on the carapax for the posterior legs is rather abrupt and some- 
what neatly defined; the body is very convex and obese, with the sides high and 
vertical, and much wider behind than before, being gradually narrowed forward. 

The other division has the tarsi unguiform, compressed, and spinous below, the 
antepenult spine always longest; the fossa of the sternum with flaring borders^ 
the depression of the carapax for the posterior legs shallow concave ; the body 
more flattened above, with the sides more oblique. This division corresponds 
to Monolepis spinitarsus. 

Besides the preceding, there is another group of Megalopidea, examined by the 
author, resembling Megalopa of Leach, except that the tarsus of the posterior 
legs is narrow lamellar instead of unguiculate, and edged with longish setae 
somewhat shorter than the tarsus. 

There is still another group in which the front is horizontal and tricuspidate, 
the inner antennae when retracted being exposed in the interval between the beak 
or inner cusp and either outer, lying in view as in Plagusia. 

With these explanations we give the characters of the genera. 

1. Monolepis, Say. Carapax fronte tricuspidatus sed valde deflexus ideoque 
frons superne visas medio non acutus sed truncatus. Pedes 5ti minores, super 
carapacem saepe restantes, depressione ad eos recipiendos abrupta, tarsis inermi- 
bus, depressis styliformibus, paris postici non depressis, apice 3 4 setis longius- 
culis (tarso paulo longioribus) instructo. Sterni fossa abdominalis marginibus 
bene prominens et subacuta. Monolepis inermis^ Say, typus est. 

2. Marestia, Dana. Carapax fronte uti in Monolepi. Pedes 8 postici ad 
basin infra non armati; 5ti minores, super carapacem saepe restantes, depressione 
ad eos recipiendos parce concava ; tarsis styliformibus, unguiculatis, spinis infra 

*Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phiiad., i. 155. 

1852.] 9 

armatis, paris postici apice setis longiusculis instructis. "Typus est Monolepis 
spiiiitarstiSy Say. Hie pertineret quoque Meg. rmitica,'De%m. si ejus pedes postici 
setis longiusculis confecti ; aliter genus alterum instituendura. Verbunn *' Ma- 
restia" clarissimum Desmarest connmennorat. 

3. Megalopa, Leach. Carapax fronte simpliciter rostratus, rostro vix 
deflexo, acuto. Pedes 8 postici ad basin infra uni-spinigeri : 5ti minores, tarso 
styliformi. ^Typus Meg. Mo7itagui, Leach.* 

4. Cyllene, Bana, Carapacis frons uti in Megalopa. Pedes 8 postici ad 
basin infra uni-spinigeri ; 5ti minores, tarso anguste lamellato, setis longiusculis 
partim ciliato. 

5. Tribola, Dana. Carapax fronte horizontalis tricuspidatus, rostro (vel 
cuspide mediana) tenui, cuspidibus (vel dentibus) externis vix longiore. Antennae 
internae inter rostrum et cuspides externas aperte inflexae. Pedes postici minorefly 
tarso unguiculato setisque longis non instruct. 

Descriptiones Megalopideorum adhuc ineditcB, 

Marestia elegans. Carapax antice angustus et superne visus bilobatus, late- 
ribus fere parallelis, pone oculos vix salientibus. Pedes antici parvi, manu 
oblonga, margine inferiore et partim superficie interna remote hirsutis. Pedes 
2di marginibus sparsim ciliati, tarso infra V-spinoso, ad basin tuberculum infra 
non gerente. Tarsi postici infra 6-spinosi, apice unguiculati et 4 setis longis 
instructi. Ba5. Promontorio Bonae Spei. Il07^^. Carapacis 4 5'^\ An Megalopa 
mutica Kraussii (Sddaf. Crust, p. 54) et De Haanii (Faun. Japon. p. 167) ? Sed 
pedes postici extremitate setis tarso paulo longioribus instructi. 

Marestia Atlantica. Carapax antice angustus et superne visus bilobatus, 
lateribus postice paulo divergentibus, pone oculos vix salientibus. Pedes an- 
tici parvi, manu oblonga, nuda aut nudiuscula. Pedes 6 sequentes nudiusculi, 
tarso infra quinque spinas tuberculumque ad basin instar calcis gerente. 
Tarsi postici parvuli, sed setularum duabus paribus infra instructi, non spinosi, 
apice unguiculati et tribus setis longis armati. Hab. lat. aust. 6^, long. occ. 24**. 

Marestia pervalida. Carapax antice latus et superne visus obsolete quadri- 
lobatus, lobis subasquis, lateribus postice non divergentibus, prope medium uni- 
dentatis. Pedes antici pervalidi, manu valde crassa, tumida. Tarsi postici 
infra spinosi, apice tribus setis longiusculis armati. Hab. lat. bor. 6, long, 
orient. 173. 

Monolepis oRiENTALis. Sterni segmenta fossam sterni includentia antica mar- 
gine interiore fere truncata, vix triangulata ; segmenta proxima convexa, non tu- 
berculigera. Tuberculus medianus inter aream buccalem et fossam sterni simpli- 
citer subtriangulatus, antice acutus, postice hemisphericus, utrinque depressione 
deinde septo brevi antice et oblique producto cinctus. Tarsus pedis postici 
brevis, non unguiculatus, apice tribus setis longiusculis armatus, infra setulis 
paucis perbrevibus necque spinis instructus. Hab. in mari Suluensi. Long. 
carapacis 4.'". M. inermis differt, sterni segmentis anticis intus non subtruncatis 
sed prominenter triangulatis, proximis unituberculatis, tuberculo mediano inter 
aream buccalem et fossam sterni tuberculis tribus composito.f 

Cyllene hyalina. Rostrum parce prominens. Carapax subovatus, lateribus 
pone oculos paulo saliens, postice inermis. Thorax infra ad extremitatem pos- 

* Malac. Pod. Brit, pi. 16. Leach describes three other species, (not noticed bf 
Edwards,) in Tuckey's Exped. to the Zaire, (London, 1818,) p. 404. The M. 
Cranchii may be a true Megalopa ; the others have a deflexed beak. 

tThe author is indebted to Prof. L. R. Gibbes, of Charleston, S. C, for the 
privilege of examining specimens of the M. inermis. They were obtained by him 
from the stomach of a fish off the Atlantic coast between New York and Charleston, 
in 1846. See Rep. Crust, in U. S. Collections, by Prof. Gibbes, in Proc. Amer. 
Assoc. Charleston, 1850, vol. iii; p. 192. 


10 [January, 

teriorem inermis. Pedes antici mediocres, carpo inerml, manu paulo tumida, 
supra subgibbosa, digitis hiantibus, apice inflexis et acutis. Pedes 2di 3tii 
4tique subaequi, tarsis fere rectis, longis, articulo penultimo longioribus. Hab. 
in mari Atlantico juxta *' Rio Negro'' Patagoniae, et in mari Pacific prope 
*' Valparaiso." Loiig. carapacis 3 4:'". 

Cyllene furciger. Rostrum elongatum, spiniforme, frontis latitudine non 
brevior. Thorax infra ad extremitatem posteriorem duabus spinis longis diver- 
gentibus postice productis armatus. Pedes antici angusti, carpo articuloque 
secundo spina brevi curvatd armatis, brachio inermi. Tarsi 2di 3tii 4tique parce 
armati, styliformes. Hab in mari Suluensi. 

Tribola lata. Carapax late ovatus non pubescens, paulo longior quam 
latus, lateribus pone oculos parce undulatis, rostro lineari, dentibus frontis late- 
ralibus rostro remotis, apice acutis et paulo divaricatis. Pedes antici parvuli, 
tenues, manu pedibus sequentibus vix crassiore. Hab, in mari Atlantico, prope 
insulas "Canary;*' e stomacho piscis " Bonito " lecta. Long, corporis fere \"* 

Tribola pctbescens. Carapax oblongus, subovatus, pubescens, lateribus pone 
oculos undulalis, rostro lineari, dentibus frontis lateralibus rostro minus remotis. 
Pedes toti dense brevissimeque pubescentes ; antici rostrum paulo superantes, 
angusti, inaequi, manu dextra non latiore quam carpus. Pedes 8 sequentes fere 
duplo longiores, 2di8 brevioribus quam 3tii. Hab. in Archipelago <'Paumotu " 
mari Pacifico. 

Conspectus Crustaceorum^ ^c. Conspectus of the Crustacea of the Exploring 
Expedition under Capt. C. Wilkes, U. S. N. By James D. Dana. 


We follow De Haan in placing the genus Galathaea with the Anomoura ; and 
near it we arrange iEglea, which widely differs from most other related species 
in having penicillate instead of foliose branchiae. 

The Macroura, excluding these groups, includes three distinct sections or sub- 

One, the "Fossores " of authors, or the Thalassinidea, has close relations on 
one side with the Paguri, and on the other with the Squillidae. They constitute 
a line of gradation between these extremes, independent mostly of the other 
Macroura, and osculating only with the Astaci, although removed from them in 
general habit and structure. There is a diversity among the legs as to form and 
position, which is not found in any other Macroura, and calls to mind the Paguri. 
Moreover, there is in general a looseness of structure, a length of abdomen, and 
sluggish habit of body, unlike the trim compact forms of the typical Macroura. 
The anterior feet are thrown directly forward and are thus fitted for the burrow- 
ing habits of the species. 

The second subtribe the Astacidea is composed of the highest grade of 
Macroura, approaching in some points of structure the Brachyura. This is seen 
in the fact that the sides of the carapax fold under and unite to the epistome, as 
is well shown in Scyllarus and less perfectly in Astacus ; also in the absence or 
small size of the basal scale of the outer antennae. The Astaci are the transition 
species between the other Astacidea and the Caridea, and in the genus Parane- 
pkropSf White, the antennary scale is not smaller than is common in the latter 
group. Yet they properly form part of the same section with the Scyllari and 
Palinuri, rather than a separate division as made by Milne Edwards; they differ 
from all the Caridea in the transverse suture across the carapax near its middle. 

The third section the Caridea includes the typical Macroura, which have 
the sides of the carapax not soldered to the epistome, and a large basal scale to 
the outer antennae.* 

* The Cumae would constitute another section Cumidea if mature animals. But 
according to recent researches of Prof. Agassiz, as he has informed the author, they 
are in some cases, and probably in all, immature forms of Palaemon, Crangon, and 
other known Macroural genera. 

1852.] . 11 

These subtribes may be divided into families. 

Subtribe 1. Tkalassiiiidea. This section, as Milne Edwards observes, includes 
two strongly marked divisions; ow, with only the ordinary thoracic branchiae, 
and a second with the addition oi abdominal branchial appendages, as in the Squil- 
lidae. The former we name the Thalassinidea Eubranchiata. the latter, the 
Thalassinidea Anomobrayickiata. The first group embraces three families, dif- 
fering strikingly in outer maxillipeds and abdomen, as explained beyond. The 
second contains only two genera, Callianideai Edw., and IscRa^ Guerin the last 
name was changed by Edwards to CalUanisea ; but as this word is so near Callia- 
nassa and Callianidea, a contraction to Callisea would be preferable. 

Subtribe 2. Astacidea. In this subtribe, we adopt De Haan's sections, except 
that we exclude the Megalopidea, and we do not associate the Thalassinidea 
with the Astacidea. The sections or families are Scyllaridce, Fali?iundeB, 
Eryonidce and Astacida. 

Leach in 1819 divided the old genus Astacus, naming the marine species 
(Homarus Edw.) Astacus, and the fresh water (Astacus, Edw.) Potamobius, 
Edwards' division, of like character, now generally accepted, was not published 
till 1837. Leach hence has the priority. But according to Leach, the name 
Astacus is appropriated, not to the typical part of the group, that including the 
Astaczis fluviatilis of old authors, or Cancer Astacus of Linnaeus, and which em- 
braces at the present time numerous species, but to that including the Cancer 
Gammarzcs of Linnaeus, still but a small group. There is hence much objection 
to the names of Leach, and moreover much confusion would now ensue from 
their adoption. There seems therefore to be sufficient reason for rejecting them, 
if it be of no weight that they have remained for 30 years unrecognised by 
British authors. They are adopted in the Catalogue of British Crustacea of the 
British Museum, published in 1850, but not in the general catalogue of 1847. 

Subtribe 3. Caridea. In arranging the Caridea into groups, much stress is 
usually laid upon external form and length of beak. The unimportance of these 
characters is inferrible from the fact that they involve no essential variations of 
structure. Moreover, in a single natural group we may find both the long and 
short beak. In the Crangon group, for instance, in which the beak is usually 
very short and the body depressed, we have a species with the beak and habit of 
a Hippolyte. 

There are other characters of more fundamental value ; and these have been 
brought forward by De Haan. The mandibles afford the distinctions alluded to. 
In one section they are very slender and are bent nearly at a right angle, with- 
out enlargement at the crown. In another they are very stout, and somewhat 
bent above with a broad dilated crown. In a third, they are stout, but not bent, 
and have a dentate summit. In a fourth they have, in addition to a projecting 
lateral crown, a large summit process, which is often oblong and very prominent. 
These forms are characteristic of different sections of the Caridea. 

The fact that the mandibles bear a palpus or not is of much less importance ; 
for the portion of the mandible which is most essential to its functions is the 
crown. Among the Palaemoninae, there are genera having a mandibular palpus, 
and others without one; while the two kinds in other respects are remarkably 
close in their relations. We have found moreover that in this group, the length 
of the palpus varies with the disjunction of the 2d and 3d flagella of the inner 
antennae. If these flagella are separate to their bases nearly, (as in Palasmon,) 
the palpus is long and 3-jointed ; if united for some distance up, the palpus be- 
comes short and finally only 2-jointed (Palaemonella;) if united nearly or quite 
to their summits, there is no palpus.* 

In the arrangement of the genera into families, the fact whether the 1st or 2d 

* In our genus Palsemonella, the palpus of the mandible is 2-jointed, and in ./fn- 
chistia, which is closeiy like Palaemon in habit in some of its species, there is no 
palpus, as in the Pontoniae ; and thus the transition to the Pontoniae from Palaemon 
is exceedingly gradual. Harpilius and CEdipus (Pontoniae of authors) fill up the in- 
terval between Anchistia and the true Pontoniae. They are all similar in having the 
2d pair of legs largest, and in other prominent characteristics. 

12 [January, 

dair of legs is the stouter ^ is of great weight, much greater than previous authors 
have recognised. In the Brachyura, the anterior pair is uniformly the strong 
pair ; and this uniformity through so extensive a group shows that the variations 
from it must be of importance in classification. This peculiarity of the Brachyura 
i a consequence of the concentration of force in the cephalic or anterior portion 
of the cephalothorax; and the diffusion of this force posteriorly, which in differ- 
ent degrees marks the Macroura, is especially exhibited in the legs. It is there- 
fore of no little interest to observe whether the first or the second pair is the 
larger, or whether the degradation is still greater and the 3d pair is chelate like 
the 2d and even stouter, as in the Penaei. By regarding this character we are 
led to place Hippolyte and Rhyncocinetes with Alpheus, instead of with Palaemon ; 
also Hymenocera and Pontonia with Palasmon, instead of with Alpheus; Pasi- 
phaea in a distinct group from the Penaei, &c. Moreover, the Penaeinea, viewed 
in this light and stripped of some unrelated genera, make a natural group, for 
they are characterized by having the third pair of legs liJce the second, instead of 
like the fourth. In the lowest forms among the Penaeinea, there are no chelate 
or didactyle legs, and the species approach the Schizopods. 

In the preceding paragraphs we have but hinted at some of the more prominent 
principles involved in the classification of the Macroura here presented, a fuller 
exposition of which will be given in another place. Below is a synopsis 
of the arrangement thus arrived at, and following this synopsis, are our descrip- 
tions of new species. 

Synopsis Familiar2im CrustaceorJirti Macrourorum. 


Carapax sutura transversa notatus, posticeque saepe suturis duabus longi- 
tudinalibus. Abdomen saepius multo elongatum. Antennae externae squama 
basali sive nulla sive parvula instructae. Pedes 2 antici prorsum projecti ; 6 pos- 
tici habitu raro consimiles. Species fossores. 


Branthiis thoracicis instructa tantum. 

Fam. 1. Gebid^. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. Appendices caudales et 
aliae abdominales latae. 

Fam. 2. CALLiANASsiDyE. Maxillipedes externi operculiformes. Appendices 
caudales latae. 

Fam. 3. Thalassinid^. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. Appendices cau- 
dales lineares. 


Carapax sutura transversa saspius notatus, lateribus anterioribus epistomate 
connatis. Antennae externae squama basali sive nulla sive parva instructae. Ab- 
domen sat breve vel mediocre. Branchiae penicillatae. Pedes 2 antici oblique 
projecti; 6 postici directione consimiles. 

1. Antenna externce squama basali non instmctcB, Pedes aiitici monodactyli , 
Fam. 1. ScYLLARiB^E. Carapax valde depressus, marginibus lateralibus sat 
tenuibus, carapace lateraliter subito inflexo. Antennae externae laminatae, 
breves. Sternum trigonum. 
Fam. 2. PALiNURiOiE. Carapax subcylindricus, lateraliter late rotundatus. 
Antennae externae basi subcylindricac, longae. Sternum trigonum. 
2. Antennae externce squavid basali instrncta-. Pedes antici didactyh. 
Fam. 3. Eryonid^. Carapax non oblongus, depressus, lateribus subito inflexis, 

abdomine multo angustiore. 
Fam. 4. Astacid.'e. Carapax oblongus, subcylindricus, abdomine parce angus- 
tiore. Sternum angustum. 

1852.] 13 


Carapax sutura transversa non notatus, cephalothoracern plerumque tegens, 
lateribus anterioribus liberis, epistomate non connatis. Antennae externce squanrii 
basali grandi instructas. Corpus sive subcylindricum sive paulo compressum. 
Branchiae saepius foliosae. 


Pares Inni 2diqiie pedum, unus vel ambo, chelati ; 3tii 4tis similes. Maxilli- 
pedes 2di breves, lamellatae. 
Fam. 1. Crangonid;e. Mandibulae graciles, valde incurvatce, non palpigerae, 

corona angusta et non dilatata. Pedum pares lini 2di inter se valde in- 

Fam. 2. Atyid^. Mandibulae crassae, non palpigerae, corona lata, parce bi- 

partita, processu terminali brevi et dilatato. Pedum pares lmi2dique inter 

se aequi, carpo nunquam annulato. 
Fam. 3. Pal^momd^. Mandibulae crassae, sive palpigerae sive non palpigerae, 

supra profunde bipartitae, processu apicali oblongo, angusto. 


Pedes Imi 2dique chelati, 3tii 4tis similes. Maxillipedes 2di tenuiter pedi- 
Fam. 1. Pasiphjeid^. Mandibulae uti in Atyidis, 


Pedes 3tii 2dis similes, siepius chelati, Stiis majoribus ; nisi chelati, toti vergi- 
formes et debiles. 
Fam. 1. Pen^idje. Pedes 3tii bene didactyli, validiores, 2dis similes. Palpus 

mandibularis latus. 
Fam. 2. Sergestiu^. Pedes 3tii 2dique sive vergiformes sive obsolete chelati, 

Imis vergiformibus. Palpus mandibularis gracilis. 
Fam. 3. Eucopid^. Pedes 3tii 2dique vergiformes; Imi maxillipedesque ex- 

terni aeque monodactyli et subprehensiles,digito in articulum penultimum 

claudente. Palpus mandibularis gracilis. 

Synopsis Subfamiliarum Generumgue Crustaceorum Macrourortim Viveiitium. 



Fam. 1. GEBiDiE. 

G. 1. Gebia, Leach. Digitus manus inferior obsolescens. Pedes 2di 3tii 4ti 

Stique monodactyli. Rostrum tridentatum. Antennae externae squama 

basali carentes. 
G. 2. Axius, Leach. Manus lata,digito inferiore elongato. Pedes 2di minores, 

sublamellati, didactyli; 3tii 4ti 5tique monodactyli. Rostrum simplex, 

triangulatum. Oculi pigmento perfecti. Antennae externae squama 

basali parva instructse. 
G. 3. Calocaris, Bell.* Manus gracilis, digito inferiore elongato. Pedes 2di 

minores, cheliformes, 3tii 4ti 5tique monodactyli. Rostrum ac in Axio. 

Oculi pigmento corneaque carentes. Antennae externae squama basali parva 

instructae. Segmentum cawdale oblonjium. 
G. 4. Laomedia, De Haaii.] Manus ac in Azio. Pedes 2di monodactyli, quo- 

que 3tii et 4ti; Sti obsoleti. 

* ' British Crustacea," p. 231, t Faun. Japon. Crust., p. 162. 

14 [January, 

G. 5. Glaucothoe, Edw. Manus ac in Axio. Pedes 2di 3tiique pediformes ac 
in Paguro ; 4ti Stique subcheliformes. Antennarum internarum flagella 
articulo precedente breviora. 

Fam. 2. CallianassiDuE. 

G. 1. Callianassa, Leach. Oculi sublamellati, cornea mediana et non mar- 
ginal!. Flagella antennarum internarum articulo precedente longiora. 
Pedes Imi grandes, bene didactyli ; 2di didactyli minores, 3tii articulo pe- 
nultimo late lamellati. 

G. 2. Trtp^a, Dana. Pedibus CallianasscB affinis. Flagella antennarum 
internarum articulo precedente breviora, antennis subpediformibus. 

Fam. 3. Thalassinid^. 

G. 1. Thalassina, Latreille. Manus validae, multo inaequae, digito immobili 
majoris brevi. Pedes 2di articulo penultimo lamellati, 3tii 4ti Stique an- 
gusti, monodactyli. 


G. 1. Callianidea, Edw. Pedibus Calliaiiassce affinis, anticis bene didactylis, 
2dis et 3tiis minoribus, didactylis, compressis, 4tis Stisque subcylindricis. 
Oculi ac in Callianassa. 

G. 2. Caijlisea. (Isaea, Guerin. Callianisea, Edw.) Forsan a Callianidea 
nihil differt, teste Edwardsio (Crust, ii. 321.) 

Subtribus IL ASTACIDEA. 

Fam. 1. ScYLLARIDiE. 

1 . Carapax oblongics vel subquadralus^ non transversus. Ocxdi versus cephalo- 

thoracis angulos extemos insiti. 

G. 1. ScYLLARus, Fahr. Rostrum valde saliens. Latera carapacis non incisa. 
Antennae externae inter se fere contiguae. Palpus maxillipedis externi 
flagello confectus. Branchiae numero 21. Species, Sc. sculpttcsylattts, 
squatnosus, equinoxialis, Haaniiy Sieboldi. 

G. 2. Arctus, Danat (Scyllari subgenus Stum, De Haan.) Rostrum perbreve, 
truncatum. Antennae externae inter se remotae. Palpus maxillipedis 
flagello carens. Branchiae 19. Sp. A. 2irszts, D. (Scyllarus arctus, Aiict.) 

6. Carapax plus mimcsve transverstiSy lateribus non incisus. Octcli iii angtdis 

externi 5. 

G. 3. Thenus, Leach. Oculi oblongi. Rostrum bilobatum. Branchiae 21. 
Species. T. orientalis. 

3. Carapax plus mimisve transversus , lateribus incisus. Octcli angulis externi s 

valde rentoti. 

G. 4. Parribacus, Dana, {ScyUari subgenus 2dum,Z)g Haan.) Rostrum sub- 
triangulatum. Antennae externae inter se fere contiguae. Oculi fere in 
medio inter antennas internas et angulos cephalothoracis extemos. 
Branchiae 21. Species. P. antarcticus et P. Parrce (Ibacus antarcticuset 
I. Parrae, Auct.) 

G. 5. Ibaciis, Leach. Rostrum bilobatum. Antennae externae inter se paulo 
remotae. Oculi versus rostrum insiti. Branchiae 21. Species. I.Peroniif 
I. eihatus, De Haan,et /. novemdeiitatus , Gibbes.* 

* Species Scyllaridarum enumeratag in " Hist. Nat. des Crustaces," Edwardsii 
editae, sequentibus excepiis : Sc. Ifaanii, Siebold (Faun. Japon. 152, pi. 38, f. 1,) Sc. 
Sieboldi, De Haan (Faun. Jap. 1.02, pi. 36, f. 1.) Ibacus ciliatus, Siebold, (Faun. Jap. 
l.')3, pi. 36, f. 2,) Ibacus novemdentatus, Gibbes, (Nuntiis Assoc. Sci. Amer. 1850, 
Charleston* iii, 193.) 

1852.] 15 

Fam. 2. Palinurid-s:. 

G. 1. Palinurus, Fabr. (Palinuri communes, Edw.)Cz\di\iz:^ vix rostratus. 
Annulus antennalis supra angustissimus, curvatus. Antennae externse basi 
fere contiguae. Antennee internae liagellis breves. Liriuparusy Gray, hie 

G, 2. Panulirus, Grayy (Palinuri longicornes, Edw.) Carapax rostratus. 
Annulus antennalis supra latus, subquadratus et horizontalis. Antennse 
externae basi non contiguae; antennae internae flagellis longae. 

Fam. 3. Eryonid^. 
Genus "EBnov," Desmarest 

Fam. 4. Astacid^e. 

1. Manus crasscB et latcB,marginibus artniatce^ superjicie convexce (Astacin^.) 
A. Branchiae 19. Segmenium thoracis ultimum non mobile Species marinae. 
G. 1. HoMARus, Edw. Rostrum tenue, utrinque paucidentatum. Squama 
basalis antennarum externarum perbrevis. 

B. Branchiffi 17 18. Segmentum thoracis ultimum mobile Rostrum integrum vel 

utrinque unideniatum. Species flnviales. 

G. 2. AsTACOiDES, Guerin. Segmentum abdominis maris Imum appendicibus 
carens. Hie referemus subgenera Erichsoni AstacoideSf E?igcBus et Che- 

G. 3. AsTACus. Segmentum abdominis maris Imum appendicibus instructum. 
Hie referemus subgenera Erichsoni Astaczcs et CambaruSf illo branchiis 
18, hoc branchiis 17, instruct. 

2. Manus prismatic CB I at eribus fere red ce, (Nephropin^.) 

G. 4. Nephrops, Leach. Rostrum utrinque dentatum vel spinosum. Squama 
basalis antennarum externarum basi vix longiores. Species marinae. 

G. 5. Paranephrops, White.\ Rostrum uti in Nephrope. Squama basalis 
antennarum externarum basi dimidio longiores. Species fluviales ? 

Subtribusin. CARIDEA. 

Fam. I. Crangonid^. 

Subfam. 1. CRANGONIN^. Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi 
pediformes. Digitus mobilis in palraam claudens, immobilis spiniformis. 
Pedes 2di non annulati. 

G. 1. Crangon, Fabr. Rostrum brevissimum. Oculi liberi. Pedes 2di chelis 
armati, 4ti Stique acuminati, gressorii. 

* Archiv. f. Nat. 1846, p. 86 et375. Astaci Subgenera Erichsono instituta sequentia 

1. Astacoides. Pedes abdominales ramis membranacei, Imis maris obsoletis. 
Antennae externae internis exteriores. 

2. AsTAcus, Pedes abdominales (lamellis caudalibus inclusis) calcarei, Imis maris 
elongatis. Antennae externae internis exteriores. Pedes 5ti branchias gerentes, 
branchiis numero 18. 

3. Cambakcs. Pedes abdominales (lamellis caudalibus inclusis) calcarei, Imis maris 
elongatis. Antennae externae internis exteriores. Pedes 5ti branchias non gerentes, 
branchiis numero 17. 

4. Cheraps. Pedes abdominales calcarei, Imis maris obsoletis; lamellae caudales 
partim membranacei. Antennae externae internis exteriores. Pedes 5ti branchias 
non gerentes, branchiis numero 17. 

5. Eng-^us. Antennee externae sub internis. Pedes 5ti branchias gerentes, branchiis 
numero 18. 

Textura appendicium abdominalium discrimen genericum justum non videfur, 
necque situs antennarum externarum. An auctoritatis gravis numerus branchiarum ? 
non credimus 

t A. White, in Misc. Zool. Gray 79. 1842 et 'Voy. Erebus and Terror," pi. 3, f. L 

16 [January, 

G. 2. Sabinea, Owen.* Rostrum brevisslmum. Oculi liberi. Pedes 2di 

chelis carentes ; 4ti Stique acuminati, gressorii. 
G. 3. Argis, Krvyer.] Rostrum nullum. Oculi sub carapace fere occulti. 

Pedes 2di chelis armati. 
G. 4. Paracrangon, Dana. Rostrum elongatum. Oculi liberi. Pedes 2di 

obsoleti, 4ti Stique acuminati, gressorii. 

Subfam. 2. LYSMATINiE. Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi 
pediformes. Digiti alter ad alterum claudentes. Pedes 2di annulati. 

G. 1. NiKA, Risso. Rostrum breve. Antennae internae duobus flagellis con- 

fectae. Pedes antici impares, uno chelato, altero monodactylo. Carpus 

paris 2di elongatus annulatus. 
G. 2. Lysmata, Risso. Rostrum elongatum, subensiforme. Antennae internae 

tribus flagellis confectae. Pedes antici ambo chelati. Carpus paris 2di 

elongate filiformis. 
G. 3. Cyclorhynchus, De Haan.X Rostrum sat breve, compressum et suboi- 

biculare. Carpus 2dus brevis, pauci-annulatus; 

Subfam. 3. GNATHOPHYLLIN^ Pedes 2di Imis crassiores. Maxillipedes 

externi lati, operculiformes. 

G. 1. Gnathophyllitm, Latreille. 

Fam. 2. ATYiDiE. 

Subfam. 1. ATYIN-^. Pedes thoracici palpo non instructi. 

G. 1. Atya, Leach. Rostrum breve, depressum. Antennae internae flagellis 
duobus confectae. Pedes 4 antici sat breves, carpis sublunatis, cuspide 
inferiore manum ferente, digitis penecillo setarum longo ad apicem armatis ; 
3tii 5tis multo longiores et crassiores. 

G. 2. Atyoida, Ra7idall.^ Rostro, antennis pedibusque anticis Atyce afiinis. 
Pedes 3tii tenues, 5tis breviores. [An distinctio valida?] 

G. 3. Caridina, Edwards. Rostrum sat breve sat longum. Antennae internae 
flagellis duobus confectae. Pedes 2di Imis longiores, digitis parium am- 
borum apice penecillatus, carpis Imis perbrevibus et antice excavatis, 2dis 
subcylindricis, oblongis. 

Subfam. 2. EPHYRIN^. Pedes thoracici palpo instructi. 

G. 1. Ephyra, Roux, De Haan.\\ Rostrum dentatum. Antennae internee 

flagellis duobus confectae. Pedes 4 antici parvi, nudi vel nudiusculi. 

Pedes 6 postici graciles. 

Fam. 3. PAL^MONID^. 

Subfam. 1. ALPHEIN^E. Pedes Imi crassiores, chelati, 2di filiformes, carpo 
saepius annulati et chelati. Mandibuli palpigeri. 

G. 1. Alpheus, Fahr. Rostrum brevissimum. Antennae internae flagellis 
duobus confectae. Oculi sub carapace occulti. Manus paris 2di major 
non inversa, digito mobili superiore. Pedes 2di carpo filiformes, annulati. 
Maxillipedes externi subtenues, mediocres. Species maris calidioris. 

G. 2., Dana' Rostrum nullum. Oculis et ceteris Alpheo plerumque 
aflinis. Manus paris 2di major fere inversa, digito mobili inferiore vel 
exteriore. Species maris frigidioris. 

* Owen, Append. "Voy. Capt. Ross," p. 82. Crangon scptemcarinatum, Sabine. 

tTidskrift, iv. ]843, p. 217. 

\ Faun. Japon. Crust., p. 174. 

'^.lourn. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. viii, p. 140. 

II De Ilaan, Faun. Japon. p. 185, pi. 46, f. 7. 

1852.] 17 

G. 3. Alope, White.* Rostrum breve, Inter spinas duas longas insitum hisque 

saepe partim celatum. Antennae internae flagellis duobus confectae. 

Maxillipedes extern! longissimi. Oculi paulo salientes. 
G. 4. Athanas, Leach. Rostrum breve. Antennae internae flagellis tribus 

confectae. Oculi paulo salientes. Pedes 2di carpo annulati. 
G. 5. HiPPOLYTE, Leach.^ Rostrum sat longum, plus minusve ensiforme, non 

mobile. Abdomen medio deflexum. Antennae internae flagellis duobus 

confectae. Oculi salientes. Pedes 2di carpo annulati. 
G. 6. Rhyncocinetes, Edw. Rostrum ensiforme, mobile, fronte articulo 

conjunctum. Oculi antennaeque uti in Hippolyte. Pedes 2di carpo non 

[Ubi pertinet genus sequens ? 
G. AuTONOMEA, Risso. P^es antici crassi, chelati. Pedes 2di non chelati et 

carpo non annulati, 3tiis similes. Maxillipedes externi tenues. Rostrum 

breve. Oculi salientes. Antennae internae flagellis duobus confectae ; 

externae squama basali non instructae.] 
Subfam. 2. PANDALINiE. Pedes antici gracillimi, non chelati, 2di filiformes, 

carpo annulati. 
G. Pandalus, Leach. 

Subfam. 3. PAL^MONIN^E. Pedes 4 antici chelati, 2di Imis crassiores. 
Carpis nullis annulatis. Pedes nulli palpigeri. 

1. Antenna interna duohus flagellis confectce. Wandihtdce non jtalpigerce. 
G. 1. PoNTONiA, Latr. Corpus depressum. Rostrum breve. Oculi parvuli. 

Maxillipedes suboperculiformes, articulo 2do lato, 3tio 4toque simul 

sumtis longiore, his subcylindricis. 
G. 2. CEdipus, Dana. (Pontonia, Axict.) Corpus plus minusve depressum. 

Rostrum longitudine mediocre. Oculi permagni. Maxillipedes externi 

latiusculi, articulis totis latitudine fere aequis. Tarsi infra elongate 

G. 3. Harpilius, Dana. (Pontonia, Auct.X) Corpus non depressum. Rostrum 

longitudine mediocre. Oculi magni. Maxillipedes suboperculiformes, 

articulo 2do lato, 3tio 4toque simul sumtis breviore, his subcylindricis. 

Tarsi uncinati, infra non gibbosi. 
(jr. 4. Anchistia, Dana. Rostrum tenue, saepius ensiforme et elongatum. 

Corpus vix depressum, saepe compressum. Oculi mediocres ; antennae 

duobus flagellis instructae, una parce bifida. Maxillipedes externi omnino 

tenues, pediformes. 

2. Ma7idibulce palpigera. 

a. Oculi aperti. 
G. 5. Pal^monella, Dana. Corpus non depressum. Rostrum sat longum, 

dentatum. Oculi mediocres. Mandibularum palpus bi-articulatus, per- 

brevis. Antennae internae flagellis duobus confectae, uno apicem bifido. 

Maxillipedes externi tenues. 
G. 6. Pal^mon, Fabr.\ Corpus non depressum. Rostrum longum, dentatum. 

Oculi mediocres. Palpus mandibularum 3-articulatus. Antennae interna? 

flagellis tribus confectae. Maxillipedes externi tenues. Pedes 2di nun- 

quam lamellati. 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. [2J, i. 225. 

tPericlimenes, Costa, (Ann dell' Acad, degli Aspir. Nat di Napoli, ii, 1844,) Hippo- 
lyto affinis et vix differt, tesle Erichsono. Arch. f. Nat. 1846, p. 310. 

\ Pontoniae verag (Edipis et Harpiliis habitu raulto differt; Pontoniarum oculis parvulis, 
abdoraine valde inflexo, et modo vitas saepius luti in Pinnotheris: aliorum oculi* 
pergrandibus, abdomine minus inflexo, aniraalibus modo vitse liberis, inter ramos coral- 
lorum ssepe natantibus. Pontonia raacrophthalma, Edw., CEdipo pertinet. 

WLeander, Desmarest, (Ann. Ent. Soc. France, 1849, p. 87,) a Palemone vix differt 
abdoraine ad articulationem 3-tiam inflexo non discriraine valido. 


18 [January, 

G. 7. Hymenocera, Latr. Corpus non depressum. Rostrum sat longum. Oculi 
mediocres. Pedes 2di tenuiter laminati, latissimi ; Imi tenuissimi, manu 
minuta. Maxillipedes externi subfoliacei. 

b. Oculi sub carapace celati. 
G. 8. Cryphiops, Dana. Rostrum longitudine mediocre. Oculi parvuli, 

omnino occulti. Antennse internae flagellis tribus confectae. Maxillipedes 

externi subtenues. 
[Ubi pertinet Genus Typton, Costa, (Annal. dell' Acad, degli Aspir. Nat. 
di Napoli, ii, 1844) ; squama basali antennarum externarum carens ; Pontoniae 

Subfam. 4. OPLOPHORIN-^. Pedes Imi sive didactyli sive vergiformes ; 2di 
chelati, crassiores. Squama antennarum ^ternarum acuminata, extus 

spinis armata. 
G. 1. Oplophorus, Edw. Corpus non compressum. Rostrum longum, den- 

tatum. Antennae internae flagellis duobus confectae. Pedes toti palpigeri, 

4 antici chelati. [Abdominis dorsum processubus spiniformibus uno vel 

pluribus armatum.] 
G. 2. Regulus, Dana. Rostrum longum, dentatum. Antennae internae flagellis 

duobus confectae. Pedes nulli palpigeri, 2 antici non chelati, 2di crasse 

chelati. Mandibularum palpus 3-articulatus. [Abdominis segmentum 

3tium dorso postico instar spinae longae productum.] 

Fam. I. Pasiph^id^. 

G. 1. Pasiphjea, Savigiiy. Rostrum obsolescens. Antennae internae flagellis 
duobus confectae. Pedes palpigeri, palpis elongatis. Pedes 4 antici 
subaequi, manubus gracilibus. 

Fam. 1. Pen^id^. 

G. 1. Sicyonia, Edw. Pedes 6 antici lineares, 4 postici non annulati. Carapax 
breviter rostratus, semicalcareus, dorso carinato. Pedes abdominales 
lamina una instructi. Maxillipedes 2di Stiique non palpigeri. Antennae 
internae perbreves. 

G. 2. PENiEus, Latr. Pedes 6 antici lineares, 4 postici non annulati. Carapax 
elongato-rostratus, rostro ensiformi. Pedes abdominales laminis duabus 
instructi. Maxillipedes externi bene palpigeri. Hie referemus genus 
" Aristceus^^ [Duvernoy, Ann. des Sci. Nat. xv, 1841, pi. 4.] 

G. 3. Stenopus, Latr. Pedes 6 antici lineares, 3 postici longi, annulati. 
Rostrum longitudine mediocre. Maxillipedes externi brevissime palpigeri. 

G. 4. Spongicola, DeHaan.* Pedes 4 antici filiformes, 2 sequentes unus vel 
ambo crassissimi ; 4 postici non annulati. Carapax bene rostratus, rostro 
subensiformi. Maxillipedes externi non palpigeri. 


G. 1. Sergestes, Edw. Carapax brevissime rostratus. Pedes thoracis non 

palpigeri, 2di Stiique obsolete didactyli, 5ti parvuli. 
G. 2. AcETES, Edw. Carapax minute rostratus. Pedes thoracis non palpigeri, 

2di 3tiique obsolete didactyli, 5ti obsoleti. 
G. 3. EuPHEMA, Edw. Carapax bene rostratus. Pedes thoracis elongato-palpi- 

geri,''6 antici didactyli, manubus parvulis, 4 postici filiformes, ciliati, non 

annulati. Branchiae foliosae. Abdomen dorso uni-spinosum An hujus 

sedis est? 

Faun. Japon. Crust p. 189. tab. 46, f. 9. 

1852.] 19 

Fam. 3. EucoPiDiE. 

G. 1. EvcoTi Ay Dana. Carapax non rostratus, fronte integro. Pedes thoracis 
elongato-palpigeri, palpis natatoriis. Maxillipedes 2di 3tii et pedes Imi 
monodactyli et prehensiles, unguiculo ad articulum precedens claudente. 

Deseriptiones Crustaeeornm Macrourorum adhuc ineditce. 



Fam. Gebid^e. 

Gebia Pugettensis. Frons tridentatus, dente mediano triangulatus, super- 
ficie superna usque ad suturam dorsi transversam scabra et hirsuta. Manus 
marginibus pilosa, non spinulosa nee dentata, superficie externa laevis non cos- 
tata, lineaque dense hirsuta longitudinaliter notata, digito inferiore dentiformi, 
crasso, acuto, non incurvato, digito mobili elongato, inermi, margine piloso. 
Pedes 2di infra longissime ciliati. Antennae externae quoad basin partim pilosae, 
flagellis paulo hirsutis. Segmentum caudale transversum, rectangulatum, inte- 
grum. Hab. in freto Pugettensi, Oregoniae. Long. 2' 


Fam. Callianassid^. 

Callianassa gigas. Frons paulo triangulatus. Oculi complanati. Manus 
major valde compressa, laevis, carpo non duplo longior, digitis brevibus, dimidio 
manus brevioribus, sparsim hirsutis, consimilibus, non hiantibus, superiors 
arcuato, acuto, brachio angusto, ad basin infra dentigero sed vix latiore, paululo 
longiore quam corpus, intus vix dentato. Segmentum caudale appendicibus 
caudalibus vix brevius. Hab. in freto Pugettensi, Oregoniae. Long. 4i". 

TRYPiEA. AusTRALiENSis. Frons non triangulatus. Pedes antici valde com- 
pressi, brachio carpo manuque pedis majoris supra acutis. Manus major lata, 
laevis, carpo paululo longior ; digitis fere dimidii manus longitudine, non hianti- 
bus, intus subtiliter denticulatis, superiore paulo longiore, arcuato, carpo paulo 
minore quam manus, brachio cum processu cultriformi juxta basin infra armato. 
Segmentum caudale non longius quam latum, postice arcuatum. Hab. in oris 
Illawarrae Australiae orientalis. Long. 21". 

Fam. Thalassinid^. 

Thalassina gracilis. Carapax laevis, rostro perbrevi, acuto, margine extra- 
orbitali acuto. Abdomen sparsim pubescens, marginibus integris, segment 
caudali paulo oblongo, postice bene rotundato, non longiore quam appendices 
caudales. Pedes Imi subaequi, valde compressi, manu angusto-elongata, mar- 
gine superiore subacuto, breviter spinoso, inferiore integro et inermi, digito 
mobili paulo breviore quam pars manus anterior, angusto, fere recto, seriatim 
pubescente, digito immobili plus dimidio breviore, acuto. Pedes 6 postici 
tenues ; 5ti paulo breviores. Hab. in oris insulae " Telegraph," juxta " Singa- 
pore." Long. 2i". 

Subtribus II. ASTACOIDEA. 


Arctus Vitiensis. Carapax subtilissimis plumulis pubescens, spina pone 
medium frontis et altera gastrica armatus, versus orbitam utrinque subcarinatus 
et 1 2-dentatus. Antennae internae nudiusculae, articulo basis penultimo fere 
duplo longiore quam ultimus. Antennae externae extremitate truncatae, articulo 
ultimo apice 5-lobato, lobis oblongis, interno breviore, articulo 2do ultimum 

20 [January, 

fere superante, extus unidentato, intus 3-dentato, superficie carinata, carina 
integrd. Pedes nudi, subteretes, inermes, 2dis pergracilibus, tarso 2do duplo 
longiore quam 3tius. Ilab. in archipelago Vitiensi (" Fejee "). Long. I". 

Fam. AsTACiD^. 

AsTACUs LENiuscuLus. Rostrum tridentatum, dentibus acutis, medio tenuiter 
elongato. Carapax laevis, punctulatus, lateraliter pone rostrum utrinque 2-spi- 
nosus ; areola inter suturas longitudinales post-dorsales lata. Pedes antici 
compressi, inermes, non tuberculati, manu laevi, punctulata, carpo paulo ob- 
longo, intus recto, inermi, apice interno acuto excepto, brachio antice denticu- 
lato, apice interno elongate acuto, dorso unispinoso. Pedes sequentes nudius- 
culi. Segmentum caudale parce oblongum, lateribus fere parallelis. Pedes 5ti 
branchias parvas gerentes. Hah. flumine "Columbia," Oregoniae. Long. M'. 

AsTACOiDES NOBiLis. Rostrum sat longum fere integrum, apice obtusum, 
utrinque obsolete unidentatum, basi antennarum externarum paulo brevius. 
Carapax lateraliter infra basin rostri obsolete utrinque armatus. Abdominis 
segmenta utrinque paulo uni-tuberculata, junioris tuberculis obsolescentibus ; 
segmentum 2dum prope marginem lateralem spinis brevibus armatum; seg- 
mentum caudale paulo oblongum. Pedes antici aequi, crassi, carpo intus 
valde trispinoso, manu infra supraque marginata et breviter dentata, superficie 
fere laevi, nuda. Epistomatis processus medianus anticus triangulatus et valde 
elongatus, et perangustus. i2a5. Australia orientali? Long.b". 

Paranephrops tenuicornis. Rostrum elongatum, acuminatum, tenue, bases 
antennarum longitudine superans, utrinque 4-spinosum et posterius super cara- 
pacem utrinque aliis spinis duabus. Pedes 8 postici gracillimi. Pedes antici 
longi, manu vix crassiore quam carpus, margine superno biseriatim spinoso, 
superficiebus interna externaque uniseriatim spinosis, margine inferiore et super- 
fice proxima spinuli-scabris et non seriatim spinosis. Hah. in fluminibus prope 
portum "Bay of Islands," Novi-Zealandiae. 

Subtribus III. CARIDEA. 


Fain. Crangonid^. 

Subfam. Crangoninje. 

Crangon munitus. Rostrum brevissimum, rotundatum. Carapax partim 
7-carinatus, carina medid vel prima bispinosa, 2da utrinque unispinosa, brevi, 
3tia, nuda, 4ta unispinosa, brevi. Abdomen laeve, inerme. Manus nuda. Pedes 
2di 3tiis vix breviores, 4ti 5tique paulo hirsuti, 5tis minoribus. Maxillipedes 
externi utrinque valde ciliati. Segmentum caudale apice subacutum et quatuor 
setis instructum. Hah. in freto Pugettensi. Long. \" W". 

Paracrangon ECHiNATUS. Rostrum elongatum, porrectum, apice bidentatum, 
dorso unidentatum, juxta basin infra unispinosum, spina longa porrecta. Cara- 
pax multispinosus, medio dorso inaeque 4-dentatus, utrinque 5 7-spinosus. 
Abdomen superne partim carinatum superficie paulo scalptum, lateribus acutis. 
Manus elongata, digito immobili longo et gracillimo. Pedes 4ti Stique fere 
nudi, subaequi. Kah. in freto Pugettensi. Long, \\". 

Subfam. Lysmatin^. 

NiKA Hawaiensis. Rostrum brevissime triangulatum, oculis multo brevius, 
latius quam longum. Squama antennarum externarum basi internarum parce 
brevior. Pedes antici subaequi, dexter chelatus nudiusculus. Articulus pedis 
2di 4tus 3tio vix longior, non annulatus ; carpus 11-articulatus, articulis quatuor 
Imis vix disjunctis. Pedes 6 postici subaequi, nudiusculi, gracillimi. Hah. 
prope insulam " Maui " Hawaiensem, Long. %'". 

1852.] 21 


Subfam. AlpheinjK. 

Genus Alpheus. 

I. Rostrnm margine frontis ortunif superjicie inter octilos acepius leviter 

A. Antennarum articulus Imus externarum spina externa sive nulla sive ob- 
solescente armatus. 

1. Manus marginibus inferiore superioreque versus digitos excavata. Deng anten- 
narum internarum basalis articulo \mo non longior. Articulus pedum dtiortim 
Atorum Stius omnino inermit. 

a. Orbitse margo inermis. 

Alphetjs strenuus. Rostrum elongatum, acutum, superficie inter oculos 
leviter carinata. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi non longior. 
Articulus antennarum internarum 2dus Imo fere duplo longior. Pedes antici 
multo inaequi, manus majoris sinu infero-marginali concavo et non triangulato, 
brachio ad apicem internum acute uni-dentato ; manu minore angusto-oblonga, 
paulo pubescente, digitis intus dense hirsutis, pilis apicem digiti mobilis omnino 
celantibus. Pedes 2di 3tiis multo longiores, carpi articulis Imo 2doque fere 
acquis, 2do longiore quam 5tus. Hab. insula Tongatabu. Long \\", 

Alpheus pacificus. Rostrum breve, acutum, superficie inter oculos breviter 
carinata. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi plane brevior ; articulus 
antennarum internarum 2dus Imo duplo longior. Pedes antici multo inaequi ; 
manus majoris sinu infero-marginali profunde triangulato, brachio apicem inter- 
num inermi; manu minore angusto-oblonga, paulo pubescente, digitis intus 
dense hirsutis, apicibus apertis. Pedes 2di 3tiis parce longiores, carpi articulo 
2do multo breviore quam Imus, vix longiore quam 5tus. Hab. insulis Havv'aien- 
sibus. Long. \\". 

h. Orbitae margo spinula armatus. 

Alpheus euchirus. Rostrum paulo elongatum, superficie inter oculos cari- 
nata. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi non longior. Articulus 
antennarum internarum 2dus Imo paulo longior. Pedes antici multo inaequi ; 
manus majoris sinu infero-marginali concavo ; brachio apicem non spinigero ; 
manu minore oblonga, crassiuscula, laevi, digitis extus et intus leviter laxeque 
pubescentibus. Pedes 2di 3tiis paulo longiores, carpi articulo Imo duplo lon- 
giore quam 2dus, manu vix breviore quam tres articuli precedentes simul sumti. 
Pedes 3tii 4tive parce criniti, articulo 3tio apicem internum brevissime acuto, 
5to intus 7 8-setuloso, setulis paulo confertis. Hab. in freto " Balabac." 
Long. W". 

2. Manus margine inferiore integer. Dens antennarum, internarum basalis articulo 
prima vix longior. 

a. Orbiise margo inermis. 
Alpheus obeso-manus. Rostrum brevissimum, in carinam paulo postice 
productum. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi non brevior, basi 
internarum multo brevior ; dens internarum basalis perbrevis ; articulus 2dus 
Imo plus duplo longior. Pedes antici valde inaequi, manu majore laevi, elongata, 
obesa, non compressa, versus apicem angustiore, digito mobili perbrevi, mallei- 
formi, minore lineari, digitis brevissimis. Pedes 2di portentose elongati, 3tiis 
plus duplo longiores, carpi articulo Imo quadruplo breviore quam 2dus, 3tio 4to 
5toque brevibus, subaequis. Articulus pedis 3tii 3tius apice inferiore acutus. 
Hab. in archipelago " Viti." Long. 9'". 

Alpheus crinitus. Rostrum acutum, superficie inter oculos carinata. 
Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi harum parce brevior, basi interna- 
rum paulo brevior ; dens internarum basalis perbrevis. Articulus antennarum 
internarum 2dus Imo duplo longior. Pedes antici multo inaequi; razrva majore 
obesa, parce compressa, infra rotundata, omnino laevi, partim leviter pubescente, 

2S [January, 

digitis perbrevibus, (manu quadruple brevioribus), digito mobili arcuato; 
minore oblonga, leviter crinita, digitis parte manus ante digitos paulo^brevioribus. 
Pedes 2di valde elongati, 3tiis sesquilongiores, articulo carpi 2do parce longiore 
quam Imus, 3tio 4to Stove oblongo, uno alterum fere aequante. Pedes 3tii 4tive 
leviter criniti, articulo 3tio apicem inferiorem dentigero. Hab. in freto " Bala- 
bac.'' Long. W", 

Alpheus mitis. Rostrum acutum, superficie inter oculos carinata. Squama 
antennarum externarum basalis basi harum internarumve parce longior. Arti- 
culus antennarum internarum 2dus Imo paulo longior, densque basalis articulo 
1 mo fere longior. Pedes antici inaequi; manu majore laevi, paulo compressa, 
marginibus rotundata, digitis regularibus, manu fere triplo brevioribus ; minore 
simili, angustiore. Pedes 2di 3tiis multo longiores, articulo carpi 2do Imum 
longitudine aequante, 3tio 4tove oblongo, parce breviore quam 5tus, manu per- 
brevi. Pedes 3tii 4tique fere nudi, articulo 3tio apicem internum non acuto. 
Hab. in freto "Balabac." Lo7ig. 9"'. An femina A. Lottinii? 

ft. Orbitae rnargo spinula denteve armatus. 
Alpheus acuto-femoratus. Rostrum acutum postice inter oculos produc- 
tum. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basibus antennarum non longior. 
Dens basalis antennarum internarum brevis, articulus 2dus Imo parce longior. 
Orbitae margo acutus sed spina non productus. Pedes 2di 3tiis sat longiores, 
carpi articulo Imo brevi, 2do plus duplo longiore quam Imus. Pedes 3tii, 4ti- 
que crassiusculi, articulo 2do 3tioque apicem inferiorem instar spinae elongate 
acuto. [Pedibus anticis specimen nobis mutilatum.] Hab. in freto "Balabac." 
Long 9'". 

B. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus spina externa armatus. 

a. Orbitae margo inermis. 

Alpheus parvi-rostris. Corpus nudum. Rostrum acutum, breve, super- 
ficie inter oculos carinata. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi utro- 
que paulo longior ; spina basalis mediocris ; dens internarum basalis brevis ; arti- 
culus 2dus Imo vix longior. Pedes antici valde inaequi, manu majore crassissima, 
marginibus ambobus indentata, superficie externa partim sulcata, digitis per- 
brevibus, digito mobili extus arcuato ; manu minore regulari, pubescente. Pedes 
2di 3tiis paulo longiores, articulo carpi Imo fere duplo longiore quam 2dus, 
manu brevi. Pedes 3tii 4tique crassiusculi, articulo 3tio apicem inferiorem 
unidentato. Hab. in freto "Balabac." Long. B>"'. 

b. OrbitBB margo spinula denteve armatu vix breviore quam rostrum. 
Alpheus tridentulatus. Rostrum perbreve, dentiforme. Squama antenna- 
rum externarum basalis basi brevior, basi internarum vix brevior, spina exter- 
narum basalis mediocris, spina internarum longissima, articulo Imo multo 
longior; articulus 2dus Imo non longior. Pedes antici valde inaequi, manu 
majore laevi, paulo compressa, marginibus late rotundata, digitis perbrevibus, 
manu triplo brevioribus. Pedes 2di 3tiis paulo longiores, articulo carpi Imo 
quadruple longiore quam 2dus, 2do perbrevi, vix longiore quam 3tius. Arti- 
culus pedum 3tiorum 4torumve 3tius apice interno inermis. Hab. in portu "Rio 
Janeiro "? Loiig. W". 

Alpheus neptunus. Frons elongate trispinosus, rostro spinisque orbitalibus 
praelongis, aequis. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi brevior et spina 
externa elongata ; spina internarum basalis longa, articulo 2do breviore quam 
Imus. Pedes antici multo inaequi, manu majore laevi, paulo compressa, margi- 
nibus rotundata, digitis brevibus, manu triplo brevioribus, digito mobili supra 
arcuato ; manu minore angusta. Pedes 2di 3tiis longiores, articulo carpi Imo 
quadruplo longiore quam 2dus, 2do 3tio 4toque inter se fere acquis, non oblongis. 
Articulus pedum sequentium 3tius apice inferiore inermis. Hab. in mari 
Suluensi. Long. 89'". 

1852.] 23 

II. Rostrum inter oculontm bases ortunij snlco profunda in carapace utrinqut 
juxta rostrum excavato. 

a. Orbitse margo inermis. 
Alpheus pugnax. Rostrum acutum, anguste triangulatum, planum, inter 
oculorum bases ortum. Spina antennarum externarum basalis parva ; squama 
basi paulo longior. Spina antennarum externarum basalis articulo Imo non 
brevior, articulus 2dus brevis, 3tius squamam externarum non superans. Pedes 
antici inaequi ; majore elongata, laevi, marginibus rotundata, supra anguste 
emarginata, digitis brevibus (manu triplo brevioribus), brachio apicibus instar 
spinae acuto. Pedes 2di longi, articulo carpi Imo dimidio breviore quam 2dus. 
Pedes 3tii 4tique graciles, articulo 3tio apicem inferiorem mii-dentato. Hab. ad 
insulam " Maui " Hawaiensem. Long. \2"' . 

Alpheus diadema. Rostrum latum, apice triangulatum et acutum, inter 
oculorum bases ortum, lateribus concavis. Spina basalis antennarum omnium 
brevis ; squama externarum basi utroque longior. Pedes 2di Stiis parce 
longiores, articulo carpi Imo paulo longiore quam 2dus vel 5tus, 3tio4tove parce 
oblongo. Pedes 3tii 4tive 5tis valde crassiores, articulo 3tio apicem inferiorem 
unidentato. iZaA. ad insulam " Maui" Hawaiensem. Long.W. 

b. Orbitae margo spinula denteve arniatus. 
Alpheus l^vis. (Randall, Jour Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. viii.) 
Alpheus malleator. Rostrum perbreve, triangulatum, inter oculorum bases 
ortum. Spina orbitalis brevis. Squama antennarum externarum basalis basi 
brevior ; spina basalis externarum mediocris, internarum brevissima ; articulms 
2dus internarum Imo sesqui longior. Pedes antici inaequi ; manus majoris 
superficie superna et interna partim minute tuberculata, margine superiore 
sulcato, juxta articulationem digiti 2 3-inciso, digitis perbrevibus, mobili mal- 
leiformi, obtuso. Pedes 2di Stiis parce longiores, articulo carpi Imo duplo 
longiore quam 2dus. Pedes 3tii crassiusculi, articulo 3tio apicem inferiorem 
obtuso. Hab. in portu Rio Janeiro ? Long. 2a". 

Genus Betjeus. truncatus. Frons truncatus, medio non emarginatus. Squama 
antennarum externarum basi non longior ; spina externa brevis ; spina interna- 
rum basalis praelonga, articuli basales elongati, subaequi. Pedes antici multo 
inaequi, manu majore longa, sublineari, valde compressa, fere laevi, scabricula, 
digitis longis, fere dimidii manus longitudine, mobili terete. Pedes 2di Stiis 
sat longiores, carpo sat brevi, articulo carpi Imo plus duplo longiore quam 2dus, 
2do 3tio 4toque brevibus. Articulus pedum sequentium Stius omnino inermis. 
JTai. Fuegia in mari prope insulam " Hermite," pedibus sexaginta altitudine. 
Lo7ig. 15'". 

Bet^us ^quimanus. Frons medio profunde incisus. Squama antennarum 
externarum basalis basi paulo brevior ; spina externa perbrevis ; spina interna- 
rum basalis praelonga, articulo 2do multo breviore quam primus. Pedes antici 
aequi, manu laevi, compressa, digitis perbrevibus. Pedes 2di Stiis sat longiores, 
articulo carpi Imo plus duplo longiore quam 2dus, 2do Stio 4toque perbrevibus. 
Articulus pedum sequentium Stius omnino inermis. ifaj. in portu "Bay of 
Islands," ad insulas " Black Rocks," Novi-Zealandiae. 

Betjeus scabro-digitus. Frons leviter arcuatus, medio obsolete excavatus. 
Squama antennarum externarum basalis mediocris, basi parce brevior, basin 
internarum fere aequans ; flagellum late compressum ; spina externa brevis ; 
spina internarum basalis longa. Pedes antici femince valde inaequi, manu ma- 
jore mediocri, leviuscula, compressa, margine inferiore rotundata, digitis scabri- 
culis, dimidio manus paulo brevioribus, vix dentigeris ; maris aequi, crassiores, 
digitis brevibus, valde incurvatis, immobili crasse unidentato. Pedes 2di Stiis 
paulo longiores, articulo carpi Imo plus duplo longiore quam 2dus, 2do3tio 4toque 
brevibus. Articulus pedum sequentium Stius extus prope basin spina armatus. 
Hab. juxta urbem " Valparaiso " Chilensem. Long. \\" 

24 [January, 

Genus Hippolyte. 

1. Rostrum in dorsum non productum. 

HippoLYTE ACUMiNATus. RostruiTi elongate acuminatum, subensiforme, apice 
parce recurvatum, squama antennali non brevius, medio margine supra infraque 
unidentatura. Carapax supra oculum unispinosus. Antennarum flagellum 
brevius internarum 5 6-articulatum, apicem rostri non superans. Pedes antici 
perbreves, manu ovata. Pedes 2di 3tiis breviores, carpo 3-articulato. Maxilli- 
pedes externi basin antennarum externarum superantes, pubescentes. Tarsi 
pedum 6 posticorum infra spinulosi. Hab, in mari Atlantic cum Sargasso 
lat. bor. 36*^ 07' 4 07', long, occid. 20 43' 71 36'. A temdrostrato 
Edw. difFert, dorso in regione gastrico spina non armato, margine rostri inferiors 
unidentato tantum. 

HippoLYTE ExiLiRosTRATus. Rostrum longum, omnino angustissimum, versus 
apicem non latior, rectum, apice acutum, supra 4-spinosum, infra rectum, inte- 
grum. Antennarum flagellum brevius internarum apicem rostri multum supe- 
rans, multiarculatum, Maxillipedes externi elongati, apicem basis antennarum 
externarum multum superantes. Pedes antici perbreves, manu subovata, fere 
per ejus latus carpo articulata. Pedes 2di 3tiis breviores, carpo 3-articu- 
lato ; 6 sequentes nudiusculi, tarsis infra spinulosis, spinulis apicis longis reliquis 
brevissimis. Hab. in portu " Rio Janeiro.'' Long. 6 8'". 

HippoLYTE oBLiQuiMANus. Rostrum lougum, tenuiter laminatum, rectum, 
versus apicem verticaliter latior, infra non rectum 2-dentatum, supra 4-denta- 
tum, apice bifidum. Flagellum antennarum internarum minus apicem rostri 
superans, majus paulo longius. Pedes antici perbreves, manu subovata carpo 
manu multo breviore, vix oblongo. Pedes 2di 3tiis breviores, carpo 3-articulato. 
Tarsi pedum 6 sequentium infra spinulosi, spinulis apicis longis, deinde sensim 
brevioribus. Hab. in portu Rio Janeiro. Long. 8'". 

2. Rostrum, i?i dorsum producttcm. 

HippoLYTE brevirostris. Rostrum breve (basi antennarum internarum 
multo brevius) acutum, spiniforme, dorso breviter productum, supra 4-spi- 
nosum, spinis inter se aeque remotis. Maxillipedes externi longi, squamam 
antennalem longe superantes. Pedes antici crassiusculi, manu oblonga. Pedes 
2di 3tiis longiore, carpo elongato, 7-articulato. Hab. in freto " de Fuca," juxta 
portum " Dungeness." Lo7ig\^". 

HippoLYTE lamellicornis. Rostrum longum verticaliter latissimum, fere ad 
thoracis basin productum, apice bifidum, supra sinuosum, super cephalothoracem 
4-spinosum, anterius 6-spini-dentatum, spinulis insequis, totis inter se subaeque 
remotis, infra triangulatum, 2-dentatum. Antennae internae rostro parce longiores. 
Pedes antici gracillimi, 2dis paulo crassiores. Pedes 2di 3tiis vix breviores, 
carpo elongato, 7-articulato, articulo carpi 3tio longo. Tarsi pedum gequentium 
fere inermes, spinulis versus basin subtilissimis. Maxillipedes externi apice 
spinulosi, articulo ultimo supra pubescente. Hab. in freto " de Fuca " Oregoniae, 
juxta portum " Dungeness. Long, li 2". 

Subfam. Panda linje. 

Pandalus PTTBEscENTULrs. Carapax dense brevissimeque pubescens, mar- 
gine infra oculum bispinoso. Rostrum squama antennali longius, ensiforme, 
paulo recurvatum sed apice non altius quam dorsum, supra 16 18-dentatum, 
dentibus parvulis et fere ad dorsi medium continuatis, versus apicem edentulum, 
infra 7-dentatum, apice bifidum. Pedes toti nudiusculi, 3tii 4ti 5ti longitudine 
sensim decrescentes, 3tii longi, Imi articulis 2dorum tribus primis longiores. 
Hab. in freto " de Fuca " Oregoniae, juxta portum " Dungeness." Long. 5". 

Subfam. PALyEMONINiE. 

PoNTONiA TRiDACNiE. Corpus dcprossum. Carapax nudus, laevis, paulo ob- 
longus, rostro triangulato, obtuso. Antennae internae perbreves, flagellis sub- 
aequis, articulis duobus precedentibus non oblongis. Squama antennarum exter- 

1852.] , 25 

narum basalis apicem rostri non superans; flagellum rostro paulo longius. 
Pedes antici longiores, tenues, digito dimidio breviore quam manus ; 2di crassi- 
usculi, breves, subaequi, manu oblonga, digitis manu plus dimidio brevioribus, 
brachio ultra carapacem parce saliente. Pedes 6 postici breves, aequi, nudi. 
Hal), in concha Tridacnae maris juxta insulam " Tutuila " Samoensen (vel 
"Navigator's.") Long, fere 8'"; vel abdomine inflexo, 4'". 

QEuiPUS suPERBus. Corpus paulo depressum. Kostrum horizontaliter latum, 
oblongo-triangulatum, rectum, superne medio costatum et 5-serratum, infra prope 
apicem 2-serratum, squama basali antennarum externarum plus duplo brevius, 
basi internarum paulo brevius. Pedes antici tenues, manu breviter villosa, 
proximi aequi, crassissimi, manu magnitudine portentosa, plus dimidio longiore 
quam carapax, tumida, versus basin crassiore, digito mobili plus quadruple 
breviore quam manus, angusto, tenuiore quam immobilis et margine externo 
angulate sinuoso. Oculi magni. Hab. insula " Tongatabu." Long. W. 

(Edipus gramineus. Corpus paulo depressum. Rostrum angustum, rectum, 
squama basali antennarum externarum fere dimidio brevius, basin internarum 
longitudine aequans, supra 4-dentatum, infra prope apicem 1-dentatum. Oculi 
magni. Pedes antici elongati, antennis internis non breviores. Pedes 2di aequi, 
crassissimi, manu magnitudine portentosa, plus dimidio longiore quam carapax, 
inflata, versus basin crassiore, digito plus quadruple breviore quam manus, 
sublunato, extus integro, arcuato. Hab. archipelago " Viti." Long. Q'". 

Harpilius lutescens. Corpus paulo depressum. Rostrum angustum, parce 
recurvatum, squama antennali paulo brevius, basi internarum multo longius, 
supra 7 8-dentatum, infra prope medium 1-dentatum. Pedes antici manu 
Bparsim pubescentes ; 2di angusti, manu gracili, fere lineari, digitis linearibus 
vix dimidii manus longitudine. Hab. insula "Tongatabu." Long. 1'" . 

Anohistia gracilis. Rostrum tenue, rectum, acutum, longum, squama 
antennali fere brevius, basi antennarum internarum longius, supra 6-dentatum, 
dente postico inter oculos, infra unidentatum. Antennarum internarum articuli 
2dus 3tiusque perbreves. Pedes 2di longi, carpo perbrevi, apice acuto, brachio 
apice externo acuto, manu subcylindrica, digitis manu fere triple brevioribus. 
Hab. in mari Suluensi. Long, 'd'" . 

Anchistia longimana. Rostrum elongatum, acutum, basi angustum, tenue, 
supra 6-dentatum, dente postico oculis posteriore. Antennae internae elongate, 
articulis basalibus 2do Stioque longissimis, apice 2di extremitatem rostri fere 
attingente, 3tio dimidii rostri longitudine. Pedes 2di praelongi, asqui, brachio 
apicem rostri multo superante, carpo elongate obconico, apice interne spinigero, 
manu lenga angusta, digitis dimidio manus multo brevioribus. Long. 6 S"^ 

AxcHisTiA ENSiFRoxs. Rostrum ensiforme, valde recurvatum, squama anten- 
nali non longius, apice bifidum, supra 6 7-dentatum, infra paulo dilatatum et 
3-dentatum. Carapax super orbitam spina armatus, infra orbitam spinis duabus 
in eadem linea horizentali. Antennae internae rostrum parce superantes. Pedes 
antici graciles, apicem carpi 2di non attingentes ; 2di crassiusculi, subcylindrici, 
per carpum manumque rostrum superantes, carpo lenge, apice inermi, obtuso, 
manu praelenga, lineari, digitis dimidio manus paulo brevioribus. Pedes 6-se- 
quentes gracillimi, longi, fere nudi. Hab. in frete "Balabac." Long. 8 ^'"^ 

Anchistia atjrantiaca. Corpus vix depressum. Rostrum angustum, inte- 
grum, basis antennarum internarum longitudine, squama externarum paulo 
brevius. Pedes antici superficie manus interna prope basin dense laxeque 
pubescentes. Pedes 2di graciles, manu parce crassiore quam carpus, fere 
lineari, digitis dimidio manus multo brevioribus, parce pubescentibus, angustis. 
Hab. archipelago " Viti." Long. Q'". 

Pal^monella texuipes. Rostrum rectum, non reflexum, squama antennali 
non longius, supra 6 7-dentatum, dentibus inter se fere aeque remotis, infra 
2-dentatum et non dilatatum, apice acutum. Pedes 2di valde elongati, apice 
brachii apicem rostri vix superante et infra supraque acuto, carpo dimidii manus 
longitudine, 'apice spina armate, digitis dimidio manus brevioribus. Pedes 
6 postici gracillimi fere nudi. Hab. in marl Suluensi. Long. W. 


26 [January, 

PALiEMONELLA oRiENTALis. Rostrum lectum, non recurvatiim, squama anten- 
nali non longius, apice acutum, supra 6-dentatum, dentibus inter se fere seque 
distantibus, infra l-dentatum. Pedes 2di crassiusculi, subcylindrici, apice 
brachii apicem rostri non attingente et non acuto, carpo breviore quam dimi- 
dium manus, apice non acuto, digitis dimidio manus brevioribus. Pedes 6 pos- 
tici fere nudi, graciles. Hab. in mari Suluensi. Long. 8'", (feminae ovigerae.) 

Genus Pal^mon. 

I. Carapax margine antico infra ocidwni spinis duahus armatus. 

Pal^mon debjlis. Rostrum praelongum, gracile, paulo recurvatum, squama 
antennali multo longius, apice bifidum, dimidio apicali supra integro, basali 
4 6-dentato, margine inferiore 6 9-dentato. Antennarum internarum flagella 
duo longe conjuncta. Pedes nudi, inermes ; Imi 2dique inter se subaequales, 
parvuli, gracillimi, manu dimidio carpi paulo longiore, non incrassata. Flagel- 
lum antennarum internarum minus perbreve. Yar. at, Rostrum supra 4-denta- 
tum, infra 6-dentatum ; var. /3, attenuates Rostrum longissimum, supra 6-denta- 
tum et infra 9-dentatum. Hab. insulis Hawaiensibus. Long. 12 15"'. 

to ' 

Pal^emon exilimanus. Rostrum lanceolatum, apice brevi deflexum, supra 
paulo arcuatum et 6-serratum, infra 3-serratum, squamam antennalem non 
superans. Flagella duo antennarum internarum parce conjuncta. Pedes antici 
gracillimi, manu plus duplo breviore quam carpus ; 2di non crassiores, nudi, 
manu duplo longiore, carpo dimidio longiore quam manus, digitis dimidio manus 
paulo brevioribus. Pedes duo postici tenuissimi, prorsum porrecti apicem rostri 
superantes. Hab. archipelago " Viti." Long. 1^". 

Pal^emon concinnus. Rostrum gracillimum, squama antennali vix longius, 
basi antennarum internarum multo longius, ensiforme, fere rectum, apice bifi- 
dum vel trifidum dorsoque non altius, infra remote minuteque 5-serratum, supra 
5 6-serratum, dente Imo vel externo a extremitate rostri remoto, penultimo 
inter oculos. Maxillipedes externi apicem basis anternarum externarum paulo 
superantes, hirsuti. Pedes Imi apicem squamae antennalis fere attingentes. 
Pedes duo postici praelongi, tenuissimi, articulo 4to apicem maxillipedis externi 
fere attingente. Hab. archipelago " Viti." Long. ll'". 

2> Carapax Tnargine antico infra ociilum spina tend, armatus ^ poneqtie hanc 
alterd minor e, 

Pal^mon GRANDiMANUs. 'Randall, Jour Acad. Nat. Sci. viii. 142. 

Pal.emon lanceifrons. Rostrum late elevatum, lanceolatum, supra arcua- 
tum et 12-serratum, apice vix recurvatum, infra 3-serratum, squamam antenna- 
lem longitudine non superans. Pedes antici gracillimi, carpo plus duplo longiore 
quam manus. Pedes 2di longissimi (corpore longiores), fere cylindrici, manu 
graciliore et non breviore quam carpus, scabricula, digitis brevibus, superiore 
hirsute. Pedes postici si prorsum porrecti apicem rostri superantes. Hah. 
insula " Luzon," archipelagi Phillipensis, prope portum " Manila." Long. 2". 

Pal^mon acutirostris, Rostrum lanceolatum, apice non recurvatum, 
squamS. antennali non longius, supra 14 1 6-dentatum, dentibus confertis, et 
usque ad apicem continuatis, infra 4 5-dentatum. Maxillipedes externi medio- 
cres. Pedes antici gracillimi, manu dimidii carpi longitudine. Pedes 2di longi, 
tenues, omnino bene scabri, manu paree crassiore et duplo longiore quam car- 
pus, digitis dimidio manus brevioribus, apice carpi rostrum paulo superante. 
Pedes sequentes inermes. Hab. insulis Haw^aiensibus. Long. 22 3". 

Pal^mon equidens. Rostrum recte ensiforme, verticaliter sat latum, apice 
parce reflexum, squama antennali non brevius, supra rectiusculum et 10 11- 
dentatum, dentibus inter se fere aeque remotis, et supra tertiam partem dorsi 
carapacis continuatis, duobus terminalibus minoribus et fere apicalibus ; infra 
arcuatum et 6-dentatum. Pedes Imi rostrum multo superantes. Pedes 2di 
longi, subcylindrici, subtilissimj^ spinulosi, brachii apice apicem rostri attin- 
gente, Hab. in mari prope portum "Singapore." Lo7ig. A\". 

CBYrHiojPS spiNULOso-MANrs. Rostrum tiiangulatum, squama antennali bre- 

1852.] 27 

vius, basin antennarum internarum superans. supra aeque 7-dentatum, infra prope 
apicem unidentatum. Pedes 2di Imos vix superantes, minute spinulosi, manu 
plus duplo longiore quam carpus, digitis dimidio manus longioribus, apice minute 
cochleari-excavatis. Pedes antici nudiusculi, manu infra hirsuta. Pedes 6 
postici quoque nudiusculi, articulo 5to infra parce armato, tarsis unguiculatis. 
Hub. in fluminibus Chilensibus mari remotis. Long. 3i''. 

Subfam. Oplophorin^. 

Regulus lucidus. Rostrum praelongum recurvatum, longe acuminatum, 
versus basin horizontaliter sensim latius deinde lateribus subparallelum, supra 
8 9-dentatum infra 3-dentatum. Squama antennalis perangusta, rostro paulo 
brevior, dentibus tribus externis parvulis. Pedes 2di crassi, manu oblonga, 
digitis dimidio manus brevior, parce hiantibus. Pedes 6 postici sparsimlaxeque 
pubescentes. Hab. in mari Pacifico, prope insulas " Ladrone." Long. ^"\ 

Regllls crimtus. Rostrum longiusculum, non recurvatum, supra 9 10- 
dentatum, infra prope apicem 2-dentatum, versus basin super oculos subito 
valde latior deinde posterius parce angustans. Squama antennalis rostro non 
brevior, paulo lata, dentibus tribus externis prominentibus. Pedes 2di crasse 
chelati, manu oblonga, digitis brevibus, hiantibus. Pedes 6 postici laxe criniti, 
articulo 3tio parium 3tii 4tique infra 3 4-serrato. Hab. in mari Suluensi. 
Long, 1Q"\ 

Fam. PeNuEid^. 

Penjeus carinatus. Rostrum squama antennali parce longius, paulo sinuo- 
sum, extremitate styliforme, parce recurvatum, apice vix altius quam dorsum, 
supra? 8-dentatum, infra 3-dentatum. Flagella antennarum internarum articulis 
duobus precedentibus non longiora. Pedes 5ti 4tis non graciliores. Hab. in marl 
prope portum *' Singapore. Long. 7". V.setifero affinis, sed rostrum infra 3- 

Penjeus avirostbts. Rostrum rectum, extremitate anguste styliforme, et eden- 
tatum, non recurvatum, basi supra prominenter dilatatum et 6-dentatum, infra 
rectissimum, integrum, longitudine squamam antennalem non superans. Cara- 
pax dorso postico non carinatus nee sulcatus. Flagella antennarum internarum 
articulis duobus precedentibus non longiora. Oculi breves. Pedes 5ti 4tis multo 
graciliores. Hab. in mari prope urbem " Singapore." Long. 5". 

PiNiEus vELUTiNus. Carapax abdomenque omnino breviter velutini. Rostrum 
rectum, bene lanceolatum, e basi ascendens, usque ad apicem supra denticulatum, 
dentibus septem aeque dispositis, altero paulo posteriore, infra integrum, ciliatum, 
rectum. Dorsum carapacis posticum non carinatum nee sulcatum. Pedes 2di 
3tiique subaequi. Maxillipedes extern! longi, pubescentes. Segmentum caudale 
utrinque minute armatum. Flagella antennarum internarum brevissima, articu- 
lum ultimum parce superantia. Hab. insula " Maui Hawaiensi. '^Long. H". 

Pen^tjs tenuis. Rostrum supra multidentatum (dentibus novem vel pluribus,) 
parce sinuosum. Carapax dorso postice non carinatus nee sulcatus. Oculi sat 
longi. Flagella antennarum internarum subaequa, carapace vix breviora. Hab, 
in mari Atlantico prope portum ' Rio Negro" Patagoniae. Long. W. 

Pen^xts gracilis. Gracillimus. Rostrum rectum, sat breve, oculis vix 
longius, supra 5-dentatus. Antennarum internarum basis tenuis, longissimus, 
carapacem longitudine aequans. Manus pedum sex enticorum carpo vix longior, 
apice parce pubescens ; digiti dimidii manus longitudine. Segmentum caudale 
margine tri-spinulosum ; lamella externa non articulata. Hab. in mari Suluensi. 
Long. 89"'. 

Stknopus ensifeeus. Carapax plerumque laevis, 2 3 sulcis obliquis interse- 
catus, uno validiore e dorsi medio fere ad angulum antero-lateralem producto 
et margine spinuloso, superficie carapacis antero-laterali spinulis armala; rostro 
ensiformi, paulo longiore quam basis antennarum internarum, fere recto, apicem 

28 [January, 

vix recurvato, supra lO-dentato, infra 3-dentato. Abdomen inerme. Hab. archi- 
pelago "Viti." Long. 6'", 

Family EucopiDiE. 

EucopiA AUSTRALis. Carapax fronte truncato-rotundatus, margine postico 
profunda excavatus. Segmentum abdonninis penultinaum ultimo longius, ultimum 
subulatum, lamellis caudalibus vix longius. Antennae internae externis paulo 
breviores, dimidii corporis longitudine, flagello uno brevi ; externarum squama 
basalis basi internarum multo longior. Maxillipedes 2di et 3tii et pedes Imi 
forma consimiles, sensim increscentes, articulo penultimo anguste oblongo, digito 
plus dimidio breviore quam articulus precedens. Pedes reliqui gracillimi, criniti, 
palpo longo, natatorio. Hab. in mari antarctico, lat. aust. 66 12' long. occ. 149*^ 
24'; e stomacho Penguini lecta. Long, \" , 

The Third Kesolution of the Committee appointed to inquire into the 
expediency of enlarging the Hall of the Academy, the consideration of 
which had been deferred until the present meeting, was then taken up, 
and adopted as follows : 

Resolved, That all subscribers of One Hundred dollars and upwards, 
who are not members of the Academy, shall have, during their lives, the 
right to visit the Collections of the Academy, and to give orders of admis- 
sion to the Museum on public days. 

The Report of the Publication Committee for 1851, was read and 

The Corresponding Secretary read his Report for the last two months, 
which was adopted. 

The Recording Secretary read the Annual Report for 1851, which 
was ordered to be published. 



For 1851. 

During the past year twelve Members and eight Correspondents have been 

Five members have died, to wit : Dr. Samuel George Morton, late President 
of the Academy; Mr. William Hembel, formerly President of the Academy ; 
Dr. John K. Townsend, Dr. Mark M. Reqve, and Mr. Richard C. Taylor. 

The present number of Members of the i^ociety is 187. The w^hole num- 
ber of Correspondents elected up to the present time is 551. 

Besides minor and verbal communications, the following written communica- 
tions have been presented for publication in the Proceedings and Journal of the 

By Louis Berlandier, M. D. Descriptions of two new species of Mexican 

By Mr. John Cassin, seven; to wit: 1- Sketch of the Birds composing the 
genera Vireo, VielL, and Vireosylvia, Bonap., with a list of those previously 
known, and descriptions of three new species. 2. Descriptions of new species 
of Birds of the genera Galbula and Bucco, Briss., specimens of which are in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 3. Notes of an 
examination of the Birds composing the family Caprimulgidae, in the collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 4. Descriptions of new 
species of Birds of the family Laniadaj, specimens of which are in the collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 5. Note on the Cicada 

1852.] 29 

Cassinii, Fisher, and on the C. Septendecim, Linn. 6. Catalogue of the Capri- 
mulgidae in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
7. Descriptions of Birds of the genera Laniarius, Dicrurus, Graucalus, Pipra and 
Picus, specimens of which are in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

By Mr. James D. Dana. Conspectus Crustaceorum quas in Orbis Terrarum 
Circumnavigatione, Carolo Wilkes e Classe Reipublicae Fcederatae duce, lexit et 
descripsit J. D. Dana. 2 papers. 

By Dr. James C. Fisher. On a new species of Cicada. 

By Mr. Charles Girard. Historical Sketch of the Gordiaceae. 

By Mr. Isaac Lea, two ; to wit : On the genus Acostaea of D'Orbigny, (pub- 
lished in the Journal.) Memoir of the late Richard C. Taylor. 

By Dr. J. L. Le conte, five ; to wit: An attempt to Classify the Longicorn 
Coleoptera of the part of America North of Mexico, 2 papers, published in the 
Journal. 3. Synopsis of the species of Donacia. 4. Synopsis of the Lampyridae 
of Temperate North America. 5. Zoological Notes. 

By Dr. Joseph Leidy, eight ; to wit : 1. Descriptions of new species of Entozoa. 
Contributions to Helminthology, 4 papers. 6. Corrections and additions to 
former papers on Helminthology published in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7. On some American fresh-water 
Polyzoa. 8. Description of a new species of fossil Crocodile, (published in the 

By Col. George A. McCall, U. S. A. Some account of Birds found in West- 
ern Texas and New Mexico, with descriptions of new species. 

By Dr. David Dale Owen. Description of a new Mineral and New Earth. 
(Published in the Journal.) 

By Dr. David Dale Owen and Dr. Benjamin F. Shumard. Descriptions of 
seventeen new species of Crinoidea, from the sub-carboniferous limestone of Iowa 
and Illinois. (Published in the Journal.) 

By Mr. Richard C. Taylor. Substance of Notes made during a Geological 
Reconnoisance in the Auriferous Porphyry region next the Carribean Sea, in the 
Province of Veraguas and Isthmus of Panama. (Published in the Journal.) 

By Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. Description of the North American Jackal, Canis 

In all thirty-two papers. 

Besides the above, Dr. Charles D. Meigs read, by appointment, before the 
Academy, at the Hall of the University of Pennsylvania, on November 6th, a 
most able, eloquent and truthful memoir of its late President, Dr. Samuel George 
Morton, which was subsequently published by direction of the Society. 

During the past year the prosperity and activity of the Academy have been 
sustained in the most gratifying manner. Its meetings have been fully attended ; 
the number of valuable communications large, and the zeal of its members in the 
pursuit of its objects unabated. Its appreciation by the public is made con- 
stantly more manifest, in the numero^as visitors to its collections, and in the 
interest shown by the community in its results. 

We have had, however, to regret, during this period, the loss by death of 
several of our most active and distinguished members. After what has been 
written by so much abler pens, however, it would be presumptuous to attempt 
to add, in this place, anything in testimony of their merits and attainments, or in 
expression of the esteem in which they were held among us. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 

B. Howard Rand, 

Recording Secretary. 

Philadelphia f Jaiuiary21thj 1852. 

Dr. Bridges from the Publication Committee, announced the publica- 
tion of Part 2, vol. 2, new series of the Journal. 

The following Resolution offered by Dr. Fisher, was adopted. 

30 [February, 

Resolved, That the income of the Stott legacy be applied to the pay- 
ment of the expense of publication of papers ordered by the Academy 
for the Journal. 

The Auditors reported that they had examined the Report of the 
Treasurer for 1851, and had found it correct. 

The Academy then proceeded to an election for Standing Committees 
for 1852. The Tellers announced the following result : 

Ethnology, John S. Phillips, James C. Fisher, Robert Pearsall; 
Coinjyarative Anatomy and General Zoology, Joseph Leidy, Edward 
Hallowell, John Neill ; Mammalogy^ James C. Fisher, E. J. Lewis, 
S. W. Woodhouse ; Ornithology, John Cassin, Edward Harris, T. B. 
Wilson; Herpetology and Ichthyology, E. Hallowell, John Cassin, 
William Keller; Conchology, Isaac Lea, T. B. Wilson, W. S. W. 
Ruschenberger ; Entomology and Crustacea, S. S. Haldeman, Robert 
Bridges, Wm. S. Zantzinger; Botany, R. Bridges, Wm. S. Zantzinger, 
Gravin Watson; T alceontology , T. A. Conrad, Joseph Leidy, B. Howard 
Rand; Geology, J. Price Wetherill, Theodore F. Moss, Aubrey H. 
Smith; Mineralogy, Wm. S. Yaux, Samuel Ashmead, Charles M. 
Wetherill; P%sics, Benj. H. Coates, James C. Fisher, Wm. Parker 
Foulke; Library, Thomas B. Wilson, Robert Bridges, Robert E. Pe- 
terson; Proceedings, Wm. S. Zantzinger, Joseph Leidy, W. S. AV. 


Samuel Webber, M. D., of Charlestown, N. Hampshire, was elected a 
Correspondent, and Caspar W. Sharpless, of Philadelphia, was elected a 
Member of the Academy. 

February Zd. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The following communication was read from Henry A. Ford, M. D., 
dated Glasstown, G-aboon River, West Africa, Nov. 10th, 1851, on the 
characteristics of the Troglodytes Grorilla, accompanying the very fine 
skeleton of that animal presented by him to the Academy, and announced 
this evening. 

"The skeleton that I have the honor of presenting to your Society, is that of the 
newly discovered species of Orang, which was first described by Drs. Savage 
and Wyman, (in the Boston Journal of Natural History, 1847) and by them called 
Troglodytes Gorilla, and by the natives on this coast, "Ngena." 

The earliest distinct notice of this species of Orang was made, I believe, by 
Bowditch in 1817, on his return from his Ashantee Mission in a vessel that 
visited this river on its passage to England from Cape Coast Castle. His de- 
scription, though in many respects incorrect, doubtless refers to this species, as 
the name and locality sufficiently identify the animal he describes with the 
specimen I have obtained.* 

I would also remark here, that all subsequent information, as well as all the 
specimens in the hands of Europeans, have been obtained in this river. 

This animal inhabits the range of mountains that traverse the interior of 

* See Mission to Ashunlee byT. Edward BowdilchEsq., 4to, London, 1819. Chapter on 
Gaboon River. 

1852.] 31 

Guinea, from the Cameroons on the north to Angola on the south, and about 100 
miles inland, and called by Geographers Crystal Mountains. The limit to which 
this animal extends either north or south, I am unable to define. But that limit 
is doubtless some distance north of this river. I was able to certify myself of this 
fact in a late excursion to the head waters of the Mooney (Darger) river, which 
comes into the sea some 60 miles from this place. I was inlormed (credibly I 
think) that they were numerous among the mountains in which that river rises, 
and far north of that. In the south this species extends to the Congo river, as I 
am told by native traders who have visited the coast between the Gaboon and 
that river. Beyond that I am not informed. This animal is only found at a 
distance from the coast in most cases, and according to my best information, 
approaches it nowhere so nearly as on the south side of this river, where they 
have been found within ten miles of the sea. This, however, is only of late 
occurrence- I am informed by some of the oldest Nysorgine men that formerly 
he was only found on the sources of the river, but that at present he may be 
found within half a day's walk of its mouth. 

Formerly, he inhabited the mountainous ridge where Bushmen alone inhabited, 
but now he boldly approaches the Nysorgine plantations. This is doubtless the 
reason of the scarcity of information in years past, as the opportunities for re- 
ceiving a knowledge of this animal have not been wanting : traders having for 
100 years frequented this river, and specimens, such as have been brought here 
within a year, could not have been exhibited without having attracted the at- 
tention of the most stupid. 

I shall not attempt in this sketch to give the osteology of the Ngena as the 
skeleton itself will demonstrate that. I will, however, make some remarks upon 
his appearance and habits, color and hair. 

At adult age the Ngena is of a dark or iron gray color the hair being black 
at its extremities, but white next the skin, which produces the grizzly appearance 
1 have described. In a young one that I have seen, it was black down to the skin 
like that of the Troglodytes Niger. I am informed by one of the head men of this- 
tribe, that they sometimes are found white. He had seen one of this description 
to the N. E. of this at the foot of the mountains. This may have been the effect 
of old age, as the animal is reported to have been full sized. It is a general 
opinion that it becomes lighter by age. 

The hair diflers from that of the Troglodytes Niger, in its greater thickness 
and length. On the neck, back and limbs, it is not less than six inches. It also 
presents a more shaggy appearance from its slight curl at the extremities. The 
length of hair, together with the thickness of skin and the great developement of 
muscle hereafter to be described, give the Ngena a hugeness that can hardly be 
conceived from a simple examination of the skeleton. 

Bowditch's assertion that he was apparently four feet in diameter through the 
shoulders is as correct as most other statements in his book. The specimen 
sent was three and a half feet from the extremity of the hair on one shoulder 
to that on the other, and yet this is by no means the largest specimen that has been 

Sii?i. The skin is very thick on the exposed parts of the body. On the arms, 
shoulders, back and limbs, the thickness is one fourth of an inch ; on the head over 
the crest three fourths of an inch thick ; the great thickness prevented my pre- 
serving it. 

Head The most prominent feature in the fresh subject, as well as in the 
skeleton, is the crest or ridge in the course of the parieto-parietal suture^ increasing 
in height from before backwards to a point directly over the intersection of this 
suture with the occipito-parietal which is the highest point. This crest is not 
chiefly formed by the bony ridge on the skull, but by the thickness of the scalp 
before mentioned, and by the length and stiffness of the hair, which is always 

This crest the animal when enraged is said to draw forward, giving him an 

appearance more fierce than ordinary, which is frightful enough. This crest gives 

the face and head a more anthropoid appearance than the dried skull presents. 

This projection gives it the appearance of a forehead. The face, unlike that of the 

32 [February, 

Chimpanzee, is covered with short hair, except about the mouth and nose. The 
eyes are moderately large, not prominent, of a dark chestnut color.' The nose 
is broad, projecting a very little above the surface of the face. The alae are of 
thin and loose skin, capable of considerable distension. The mouth is very wide 
the upper lip thick and hairless. The lower lip is a huge muscular flop, very 
distensible, which the animal drops over his chin when he is enraged, making his 
appearance exceedingly terrific. 

The ears are disproportionally small ; they are hairless and stand out from the 
head. The muscles of the head are large, filling up a large part of the depressions 
between the ridges of the scull. The auricular group not large, but the tempo- 
ral, pterygoid and masseter muscles are of great strength, as might be supposed 
from the size of the inferior maxillary bone. The neck is of moderate length, 
but of great size, chiefly owing to the great length of the spinous processes of the 
several vertebrae, but increased by the thickness of skin and length of hair. The 
circumference of neck of this specimen was one foot and ten inches. 

The chest is narrow anteriorly and superiorly, but the contents of the entire 
cavity large, the lower end of the sternum projecting, and the sternal cartilages, ex- 
cept the first three, long. The circumference of the chest, after the evacuation of the 
thorax and abdominal viscera, was four feet four inches. These viscera were 
evacuated by the natives before I received the body. All the muscles of the 
chest are largely developed, as are also all the muscles of the trunk. 

The arms, it will be seen from the skeleton, are longer in proportion to the trunk, 
than are those of the small Chimpanzee, and are covered with a great weight of 

At the insertion of the deltoid the circumference in this specimen was one 
foot and four inches. The fore arm also is well supplied and covered with hair. 
The circumference of the wrist was one foot. 

The palm of the hand was large, while the fingers and thumb appeared small 
in proportion to the strength of the arm and fore arm. The palm and surface of 
the hand and fiUi^ers is covered with a thick black skin very little adherent to th6 
true skin beneath, and in appearance resembling a leathern glove. It was re- 
moved entire, after maceration. The dorsal surface is covered with hair. The 
abdomen is large, and covered with lighter colored hair than the back. 

The genital organs, in both male and female, are small, but in other respects 
similar to the smaller species. 

This animal is tailless and has no calosities. The lower limbs are very short 
and slightly curved, but the most remarkable peculiarity is the size of the muscles 
which cover the femur, i. e. those having their origin on the anterior and inferior 
surface of the pelvis, and their insertion on the femur, together with the extensors 
and flexors of the legs. Their weight in this case was 18 lbs. The muscles of 
the leg and foot are not as fully developed as those of the thigh. In the shape of 
the foot he resembles other Orangs. The weight of this specimen was 170 lbs. 
without the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic viscera. 

Food. He feeds on the various roots and fruits found in the forest. He is, 
however, to some extent carnivorous, according to my most reliable information. 

When man is his prey, he devours him as he does animals that he can catch, 
though his sluggishness prevents his taking many animals as prey. 

The Ngena generally walks on all fours, with his feet placed flat on the ground, 
like a man, the thighs being flexed upon the leg, at an acute angle. 

The open hands are placed on the around posteriorly and externally to the 
feet, the arms being nearly parallel to the axis of the body, and thus supporting 
the body posteriorly to the feet, and not anteriorly, as some have supposed. They 
act the part of hind rather than fore feet. 

The gait is an oscillating motion, caused by carrying forward the extremities 
of one side at a time, while the body is balanced to the opposite side; then alter- 
nately moving the other limbs with a return motion of the body. This is the 
movement 1 have seen in the young animal. Besides this gait, 1 am led to be- 
lieve that in the forest he has a semi-erect posture, supporting h'mself by bushes 
and trees as they come in his way. 

He sometimes walks erect, and always rises on his feet when making an 
attack, though he approaches his antagonist in the stooping posture. 

1852.] 33 

The Ngena is represented as the most terrible monster of his native forests. 
His appearance is hideous even when dead. Among the natives he is the subject 
of many allegories, in which he acts some distinguished part, perhaps that of a 
king or a conqueror perhaps a defender or a destroyer. In the forests he seems 
to be the implacable enemy of man. 

Though he never lies in wait, yet when he hears, sees or scents a man, he im- 
mediately utters his characteristic cry, prepares for an attack, and always acts on 
the offensive. The cry that he utters resembles a grunt more than a growl, and 
is similar to the cry of the Chimpanzee when irritated, but vastly louder. It is 
said to be audible at a great distance. His preparation consists in attending the 
females and young ones, by which he is usually accompanied, to a little distance. 
He, however, soon returns with his crest erect and projecting forward, his nos- 
trils dilated and his under lip thrown down, at the same time uttering his 
characteristic yell, designing, it would seem, to terrify his antagonist; instantly, 
unless he is disabled by a well directed shot, he makes an onset, and striking his 
antagonist with the palm of his hands, or seizing him with a grasp from which 
there is no escape, he dashes him upon the ground and lacerates him with 
his tusks. 

He is said to seize a musket and instantly crush the barrel between his teeth. 

Some hunters are said to have permitted him to take hold of the musket and 
carry it to his mouth, firing as it passes between his teeth. This will, however, 
appear to lack probability, though it is stoutly maintained by the natives. 

He is said to be always at war with the leopard, which he destroys if he suc- 
ceeds in seizing him. The leopard, however, by his superior agility, often wears 
him out. He is said to spring upon the back of the Ngena and lacerate his neck 
with his teeth, escaping before he can be seized. This animal's savage nature 
is very well shown by the implacable disposition of a young one that was brought 
here. It was taken very young and kept four months, and many means were 
used to tame it, but it was incorrigible, so that it bit me an hour before it died. 

The various stories of his building houses in imitation of the natives his 
covering himself with bushes, which he hurls upon his antagonist in his attacks ; 
vanquishing the elephant with clubs, or even using clubs at any time, and nu- 
merous other accounts given to credulous whites, are considered ridiculous by 
the best informed natives. Yet every Mpongue man has a fund of such stories 
which he vends to children and every one else who will listen to them with 

From my most careful inquiries I can find no one who believes that these 
creatures are of the same original stock as black men, as some have reported. 
By most it is considered an insult to suppose it. 

Hi flesh is considered delicate eating by the tribes where he is taken, though 
the JJpongues consider it quite ' vulgar fare.' The slaves here, however, carried 
away the flesh as soon as it was taken from the bones of my specimen." 


Dr. Ruschenberger read a portion of his " Notice of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia/' the remainder of which was deferred 
to the next meeting. 

February V^ih, 
Vice-President Wetherill in the Chair. 

Dr. Ruschenberger concluded the reading of his "Notice of the 

Whereupon the following Resolutions, offered by William S. Vaux, 
Esq., were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Members of the Academy have listened with the 
deepest interest and satisfaction to the " Notice " just read. 


34 [February, 

Resolved J That the thanks of the Academy be presented to Dr. 
Ruschenberger for the labor he has bestowed in the preparation of the 
able and faithful Notice read by him before the Society, and that he be 
requested to furnish a copy of the same to the Committee on Proceed- 
ings for publication. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three members be appointed to com- 
municate the foregoing Resolutions to Dr. Ruschenberger. 

Committee, Mr. Vaux, Dr. Bridges and Mr. Pearsall. 

The Rev. Mr. Langstroth read a paper entitled, "On the impreg- 
nation of the eggs of the Queen Bee ;" which being intended for publi- 
cation in the Proceedings, was referred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. Le Conte and 
Dr. Fisher. 

Dr. Le Conte presented for publication in the Proceedings, the fol- 
lowing papers : " Hints towards a Natural Classification of the family 
Histrini of Coleopterous Insects ;" " Synopsis of the Parnidae of the 
United States -j" " Synopsis of the Eucnemidee of Temperate North 
America ;" all of which were referred to the following Committee : Dr. 
Bridges, Dr. Leidy and Dr. Elwyn. 

A letter was read from the Librarian of the British Museum, dated 
Jan. 19th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of No. 10, Vol. 6, of the 

Also a letter from the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, 
dated April 20th, 1851, acknowledging the receipt of No. 12, Vol. 4, 
and No. 1, Vol. 5, of the Proceedings. 

And a second letter from the same, of same date, accompanying copies 
of the Transactions and Bulletin of that Institution for 1849 and '50. 

Dr. Leidy presented, for the inspection of the members, an interesting speci- 
men of a fossil turtle, from the collection of Dr. D. D. Owen, made in Nebraska 
territory, and sent to him, for examination, by the Smithsonian Institute. It 
proves the existence of a species distinct from any of those before described from 
the same region, for which the name Emys Ctdbertsonii is proposed. Its mea- 
surements are as follows : 

Length of the five vertebral scutes, . . .17 inches. 

Transverse breadth of carapace in curve, 
Height, ..... 
Length of middle vertical scute, 
Breadth < < 

Mr. Phillips announced that the collection of Minerals of the late 
Mr. Gilmore, of Baltimore, was for sale. 








February Vltli. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read from the Secretary of the Trustees of the New 
York State Library, acknowledging the receipt of No. 12, Vol. 6, of the 
Proceedings, and of a copy of Dr. Meigs' Memoir of Dr. Morton. 

From the Geological Society of London, dated June 24th and Nov. 
6th, 1851, returning thanks for copies of late Nos. of the Proceedings. 

Mr. Vaux, on behalf of the Committee on the subject, read a commu- 

1852.] 35 

nication from Dr. Kuschenberger, dated Philadelphia, Feb. 13, 1852, 
in reply to the letter from the committee, enclosing a copy of the Reso- 
lutions adopted at the last meeting in relation to his " Notice of the 
Academy. '' 

Dr. Leidy directed the attention of the members to several fossils lying on the 
table, which belong to the cabinet of the Academy. 

One of them is a lumbar vertebra, without the epiphyses, and with the trans- 
verse processes and neural arch broken off, obtained from the Miocene of Vir- 
ginia, and presented by Mr. T. Conrad. It belongs to a species of Delphinus, 
most probably extinct, for which the name D. Conradi is proposed, in honor 
of one who has done so much in American Palaeontology. The epiphysial extre- 
mities of the vertebral body are pentahedral. 

Length of vertebral body, . . . . 2i inches. 

Breadth of epiphysial extremities, . . .11" 

Breadth of base of transverse processes, . . H " 

The other specimens consist of an entire dermal scale and the half of a second, 
from the Green Sand formation of Mount Holly, New Jersey. These belong to 
some Crocodilian reptile of large size. They are deeply sculptured, but possess 
no carina, as in the existing Crocodiles. Possibly they may belong to the Sau- 
rian, characterized from some vertebrae under the name of Cimoliasaurus magnus* 
Leidy, but at present I prefer referring them to a new genus and species under 
the name of Thoracosaurus\ grandis. 

Long diameter of the entire scale, . . . 3i inches. 

Short . . . . . . 3 *' 

Greatest thickness, ..... 7 lines. 

Mr. Langstroth made a few observations on the specimens of royal 
cells of the Bee, presented by him this evening. 

Dr. Le Conte offered the following observations : 

On the Difference between Primordial Braces and Introduced Races. 

A want of power to discriminate between permanent varieties developed in 
species and primordial forms, has been a prolific source of confusion in all dis- 
cussions regarding the plural origin of species. I propose to examine here into 
some differences which, so far as lam able to learn, will form a certain basis for 
this distinction, so much to be desired ; and which, should they be found, on far- 
ther examination, to have the universal character which I am inclined to give 
them, may have the effect of saving the world much of the muddy philosophy, 
which seems to be the favorite style of ethnological writers. 

The principle which I am about to lay down, is founded on the unchangeability 
of certain characters, throughout an entire genus; these characters are connected 
with the structure of the external parts, and may seem at first to be of but slight 
importance, yet generally, on close examination, they will be found more or less 
intimately connected with the functions which the animal is destined to perform 
in the system of nature. 

Now, it is a singular fact, that all the varieties of domestic animals and plants, 
which can be clearly shown to have originated in unmixed breeds, differ from their 
parent stocks by characters which, except in the case of these, so to speak, artifi- 
cial varieties, are unchangeable in the genus. Thus, these artificial varieties 
would seem to differ from their parent stocks, not by characters which are of 
specific value, but by those which are of incomparably greater importance, and 
which, if not accompanied by identical organization in all other organs, would 
widely separate the beings which possess them from their parents. In many 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. vol. v, p. 325. f 5*^ a coal of mail. 

36 [February, 

instances the characters possessed by the artificial varieties, are absolutely 
impossible in the plan on which the genus, or even the order, is created. 

Instances of such permanent varieties may be readily recalled by every one ; 
some of the most familiar are : the hornless variety of domestic cattle; the" tail- 
less variety of domestic cat, found in the Isle of Man ; the long-haired cat, known 
as the Angora, or Persian cat; the various forms of fowls with additional toes, 
and without tails ; the varieties of pigeons and fowls with uncouth and distorted 
arrangement of plumage. 

The origin of some of these is lost in the depths of the past, while others are 
continually being introduced. 

In all the examples cited above, it will be found that the monstrosity depends 
on the loss of a character belonging to every species of the genus or tribe to 
which the parent stock belongs, or on the assumption of a character not found in 
any species or genus of that group. 

In the case of the hornless cattle, the part wanting, if not entirely coextensive 
with the order of ruminants, is at least essential to the genus Bos. 

In the anomalously feathered varieties of fowls and pigeons, the animal assumes 
structures either unknown in the groups to which it belongs, or else (as in the 
case of the * ruffler') entirely impossible in any species of bird whatever. 

The novelty in this principle is, that in the disputed cases of plural origin, the 
slightness of the unchangeable differences, found in different races, becomes a 
very strong, and, indeed, an invincible argument against the supposition that they 
have been derived from each other by the operation of external or internal causes. 

The advocates of the single origin of man or of dogs, are therefore in the 
unpleasant predicament of having proved too much, since the difference between 
the latter, on comparison with undeniable distinct wild species of wolf and fox, 
are in those characters which alone can manifest specific distinction. 

In the case of man the differences are in such particulars as alone could be 
changed without degrading him from his place at the head of the organic world. 

It is almost needless for me to add that this principle extends to the vegetable 
kingdom, as every one will at once see in greenhouse and domestic plants, that 
the cultivated varieties are distinguished from each other by important structural 
differences, not recognized in the genera to which they belong. 

In all species or races there are individual differences of less importance than 
specific characters, which by care may be isolated, and form what are apparently 
races. Thus snub noses almost invariably reproduce snubs ; aquiline noses, in 
the same way, continue in families for numbers of generations. Yet, not to speak 
of the unimportance of such marks, these cases may be distinguished by the fre- 
quency with which exceptions occur. The numerous varieties of cultivated 
fruits come under this head. 

Fehriiary 24:fh. 

Vico President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee to which was referred the following papers by Dr. Le 
Coute, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Hints tovjards a Natural Classification of the Family Histrini of ColeojHcrous 


' By John L. Le Conte, M.D. 

It is rarely that any subject treated by the illustrious Erichson is found capable 
of improvement. It is therefore with rehictance and hesitation that after a mi- 
nute study of the North American species oi Hister, I find myself under the 

1852.] '^'^ 37 

necessity of proposing important modifications of the arrangement adopted by 

The great increase in the number of our species, since the publication of the 
monograph of Histers by my father,t has made me acquainted with many varia- 
tions of structure, too unimportant to serve as foundations for separate genera, 
yet absolutely incapable of entering any of the genera established by Erichson. 
Some of these anomalous species have been described by me in the Annals of the 
Lyceum of Natural History, vol. 5. 

By a careful comparison of such forms with the species to which, by obvious 
characters, they are most nearly allied, I have been led to believe that the genera 
in this group have been unnecessarily increased, by the use of principles of 
division which are by no means of generic value, and which scarcely serve to 
define small groups of species. 

I allude more especially to the structure of the tibiae, which holds so important 
a place in the system of Erichson. The difficulty of deciding upon such an indis- 
tinct character as the form of the tarsal groove of the anterior tibiae, and the 
decidedly variant structure of the posterior tibiae in several of the genera, has 
led me to reject entirely the characters drawn from those parts of the body. The 
special variations referred to will be exposed more fully under the genera Hister 
and Saprinus below. 

Following Erichson, I have divided the genera into three groups according to 
the position of the head and the form of the prosternum. The genera may after- 
wards be separated according to the following table : 

\. Caput porrectum : prosternum antice non lobatum. 

Mandibulce dentatae Hololkpta Payk. 

Mandibulae dentatae, prosternum latum planum . . iPhyllomaEf. 
Mandibulae dentatae, prosternum elevatum, subacu- 

minatum i Oxysternus Er. 

B. Caput retractum ; prosternum antice valde lobatum. 

a. Scrobiculi antennales antici. 

1. Tarsi antici unguiculo unico i Cypturus Er. 

2. Tarsi omnes biunguiculati. 

Mandibulae porrectae, antennae sub frontis margine insertae, 

capitulo 3-articulato . . . . ^ Hister Linn. 
Mandibulae porrectae, antennae sub frontis margine insertae, 

capitulo solido, truncato ..... sHet^erius Er. 

Mandibulae retractae, antennae in frontis margine insertae, 

capitulo 3-articulato, rotundato, .... Epierus Er. 
Mandibulae retractae, antennae in frontis margine insertae, 

capitulo 3-articulato, truncato .... Tribalus Er. 

b. Scrobiculi antennales niedii, laterales. 

Antennae articulo Svo latiore ..... Dendrophiltts Leach. 

Antennae articulo Svo non latiore . . . Paromalus Er. 

C. Caput retractum, prosternum antice non lobatum. 

a. Antennae sub frontis margine insertae. 
Mandibulae exsertae ; scrobiculi antennales antici . C^rosternus n. g. 

Mandibulae exsertae; scrobiculi antennales ad prosterni 

latera sit| ........ 4 Saprinus Leach. 

Mandibulae clypeo obtectae ... . . . . ^Trypon^us Er. 

* Klug's Jahrbiicher fiir Insectenkunde. 

f Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. V. p. 32. 

1 No North American species. 

2 Including Omalodes Er.; Platysoma Leach, Er: (?) Plaesius Er. and (?) Placodes Er, 
I have not examined the last two genera, but the description furnishes no good charac- 
ters for separating them. 

3 Hister brunnipennis Rand., and a new species. 4 Includnig Pachylopus Er. 

^^ [February, 

b. Antennae in frontenn insertae. 
Scrobiculi antennales medii, laterales, prosterno subpro- 

ducto ......... Teretrius Er. 

Scrobiculi antennales ad prosterni latera siti . . . Plegaderus Er. 

Scrobiculi antennales antici Onthophilus Leach. 

Scrobiculi antennales medii, laterales, prosterno truncate Abr;eus Leach. 

HisTER Linne. 

I have included in this genus Omalodes and Platysoma; as they are founded 
on slight differences in the form of the tibiae. Plaesius and Placodes will also 
probably enter here ; at least I cannot find anything to separate them, except 
differences in the spines of the posterior tibiae. 

The posterior tibiae of this genus, are generally broad, and externally armed 
with two series of spines : sometimes a range of bristles on the posterior face of 
the tibiae is enlarged so as to simulate a third row of spines ; sometimes (Hister 
arcuatus Say) the whole outer surface of the tibiae is rough with confused spines ; 
in H. costatus (n. sp.) the posterior tibiae are narrow, and the spines are very 
fme : these tibiae are usually not toothed on the outer margin, yet in H. sexstri- 
atus Lee. they are distinctly four-toothed : they are also toothed in the species 
referred to Omalodes and Platysoma, the number of teeth in the latter being 
variable, and the teeth themselves frequently indistinct: they are entirely smooth 
in some small species allied to H. subrotundus, and belonging to Erichson's 3d 
division ; the posterior feet are smooth, and the intermediate ones armed with a 
single tooth near the apex in H. corticalis Lee. ; finally, the posterior tibiae are 
broad, very much compressed and finely serrate in Omalodes Harrisii Lee. 

The anterior tibiae are broad, compressed and more or less distinctly toothed 
on the outer margin, usually with a single row of very short articulated spines; 
on the anterior face is a groove for the reception of the tarsus ; the inner margin 
of this groove is sharply defined; the outer margin indistinct, in most species ; 
more distinct in the species referred to Omalodes ; some of the species of Platy- 
soma have the outer margin distinct, while in others (H. Carolinus Payk.) it is 
quite indistinct. The species, with the exception of the large tropical species, 
which would probably form a separate division, can be arranged according to 
the following table ; the internal marginal stria of the thorax, when it exists, is 
entire, and extends around the whole apex of the thorax ; the outer stria always 
ends at the anterior angle. 

A. Thorax stria marginali interiore integerrima, antice ambiente. 

* Thorax stria marginali margini valde approximata. 
Thorax stria marginali unica ; (tibiae posteriores dentatae.) Omalodes Er. 1. 
Thorax striis marginalibus duabus ; (tibiae post valde compressae serrulatae.) 2. 

** Thorax stria marginali interiore a margine remota. 

a. Thorax margine ciliato ; (scrobiculi antennales non profundi.) 

Tibiae posteriores dilatatae ........ 3. 

Tibiae posteriores tenues. ........ 4. 

b. Thorax margine glabro ; (scrobiculi antennales profundi.) 

a. Tibiae posteriores subdentatae ....... 5. 

b. Tibiae posteriores biseriatim spinulosie. 
f Mesosternum emarginatum. 

cL. Epipleurae excavatae unistriatae : (tibiae anticae multidentatae) . 6. 

/3. Epipleurae non excavatae, pluristriatae. 

Tibiae anticae parce dentatae, epipleurae bistriatac . . . . 7. 

Tibira anticae parce dentatae, epipleurae tristriatae . . . .8. 

Tibifjc anticae serrulatae vel muticae, epipleurae bistriatas . . .9. 

ft Mesosternum truncatum. 

Epipleurae bistriatae . 10. 

Epipleuraj angustissimac, unistriatac , . . . ; . .11. 

1852.] 39 

B. Thorax stria marginal! interiere nulla. 

t Mesosternum truncatum; prosternum bistriatum. 

Prosternum striis parallelis: (thorax stria exteriore nulla, corpus depresstim) 12. 
Prosternum striis convergentibus : (thorax stria exteriore distinctavel nulla, 

corpus convexum) ......... 13. 

ft Mesosternum emarjiinatum : prosternum estriatum. {Platysoma hedich.) 

Prosternum postice planum, (corpus depressum) 14. 

Prosternum postice compressum et marginatum, (corpus cylindricum) . 15. 

The species found in the United States may be distributed as follows : 

1, corresponds to Omalodes Er. : the only United States is H. borealis (Omalo- 
des borealis Lee.) 

2, contains only H. planipes (Omalodes Harrisii Lee.) The name Harrisii 
being preoccupied for a species of group 6, must of course be changed. 

3, contains H. arcuatus Say; binotatus Lee; laevipes Er. and a new species 
allied to arcuatus. 

*5, is composed of a Californian species, H. 6-striatus Lee. (An. Lye. ,1.) 

6, contains H. interruptus Beauv. {ohtusatus Harris) ; merdarius Payk ; im- 
munisEr; Harrisii Kirby ; diversus Er. (stjjgicus hec.) ; fcedatns Lee. ; cogna- 
tus Lee; marginicollis Lee, and one new species. 

7, contains H. dispar Lee; indistinctus Say; depurator Say; and one new 

8, H. spretus Lee. ; curtatus Lee. ; and two new species. 

9, H. civilis Lee; ccenosus Er. {decisus Lee); punctifer Payk; abbreviatus 
Fabr. ; bifidus Say, and perhaps H. repletus Lee. which I have not examined; it 
is doubtful whether H, punctifer is really a native of our territory ; the only one 
found may have been introduced. 

10, H. sedecimstriatus Say; americanus Payk. ; exaratus Lee. ; and two new 

11, contains only H. bimaculatus Linn, {plliqmis Say). 

12, H. venustus Lee and corticalis Lee. Small flat species having the ap- 
pearance of Platysoma ; the posterior tibiae are almost glabrous ; H. venustus 
has the lobe of the prosternum shorter than any other species I have seen. 

13, H. subrotundus Er.and H.'vernus Say; small convex species, one of which 
has an entire marginal stria on the thorax, the other none. A new species from 
Mexico has an abbreviated stria at the margin of the thorax. 

14, contains the small flat species forming the genus Platysoma Leach as 
amended by Erichson, the posterior tibiae are more or less distinctly toothed. 
Our species are : H. carolinus Payk. ; depressus Payk. ; parallelus Say ; coarcta- 
tus {Platy. coarctaticm Lee) ; and a new species. 

15, Cylindrical species allied to the preceding; H. cylindricus Payk. ; attenua- 
tns (Plati/. atte?i7cat2imhec.) ', gracilis {Platys, gracile Lee, P. cylindrianiiX 
Er., Hister frontalisW Say.) 


Caput deflexum, mandibulis retractis sed non obtectis, acutis. 

Antennae sub frontis margine insertae, funiculo filiformi, capitulo triarticulato, 
ovali, compresso, apice subtruncato. 

Prosternum latum quadratum, utrinque truncatum ; scrobiculi antennales angusti 
profundi ad angulum thoracis inferne siti. Tibiae anticae compressae, subdila- 
tatae, posteriores tenues glabrae ; tarsi posteriores non recepti. 

The body is globose, very convex ; the abdomen perpendicularly deflexed at 
the tip : the funiculus of the antennae is filiform, the first joint longer and a little 
thicker than the others ; the prosternum is very broad, truncate posteriorly, very 
slightly rounded anteriorly; the cavities for the antennae are very deep^ situated 

* Group 4 is founded upon a curious nondescript Mexican species, H. rostatus, in 
which the striae of the elytra are replaced by elevated ridges. 


at the anterior angles, between the upper and under surface of the prothorax, and 
open laterally. Only two species are known to me, 1. C. american^is 
{Trlbalus ameriea /IU.S L,ec.) and 2. C. 1 ae v i s s i m u s, with the upper surface 
very smooth and shining, the epipleurce less suddenly inliexed than in C. ameri- 
canus, with only two very fine lateral strice ; the dorsal striae of the elytra ob- 
solete: length -10. It is found in Cuba under the bark of trees, and was sent by 
Don Felipe Poey. The body is narrower and more elevated than the preceding. 

Saprinus Leach. 

The posterior tibioe of this genus are usually but little dilated; the external 
margin is furnished with three series of spines; some of the species of group 
9, have four confused series (S. palmatus), others have the spines very dense 
and occupying a large surface (S. sulcifrons). On account of these variations I 
am inclined to unite Pachylopus (Er.) with this genus, although the singular 
sexual character mentioned by Erichson is not found in any Saprinus. At all 
events, if Erichson's species should remain as a distinct genus, it must be upon 
very distinct characters from those indicated by him. 

The species known to me may be arranged as follows : 

A. Caput antice non marginatum ; prosternum compressum, elevatum, pla- 
num ; epipleuraB tristriatae. 

Prosternum striis utrinque divergentibus. . . . , . .1. 

Prosternum striis antice conjunctis, postice parallelis. . . . .2. 

B. Caput antice non marginatum; epipleurae bistriatae. 

Prosternum transverse convexum, striis nullis 3. 

Prosternum transverse convexum, antice utrinque foveatum, striis parallelis, 

antice abbreviatis 4. 

Prosternum transverse convexum, non foveatum, striis antice divergentibus 5. 
Prosternum transverse convexum, antice utrinque foveatum, striis remotis 

divergentibus . . . . . . . . . .6. 

Prosternum compresso-carinatum, striis remotis divergentibus . . .7. 

C. Caput antice marginatum, prosternum striis valde approximatis, postice 
divergentibus, antice non divergentibus. 

Prosternum compressum, striis integris, antice convergentibus . . .8. 
Prosternum compresso-carinatum, striis conniventibus, saspius indistinctis 9. 
The United States species may be distributed as follows : 

1, Contains two Californian species : S. alienus Lee. ; discoidalis Lee. ; the 
latter approximates somewhat to division C ; and in some specimens there is a 
very faint trace of the double line found on the front of the species belonging 
to that division. 

2, S. deletus Lee; interceptus Lee. 

3, S. interstialis Lee. ; a singular oblong species, with the striae of the elytra 
nearly parallel. 

4, S. obscurus Lee. ; pectoralis Lee. ; paeminosus Lee. ; all from California. 

5, S. lugens Er. {californicus Man.) ; Oregonensis Lee. ; imperfectus Lee. ; 
impressus Lee. ; infaustus {jpiceus^ Lee.) ; pensylvanicus Er. ; and three new 

6, S. conformis Lee.; assimilis Er. ; minutus Lee.; placidus Er.; insertus 
Lee. ; obductus Lee. ; ciliatus Lee. ; vinctus Lee. ; laridus Lee. ; scissus Lee. ; 
and one new species. 

7, S. vestitus Lee; fimbriatus Lee; plenus Lee; vitiosus Lee; lubricus 
Lee; ccerulescens Lee; all from California; and three new species, two of 
which are from Missouri Territory, and the other from Georgia. 

8, S. sphaeroides Lee (/^-t'o-e^ier Lee) ; fraternus Lee ; mancus Lee (Jlister 
mancus Say) ; estriatus Lee ; bigemmeus Lee ; and one new species. 

9, Contains species found near the sea shore ; they may be arranged in two 
groups, according to the structure of the posterior tibiae. 

Those with the spines in three series are: S. patruelis Lee; lucidulus Lee 

Those with the spines more numerous and confused are : S. dimidiatipennis Lee 

(var. Ilister falmatas Say) ; sulcifrons Man. ; serrulatus Lee ; and gaudens Lee. ; 



these species were referred by me to the genus Pachylopus (vide Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. 5.) The epipleurae of these last are marked with three striae. 
The spines on the tibiae of S. dimidiatipennis are less numeroas than in the 
others, and form four tolerably distinct series. 

Synopsis of the ParniDjE of the United States. 

By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

As I have concluded, for reasons detailed below, to introduce the anomalous 
genus Eurypalpus into this family, I have found it necessary to substitute an en- 
tirely new diagnosis for the one given by Erichson. The one proposed by me, 
in order to include the new genus, is as follows: 

AjitetincB frontales, no7i capitatce ; oculi rotundati, mandibidce retractce ; coxce 
anticcB vel sitbcylindriccB, vel globosce. acetabulis e prostenio et metathoracis epi- 
sternis compositis receptee ; pedes ambulatorii^ tarsi 5-articiilati ^ cyliiidriciy 
unguicidari ornaximCjUnguihus validis armato ; trochanteres simplices ; abdomeii 
5 l-articulatuviy articulis anteiiorib%Ls immobilibus. 

The character which especially distinguishes this family is the structure of the 
tarsi, which enables the species to grasp firmly objects resting in strong currents 
of water. This family may be divided into three groups. 

Div. 1, Ezcrypalpini, 

Caput exsertum, ore inferno, labro distincto, inter antennas transverse eleva- 
tum ; coxae anficas transversae, trochantino valde conspicuo; parapleurae appen- 
diculatae ; abdomen 7-articulatum. 

EuRYrALPusj Dej. 

Antennae serratae 11-articulatae ; palpi maxillares valde elongati, articulo ulti- 
mo latiore, securiformi, apice subacuto ; labiales brevissimi, articulo ultimo 
minuto subulato. 

This very remarkable genus is mentioned by name in Dejean's Catalogue, and 
is placed by that author towards the beginning of bis group Malacodermata, near 
Cyphon, with which, however, it seems to have but little affinity. Erichson, 
probably never having seen the insect, referred it upon Dejean's authority, to 
Cyphones, with a doubt. (Vide Agassiz Nom. Zool.) A close comparison with 
other groups has convinced me, that although its affinities in any direction are 
difficult to discover, it must still be considered as forming a part of the present 

The body is depressed, narrowed in front, obtusely rounded behind. The 
mandibles are small, acute and entirel)'' concealed by the broad and emarginate 
labrum ; the mentum is trapezoidal ; the ligula short, square and slightly emar- 
ginate at tip. The prosternum is truncate in front, prolonged behind into an 
acute point which passes in a narrow groove extending the whole length of the 
mesosternum. The anterior coxae are precisely as in Helichus ; the posterior 
coxae are slightly laminate and dilated interiorly as in Helichus, but are conti- 
guous at their base ; the parapleurse are broadly truncate at the external posterior 
angle, and the parallelogram is completed by a large triangular plate. The ab- 
domen is 7-jointed, the first three joints are immovable, the 5th deeply emar- 
ginate, the 6th retracted so as to have only the edge visible, the last joint almost 
round; the feet have the last joint much longer than the other four united, with 
strong simple claws. 

The larva resembles in appearance a Trilobite, and has been described by 
De Kay as a Crustaceous animal under the name Fluvicola Herricki. It is en- 
tirely aquatic, and breathes by means of branchial filaments, the principal ot 
which proceed from the anus. For a full description o{ it and the pupa see 
Agassiz' Lake Superior. It bears a close comparison with the larva of Elmis by 
Erichson, (Deutschl. Insect. 525). 


42 [February, 

The perfect insect lives on bushes over the surface of running water, and is 
also found creeping over the wet stones in torrents ; the under surface of the 
body is sericeous, with fine fulvous hair, perfectly like Helichus. 

I.E. Lecontei, subdepressu?, ater, subtiliter punctulatus et pubescens, 
thorace antice fortiter angustato, basi bisinuato, angulis posticis acutis, elytris 
marginatis, lineis elevatis minus distinctis, pedibus rufis. Long. -2. 

Western New York and Pennsylvania. The great facilities and assistance 
which my father, Major Le Conte, has constantly extended to me in my scientific 
labors, will be a sufficient excuse for my continuing the name under which this 
curious insect is mentioned by Dejean, and by which it is already known to a 
large number of European entomologists. 

Div. 2. Dryopini Er. 
Coxae anticae transversae, trochantino conspicuo, abdomen 5-articuIatum. 


Caput porrectum, subtus non obtectum; antennae simplices elongatae. 

Body elongate, narrowed and subacute anteriorly. Head not deflexed ; anten- 
nae with the first joint cylindrical, a little longer and thicker than the two follow- 
ing, which are equal ; the fourth is a little shorter; the rest are broken off, (pro- 
bably serrate. The labrum is large and broad, rounded in front, and scarcely 
emarginate ; the mandibles slightly emarginate at tip. Mentum trapezoidal, 
ligula broad, truncate in front. Prosternum with a short point behind, which 
fits into the excavated mesosternum; middle coxae moderately distant; posterior 
coxae contiguous at base, very slightly and gradually dilated internally. Legs as 
in Helichus. The body above and beneath coated with very fine pubescence. 

This genus seems to be the desired link connecting the anomalous form Eury- 
palpus with the true Parnidae ; the abdomen, coxae and feet are precisely the 
same as in the latter, while the long simple antennae are anomalous in this sub- 
division ; the large uncovered labrum is not seen in this subdivision, but is found 
in Elmis, Macronychus, &c., of the next subdivision, to which, however, it 
cannot be referred on account of the transverse form of the anterior coxae. The 
thorax is much narrowed in front, with the posterior angles acute; scutellum 
large, acute; elytra almost parallel, rounded at apex. The genus is named after 
a water nymph. 

1. L. a vara, olivaceo-picea, thorace confertim grosse punctato, lateribus bi- 
sinuatis, disco elevato, canaliculate, margine antico late depresso, elytris nitidis 
subtiliter striate punctatis, pone basin oblique impressis. Long. '3. 

Sacramento, California, Mr. Rathvon. The thorax has the disc suddenly ele- 
vated and canaliculate, so as to present two large bosses, the lateral margin is a 
little excavated anteriorly and posteriorly; the alternate interstitial spaces of 
the elytra are more distinctly sericeous ; the feet are black, the femora at base 

LuTRocHus Er. (Ins. Deutschl. 509.) 

1. L. lute us, ovalis, convexus, aeneo-luteus, subtiliter punctulatus, et bre- 
vissime dense pubescens ; thorace lateribus rectis, basi bisinuata, medio leviter 
producta, et truncata. Long. 12. This very remarkable insect was found by 
Lieut. H. Haldeman, U. S. A., at Fort Gates in Texas ; for my specimens I am 
indebted to his brother S. S. Haldeman. The only other species known is from 

Pelonomus Er. 

1. P. obscurus, subcylindricus, piceus, pube erecta dense vestitus, thorace 
confertim punctulato, lateribus rectis obliquis, basi bisinuata, medio late trunca- 
ta, angulis posticis acutis, elytris dense subtiliter punctatis, obsolete striatis, 
tibiis tarsisque rufis. Long. '26. 

Southern and Western States, very rare ; remarkable for the eyes being nearly 
as hairy as the rest of the body. 

1852.] 43 

Heltcht's Er. 
A. Elytra vitta autnrali nitidai fere glabra. 

1. H. striatus, elongatus, atro-olivaceus, fere opacus, thorace confertim punc- 
tate, latitudine vix breviore, antrorsum angustato, lateribus rotundatis, disco 
ante basin elevato, medio impresso,basi subito depressa, utrinque foveata, elytris 
striis punctatis sat profundis, interstitiis alternatim paulo elevatis, sutura nitida. 
Long. "24. Vermont. C. B. Adams. 

2. H. basal is, minus elongatus, obscure olivaceus, subnitidus, thorace 
punctato, latitudine breviore, antrorsum angustato, lateribus versus basin valde 
inflexis, disco ante basin transversim elevato. basi depressa, elytris seriatim 
foveatis, seriebus internis duabus minus distinctis, usque ad striam 3'^'" nitidis. 
Long. "IQ. 

Pennsylvania, Dr. Melsheimer. Troy, (N. Y.) Prof. Adams. This species 
was given me by Dr. Melsheimer as Parims fastigiatits Say, from vi'hich it 
differs by having the posterior angles of the thorax rectangular ; the hairs on the 
shining part of the elytra are sparse, but not at all fasciculate. 

3. H. foveatus, elongatus, atro-olivaceus, fere opacus, thorace confertim 
punctato, latitudine non breviore, antrorsum rotundato, minus angustato, disco 
versus basin minus subito depresso, utrinque foveato, elytris striis grosse punc- 
tatis interstitiis internis tribus nitidis. Long. '20. 

Sta. Fe (New Mexico.) Fendler. 

4. H. suturalis, elongatus, obscure olivaceus, opacus, thorace confertim 
punctato, latitudine non breviore. antrorsum non angustato, angulis posticis rec- 
tis, elytris seriatim punctatis, vitta suturali nitida. Long '20. 

San Diego, California. One specimen. 

B. Elytra cequaliter piihescentia. 

5. H. p r o d u c t u s, elongatus, obscure olivaceus, opacus, thorace confertim 
punctato, latitudine non breviore, antrorsum vix angustato, angulis posticis 
acutis productis, elytris seriatim punctatis, versus suturam subnitidis. Long. 30. 

San Diego. 

6. H. lithophilus Er. Ins. Deutschl. 510. Elmis litJiophila Germ. Ins. 
Nov. 88. Pennsylvania and New York. 

7. li. Gi 1 e n sis, elongatus, obscure olivaceus, opacus, thorace confertim 
punctato, antice vix angustato, lateribus ad basin paulo inflexis, angulis posticis 
rectis, elytris totis opacis, seriatim punctatis. Long. '17. 

One specimen found near the villages of the Pimas, in the valley of the Gila. 

8. H. f a s t i g i a t u s. Pamus fastigiatics Say. Long*s Exped. 2, 275. Un- 
known to me : belongs to division A. 

Div. 3. Elmini Er. 
Coxae anticae subglobosae ; abdomen 5-articulatum. 

LiMNius Miill. Er. 

1. L. fastiditus, fusco-aeneus. obiongo-ovatus, thorace punctato convexo, 
angulis anticis porrectis, posticis acutis, striola basali utrinque impress, elytris 
seriatim punctatis, parce punctulatis, vitta utrinque flava, Integra, ad humerum 
paulo dilatata. Long. 'll. Lee. Agass. Lake Superior, 217. 

2. L. elegans, niger, vix aenescens, elongato-ovatus, thorace vix punctula- 
to, angulis anticis minutis, posticis rectis, striola basali utrinque impresso, elytris 
seriatim punctatis, vix subtilissime punctulatis, vitta a humero ad medium, 
alteraque a medio ad apicem obliquis flavis ornatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. "09. 

Massachusetts. Prof. Adams. 

44 [February, 

Elmis Latr. 

1. E. bivittatus, piceus, elongatus cylindricus, antennis tarsisque flavis, 
thorace convexo, parce punctato, rufescente, margine antico nigro,lateribus levi- 
ter rotundatisj angulis posticis rectis, elytris punctato-striatis, vitta lata Integra 
lutea utrinque ornatis. Long. '14. 

One specimen on the Upper Mississippi; judging frona a drawing, this may be 
Elmis bivittatus Dej. Cat. 

2. E. quadrinotatus Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 187. Elmis vittatus 
Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2, 99. Common in the Middle States. Dr. Melshei- 
mer's species, as I know by actual inspection, is only an immature specimen of 
the not unusual variety with the spots confluent forming a vitta. This species 
is much smaller and less cylindrical than the preceding : the feet are sometimes 
entirely ferruginous. 

Stenelmis Dufour. 

1. S. s i nuatus, elongatus, piceus, thorace elongato, inaequali, pone apicem 
magis angustato, angulis anticis porrectis, apice medio producto et rotundato, 
lateribus late sinuatis, elytris punctato-striatis, interstitio 2ndo basi, 5ti'que cari- 
natis, macula humerali alteraque subapicali flavis ornatis, tarsis antennisque 
ferrugineis. Long. 12. 

One specimen Tolula, Georgia : the thorax is elevated in the middle, deeply 
channelled, and has two tubercles on each side near the margin. 

2. S. cr en at us, elongatus, ater, thorace elongato, inaequali, ante medium 
angustato, angulis anticis porrectis, apice medio late rotundato, lateribus late 
subsinuatis, elytris punctato-striatis, interstitio 2"^" basi 5i<'que carinatis, anten- 
nis ferrugineis. Long. 12. 

Elmis crenatiLs Say, Long's Exped. 2, 275. Pennsylvania, Melsheimer : Ni- 
agara : the thorax is less suddenly narrowed in front, and the sides not widened 
at the apex, but parallel : the sculpture as in the last. 

3. S. bicarinatus, elongatus, ater, thorace elongato, vix inaequali, an- 
trorsum angustato, lateribus rectis, elytris profunde punctato-striatis, interstitio 
5^0 carinato, vitta angusta lutea ornatis, antennis tarsisque ferrugineis. Long. 
12. Ohio, Haldeman : the impressions of the thorax as in the preceding, but 
very faint. 

4. S. pu s i 11 u s , ater, thorace inaequali, impressione oblonga ad medium, 
carinaque utrinque laterali notato, lateribus subrectis, elytris punctato-striatis, 
interstitio 2"du basi, 4'" usque ad medium, Si^^^que carinatis, macula humerali, 
alteraque subapicali luteis obsoletis, antennis tarsisque furrugineis. Long. '08. 
Kapids of Niagara, June, abundant. 

Macronychus Miill. 

1. M. glabratus Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 187. Pennsylvania, Melshei- 
mer : Vermont, Prof. Adams. 

2. M. lateralis Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2, 99. Unknown to me. 


1. A. variegatus Er. Ins. Deutschl. 522. Macronychus variegatus 
Germ. Ins. Nov. 89 : Sturm Cat. 2"*^, 63, tab. 2, 12 : Elmis cinetus Say, Journ. 
Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 18G. Pennsylvania, Vermont, Adams. Germar's name has 
precedence by one year. 

Although not belonging to this family the following may here be added on ac- 
acount of its close relation. 

Georyssus Latr. 

1. G. pus ill us, rotundatus, niger, thorace subtiliter canaliculats, ante 
medium vix transversim impresso, antice rugose punctato, postice lineola 



utrinque elevata submarginali notato, elytris fortiter seriatim punctatis. Long. 
07. Platte River, Nebraska Territory : covers itselfwith a casing of mud like 
the European species. The thorax is strongly margined, and has at the base 
near the lateral margin a little interrupted elevated line. In one specimen the 
the apex of the thorace is emarginate, but I can perceive no other difference. 

Syiiopsis of the Eucnemides of Temperate North America. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

Although many entomologists consider that the small group of Coleopterous 
insects, herein treated, constitute a peculiar family, I am under the necessity, 
after very careful examination, of viewing them as a mere section of the exten- 
sive natural family of Elateridae, and no more entitled to a distinct place in the 
series, than any other group of genera in that family. 

The character which essentially distinguished the Elateridae from allied families, 
as Erichson* has pointed out, is the looseness of the articulation bet ween the pro-and 
meso-thorax. In order to allow of greater liberty of motion, the posterior margin 
of the infixed portion of the prothorax is more or less dilated, or concave, so as 
to slide over the opposing part of the messothorax. 

This character, although good in theory, is nevertheless sometimes difficult to 
be seen, and is less developed in the Eucnemides than in Typical Elaters : yet I 
have never failed to detect it, on close observation. In the genera Cebrio and 
Cerophytum it is completely wanting : the former recedes too in the prominent 
mandibles, and the latter in the posterior femora being inserted at the extremity 
of the elongate trochanter, instead of at its base and side, as in Elateridae and 
most other Coleoptera. Although I have not yet detected the affinities of this 
difficult genus, I think there can be no doubt of the propriety of entirely excluding 
it both from the Elateridae and Cebrionidae. 

The Buprestidae are distinguished from the Elateridae by the posterior margin 
of the prothorax beneath, abutting directly against the mesothoracic segment. 
More distinct characters will be found in the union of the first and second inferior 
abdominal segments : the suture between them being visible only at the side : 
a character of great constancy is found in the form of the eyes, which are strongly 
transverse in all Buprestidae, while they are generally round in all Elateridae. In 
order to include the Eucnemides with the other more typical groups, the Elate- 
ridae may be thus defined. 

Coleoptera pentamera antennis serratis, mandibulis retractis^ octdis rotun- 
datis ; prothorace iiifenie mesosternuTn superante ; acetabulis anticis ^;ar;i* 
rotundatis, in prosterno sitis^ postice valde hientibus : coxis posticis laminatisy 
trochanterUnts sinipUcibics ; abdomine ^-articulator segmeutis omnibus distmctis. 

According to the form of the sternum and front, this family may be divided 
into several groups, of which the first and easiest, the Eucnemides, may be dis- 
tinguished by the clypeus expanded in front of the antennae ; the labrum con- 
cealed: the head strongly deflexed : the presternum not lobed in front. Our 
native genera may be arranged as follows : 

A. Tarsi non laminiferi. 

a. Thorax marginatus, subtus non sulcatus. 

1. Palpi tenues, articulo ultimo vix crassiore. 

Pedes fortiter compressi, (antennae minus approximatae) Melasis Oliv. 
Pedes tenues Tharops Lap. 

2. Palpi articulo ultimo dilatato, (saepius securi- 

formi'. . 

A. Caput sub oculis non sulcatum. 
Laminae tectrices magnae intus sensim dilatatae . . Euryptychits. 
Laminae tectrices intus subsubito dilatatae 

tarsi articulo 4^0 simplici ..... Epiphanis Esch. 

tarsi articulo 4to subtus breviter lobato . . Emathion Lap. 

Germar's Zeitschrift fiir Entomol. 2, 179, 

6 [February, 

Laminae tectrices intus quadrangulariter dilatatae . Anelastes Kirby. 

yS. Caput sub oculis valde sulcatum. 
Laminae tectrices angustae Hylociiares Latr. 

b. Thorax marginatus, subtus ad latera sulcatus. 

Antennae tenues articulo S'o sequentibus longiore . Fornax Lap. 

Antennae tenues articulo S'o non longiore . , , Isarthrus. 
Antennae valde serratae vel pectinatae .... Eucnemis Ahrens. 

c. Thorax margine interrupt, vel medio obsolete. 

Sulci antennales ad prosterni marginem siti, . . Microrhagtjs Esch. 
B. Tarsi subtus laminiferi. 

Sulci antennales laterales - Galea Esch. 

I am not sure that the primary division into genera with and without tarsal 
appendages is natural, but as I have had no opportunity of examining any genus 
of the latter division, I do not dare to disturb the arrangement adopted by all pre- 
vious entomologists. From considerations derived from the study of other Elaters, 
I am inclined to think that it would be betj^er to divide this portion (B) among 
those that precede it, putting Galba next to Eucnemis in (b.) and the foreign 
genus Pterotarsus before Microrhagus in (c). 

Melasis Oliv. 

1. M. pectinicornis Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2,148. Pennsylvania, Mels- 
heimer ; Ohio, Schaum. 

Tharops Lap. 

1. T. ruf ic orni s. Melasis mjicornis Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 3,165: 
"Eucnemis (Nematodes) rii/icor7tis Say, Trans. Phil. Soc. 6, 187. Missouri; the 
elytra are yellow, with the posterior half black : sometimes they are entirely 
yellow. The antennae of the male are strongly flabellate. 

2. T. obliquus. Eucnemis obliqmis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6,187. 
Ohio, Dr. Harris. My specimens are two fifths of an inch long, which is double 
the size mentioned by Say. 


Clypeus ad apicem rotundatus : antennae articulo Imo elongato, 3'o praecedente 
longiore, 4 8 subaequalibus crassitie paulo longioribus, 9 10 latioribus, et trip- 
le longioribus, 11 iterum longiore, elongato-ovali. Palpi articulo ultimo dilatato, 
triangulari ; presternum postice promineus, mesosternum profunde excavatum ; 
tibiae calcaribus apicalibus distinctis ; tarsi tenues, articulo 1""" elongato ; la- 
minae tectrices coxarum posticarum intus gradatim valde dilatatae, apice suba- 

The body is regularly arched, moderately wide for this family, and gradually 
narrowed behind the thorax : the thorax is much narrowed in front and rounded 
on the sides. The general aspect is precisely that of Ampedus. 

1. E. heterecerus. Eucnemis heteroceriis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
6, 186. Pennsylvania, Messrs. Ziegler and Rathvon. 

Epiphanis Esch. 

The insect that I consider as belonging to this genus, differs from the preced- 
ing, in having the 3d joint of the antennae scarcely elongated : the four terminal 
joints in the male are equally enlarged, and each is about twice as long as the 
7th joint ; the plates of the posterior coxae are suddenly dilated within, and are 
broadly truncate at the extremity. I am unable to see the last joint of the palpi, 
which Eschscholtz describes as ovoid. 

1. E. cristatus, nigro-piccus, griseo-pubescens, capite punctulato, fronte 
tenuiter cristata, thorace antrorsum angustato subtilius dense punctato, linea 
media vix distincta laevi, elytris parallelis punctatis, tenuissime striatis, anten- 
nis pedibusque rufo-piceis. Long. -20. New York, one male specimen. 

2. E. can al i c ulatu s , nigro-piceus, griseo-pubescens, capite punctato, 
subtilissime carinato, thorace lateribus parallelis, ante medium rotundatis, con- 

1852.] 47 

fertissime punctate distincte canaliculato, elytris parallelis, rugose punctatis, 
subtiliter striatis. Long. '2. One female, Pennsylvania. Differs from the last 
by its coarser und denser punctuation, and by the thorax not being regularly 
narrowed in front. 

3. E. cornutus Esch. Zool. Atlas. 1,10. tab. 4, fig. 6; Man. Bull. Mosc. 
1843, 238. Sitkha : unknown to me. 

Emathion Lap. 

Sphcerocephalus Esch. 

This genus has a very great resemblance, to the last, and can only be distin- 
guished by the slight inferior prolongation of the fourth tarsal joint, and by the 
prosternal prominence being acute. In the last genus this prolongation is blunt 
and rounded. The males of this genus have the 6 last joints of the antennae a 
little enlarged. 

1. E. atropos. Eucncmis atropos Say. Trans. Am. Phil. So c. 6,187. 
Louisiana, Schaum. 

2. E. penetrans, elongatum cuneiforme, atrum confertissime punctatum 
subtilissime fulvo-pubescens, fronte linea tenuissima laevi, thorace latitudine 
sesqui longiore, lateribus parallelis antice rotundatis, pone medium late canali- 
culato, utrinque ante medium obsolete foveato ; elytris tenuiter striatis, antennis 
pedibusque rufo-piceis. Long. -22 '3. 

Georgia : in Say's description of the preceding species, probably by a* clerical* 
error, the terminal, instead of the penultimate joint of the tarsi is said to be di- 

Anelastes Kirby. 

1. A. Druryi Kirby. Trans. Lin. Soc. 12, tab. 21, fig. 2 : Guerin Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Fr. 2d ser. 1, 17. Siloms hrunneus Latr. An. Ent. 3, 129. Georgia. 

Guerin refers this genus to the genuine Elateridae : Eriehson in Agassiz' No- 
menclator Zoologicus places it in Cebrionidae. The form of the clypeus, how- 
ever, forces it into the present group. The prosternum is scarcely prominent 
behind ; the plates of the posterior coxae are suddenly dilated, by the addition 
of a quadrangular piece. 

2. A. Latreillei, obscure rufo-piceus, subnitidus, thorace convexo, sub- 
tiliter parce granulato, postice canaliculato, lateribus valde rotundatis, angulis 
posticis divergentibus, elytris profunde striatis, interstitiis subtiliter ragose 
punctatis. Long. '4 "5. Sacramento, California, Rathvon. 

The thorax is much more rounded on the sides than in A. Druryi, and the 
whole surface is much less scabrous ; the head is more distinctly granulated than 
the thorax, and the frontal line is faint as in the other species. 

Hylochares Latr : Guer. 

l.H. nigricornis. Melasis nigricornis Say Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 165. 
Ohio, Schaum. 

Fornax Lap. 
Dirhagus Esch 

1. F. bicolor. Hylochariis? hicolor Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2, 149. New 
York: Wilcox. 

2. F. badius. Dirhagus Ziaii5 Mels. ibid. 2, 149. Pennsylvania, S. F. 

3. F. cylindricollis. Eucncmis cylindricollis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. 6, 188. Illinois, Georgia, and Pennsylvania. 

4. F. s t r ia t u s, elongatus, ater pubescens, confertim punctatus, thorace lati- 
tudine longiore, lateribus leviter rotundatis, pone medium late canaliculato, 
elytris rugose-punctatis, striis sat profundis, interstitiis modice convexis, anten- 
nis tibiis tarsisque rufo-piceis, Long. 22. One specimen, Georgia. Very simi- 
lar to the preceding, but smaller, and with deep distinct elytral striae. 

4.8 ' , [February, 


Antennae tenues, extus paulo incrassatae, articulis cylindricis, 2 12 subaequa- 
libus, llmo paulo longiore. (Palpi invisi.) Thorax subtus ad marginem pro- 
funde sulcatus : coxarum posticarum laminae tectrices intus naodice dilatatae, ad 
apicem late rotundatae ; tarsi tenues, articulo Imo elongate, 2 4 gradatim bre- 
vioribus, 4^ vix dilatato. 

This genus differs from Fornax, by the third joint of the antennae being not 
larger than the 2d or 4th ; and by the posterior coxal plates being less dilated in- 
teriorly, and much more broadly rounded at apex: the fourth tarsal joint is less 

l.I. spretus, elongatus utrinque obtusus, ater, breviter cinereo-pubescens, 
confertim subconfluenter punctatus, thorace convexo, antrorsum angustato, et 
rotundato, elytris striis tenuibus, interstitiis rugose punclatis, subconvexis, an- 
tennis pedibusque rufis. Long. '2. Lake Superior. This is the Fortiax spretics 
of my catalogue in Agassiz' Lake Superior. 

EucNEMis Ahr. 
a. Auien7ice serratce : tarsi artictilo 4'" simplici, 

1. E. clypeatus Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6, 189: Elate?- clypeattis 
Say, Ann. Lye. 1, 266. Pennsylvania, Zimmerman. 

b. AntenncB s err at a : tarsi articulo 4^ breviter lohato, 

2. E. amaenicornis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6,189. Southern and 
Middle States. The antennae are subflabellate in both sexes : some specimens 
have the thorax a little rounded on the sides : these are probably females : the 
whole appearance is so similar to that of genuine Eucnemis, that I have not ven- 
tured to establish a separate genus upon the slight difference in the antennae and 


1. M. i m p e r f e c t u s, elongatus, utrinque obtusus, ater pubescens, puncta- 
tus, capite canaliculato, thorace latitudine breviore, lateribus antice rotundatis, 
elytris tenuiter striatis,pedibus"ruio-piceis, sulcis pectoralibus postice indistinctis. 
Long. '22. New York, one female. 

2. M. subsinuatus, elongatus vix cuneiformis. ater, supra obsolete pubes- 
cens, punctatus, thorace brevi, antrorsum subangustato, lateribus subsinuatis, 
angulis posticis explanatis, elytris rugose punctatis, obsolete striatis, tarsis tes- 
taceis. Long. -2. Georgia, one male; similar to the next, but more than twice as 
large, and easily distinguished by the sinuosity of the sides of the thorax : it is 
also more coarsely punctured and less narrowed behind. 

3. M. triangularis. Elater triangtdaris Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 170 : 
Eucnemis triangularis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6, 189. Southern and West- 
ern States : the thorax is not at all narrowed in front ; the anterior angles are a 
little rounded. It is singular that Guerin, (Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. 1, 187,) should 
refer this species to Eucnemis, when Say expressly states the antennal groove to 
be near the middle of the pectus. 

4. M. h u me ral is. Eucnemis humeralis. Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6, 
J89. Pennsylvania, Dr. Melsheimer. 

Galba Esch. 

l.G. (Dcndrocharis) flavicornis Guerin. Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. 2d ser. 
1, 193. tab. 6, fig. 60, 61. Georgia; I have never seen this fine species. 

The following species are unknown to me, and the genera to which they be- 
long doubtful. 

P^ucnemis quadricollis Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6,186. Pro- 
bably Melasis. 

Eucnemis frontosus Say, ibid. Probably not of this group. 

Eucnemis calceatus Say, ibid. The description of the antennae agree 
perfectly with my Isarthrus spretus ; but the 4th Joint of the tarsi in that species 
is not lobed beneath. 

1852.] 49 

Dirhagus rufipes Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2, 150. The front is said to 
be longitudinally impressed, which is an unusual character in Fornax. 

Eucnemis muscidusand unicolor, Say, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 6, 186. {Elater 
m. &M. An. Lye. 1,255,) are Perothops mucidus Erichson Germ. Zeitsch. 
3, 117. The genus Perothops is of difficult location. It cannot be placed in the 
present group on account of its prominent, not inflexed mouth. From the typi- 
cal Elaters it differs by its clypeus dilated in front, and concealing the labrum, 
and by the absence of an anterior lobe on the prosternum. It seems most na- 
tural to consider it as a special group connecting Anelastes among the Eucnemi- 
des, with the more typical Elaters. 

[Note. On p. 345 of the last number of this work, (Dec. 1851), the name 
puncticollis occurs twice in the genus Podabrus. The first of these (at 
the top of the page), should read Podabrus poricollis.] 

The Committee on the Rev. Mr. Langstroth's paper on the '' Impreg- 
nation of the Eggs of the Queen Bee," reported in favor of publication 
in the Proceedings. 

On the Impregnation of the Eggs of the Queen Bee, 
By Rev. Lorenzo L. Langstroth. 

Many singular notions have prevailed respecting the generation of bees. 
Virgil* asserted that bees have no sexual intercourse, but gather young from 
the leaves of plants. New colonies, he thought, could be obtained from the 
carcasses of animals. Swammerdam, in his observations on bees, made in 
1673, proved, by careful dissection, that the bee commonly called the King, is a 
female, and the mother of the whole colony, and that the drone is the male bee. 
He thought that a seminal atmosphere proceeded from the drones and caused the 
impregnation of the female, or as she is commonly called, the Queen. 

Maraldi (1712) conjectured that the eggs of the Queen were fecundated by 
the drones after being laid in the cells. Arthur Dobbs (Philosophical Trans- 
actions, vol. 46 for 1760) was, I believe, the first who suggested that the Queen 
may have a sperma-theca, from the contents of which the eggs are impregnated. 
Debraw (Phil. Transac. vol. 67 for 1777) imagined that he saw drones deposit- 
ing semen in cells containing eggs. Both Huber and Dr. John Hunter have 
shown that he was mistaken. The latter supports the theory of Dobbs, and 
endeavors to strengthen it by some curious experiments which he made on the 
impregnation of the eggs of the silk-worm. (Phil. Transac. vol. 82 for 1792.) 
Huber* (1788) was the first to demonstrate that the sexual union of the Queen 
and drone takes place when the insects are on the wing, in the open air ; and that 
a Queen, when impregnated, will continue, at least for several years, to lay fertile 
eggs without any further intercourse with the male. He thought that she was 
impregnated for life, but he was not able even to conjecture how all the eggs in 
her ovary could be at once fecundated. Dzierzon, a German apiarian of great 
practical knowledge, has revived (1845) the notion of a permanently impreg- 
nated sperma-theca. He says that he has dissected Queen bees both before and 
after impregnation, and that he has found the seminal sac in the first case to con- 
tain a limpid fluid like water, and in the second case to be filled with a substance 
resembling the semen of the drone. This would seem almost to settle the 
question; but unfortunately he advances a conjecture which seems to be at 
variarice with the idea that he had much skill in dissecting. He thinks that 
what is the poison sac in the worker becomes the sperma-theca sac in the 

Aristotle informs us that some cultivators called the^rulers or kings, mothers, and the 
drones, males, 

t Hattorf and Schirach (1770) beUeved that the Queen was self-impregnated ; and 
the latter accounted for the existence of males by conjecturing that their semen formed 
the food of the young bee. 


50 [February, 

Queen ! Now, the poison sac, with the sting and all its appendages, is entirely 
distinct from the sperma-theca, and can easily be recognized without the aid of 
the microscope. He does not seem to have examined, microscopically, the fluid 
in what he calls the seminal vesicle, in order to demonstrate, by the presence of 
spermatozoa, that it was the semen of the male. As I am not aware that this 
has been done by any one else, I hereby communicate to the Academy the 
results of such an examination made last month, by Dr. Joseph Leidy of 
this city. 

The Queen dissected was taken from an observing hive in which she had been 
lodged in the Summer of 1851, having accompanied a first swarm from a hive 
which had been swarmed in 1850. I am certain that she was not a Queen of 
the current year, for she commenced ovi-depositing in the empty cells which the 
hive contained, the same day in which she was put into it ; whereas young 
Queens, which are not impregnated until after they are established as heads of a 
new colony, do not begin to lay until after the lapse of several days. I know 
that she was the same Queen lodged by me in the hive, as the bees were in a 
hive of my own invention, in which they were exposed to the full light of day, 
and were under constant inspection. She was therefore nearly two years old. 
The males in this colony had all been killed in August and there was not one 
in the hive (Jan. 27th) when she was taken from it. 

Plate XIX in Swammerdam's History of Insects, represents very accurately 
all the parts which were particularly examined. The small globular vessel 
(fig. 3-t.) which Swammerdam thought secreted a mucous fluid to attend the 
eggs to the bottom of the cells, was found to be the true sperma-theca. Its 
internal diameter was the l-33d of an inch, and it was distended with a whitish, 
viscous fluid which, when examined by the microscope, was found to be filled 
with spermatozoa. 

I consider, therefore, that this dissection demonstrates that the Queen bee has 
a reservoir in which the semen of the male is lodged, and that the eggs are im- 
pregnated as they pass by the duct leading from the sperma-theca into the 

Note. Since this paper was written. Dr. Leidy has examined two more Queen bees, 
each of vvhicli had the sperma-theca distended with the spermatic fluid. These Queens 
were both reared last Summer from eggs in worker combs, which were furnished to 
colonies deprived of a Queen. The construction of the hives allowed the whole process 
to be distinctly seen. 

Mr. Jacob Peirce exhibited a hybrid fowl, being a cross between the 
Peacock and Guinea Hen. The specimen was one of four which had 
been hatched and raised on the farm of Mr. David West, in Chester Co,, 
between Kimberton and the Yellow Springs, Pa. 


Dr. Joseph Hopkinson, U. S. Navy, Mr. William Strutters, and Mr. 
J. Da Costa, of Philadelphia, were elected 3Iemhers; and 

Mr. J. W. Foster, U. S. Geologist of the Lake Superior District, and 
Mr. J. D. Whitney, of the same district, were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy. 

1852 J . 51 

March 2, 1852. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Lianean Society of LondoD, dated Jan. 22d, 1852, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of the Proceedings, Vol. 5, Nos. 9 and 10. 

From the Smithsonian Institute, dated Washington, Feb. 17, 1852, 
acknowledging receipt of Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 12. 

From the American Philosophical Society, dated Feb. 21, 1852, 
acknowledging receipt of the Journal, Part 2, Vol. 2, new series, and of 
the Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 12. 

From Thomas Lawson, Surgeon General U. S. A. dated Feb. 7, 1852, 
requesting correction of an error in the Meteorological Register lately 
issued from the Department, a copy of which was sent to the Academy. 

From Dr. Samuel Webber, dated Charlestown, N. Hampshire, Feb. 25, 
1852, acknowledging receipt of his notice of election as a Corres- 

Dr. J. C. Fisher read the following description of the Aurora of 
Thursday, Feb. 19th, 1852. The observations were made from an 
elevated point on the opposite side of the Schuylkill, where the view 
was entirely unobstructed. 

On the night of Thursday, the 1 9th of February last, a most beautiful Aurora 
was visible throughout the middle and northern parts of the United States. 
There were some circumstances connected with this one that seem to require a 
more particular description than usual. The air was calm and clear. The 
wind was light from the N. N. West. The temperature in the early part of 
the evening was about 25 F., but it fell very rapidly, and before morning it 
was 10 F. The Aurora began in the early part of the night with the appear- 
ance of a bank or arch of white light, rising about 15 or 16 above the horizon. 
This continued, with some few changes, to be its general character, till about 9 
o'clock, when a series of remarkable and beautiful changes commenced, which, 
with some alternations of repose, lasted till the whole was lost in the dawn of 
day. A little after 10 o'clock it presented some of the most remarkable and 
beautiful changes it has ever been the good fortune of the writer to witness. 
The arch or bank of white light which formed the basis of the whole, appeared 
suddenly to rise and expand like a huge billow, or rather like one of those huge 
masses of foam at the bottom of the cataract of Niagara, until suddenly bursting, 
it threw a vast volume of white spray to the zenith, where it changed to a fiery 
red, giving rise to an alarm of fire. Instantly after streamers of red, white and 
brown shot up from the broken arch that still formed the basis or ground work, 
and which at the same time changed from its white color to at first a pale green, 
and then to almost an emerald green. Soon after the streamers ceased, and 
waves of parti-colored light rushed across the heavens from west to east, as if in 
rapid pursuit of one another. This was soon succeeded by masses of light shoot- 
ing up from the arch, which was again formed, to the zenith. Some of those 
masses presented a remarkably livid appearance, and the whole formed a picture 
which it is not in the power of language fairly to describe. During the time 
when the auroral changes were so brilliant, the electrical state of the atmosphere 
was in a most singularly disturbed condition. The telegraph wires were so 
highly charged and conducted so great a quantity, that there were divers and 
sundry rather unreadable communications written down at the various stations 


52 [March, 

throughout the country, thus establishing its electrical character beyond ques- 
tion. Several persons have said that during the sanne time they distinctly heard 
a snapping and cracking noise like that made by an electrical machine when in a 
powerfully excited condition. This, however, may need confirmation. The 
photometric power of the aurora when most brilliant, was about equal to that of 
the moon in a very clear sky, when about three days old. ]No means were had 
by the writer of examining the magnetic changes and disturbances. These, 
however, have been probably carefully noted by accurate observers. From all 
the phenomena noticed, however, the conclusion is a fair one that this aurora 
was caused by a highly disturbed condition of the electrical tension of the air, 
owing principally to calorific causes, and that however high it might have ex- 
tended into the atmosphere, it undoubtedly rested upon the earth, and that in our 
immediate vicinity. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to a specimen of the body of a 
cervical vertebra, from the Eocene formation of Ouachita, Louisiana, belonging 
to the cabinet of the Academy. It is perfectly mineralized, and both epiphyses 
are attached, but portions are broken away, permitting the characteristic tuber- 
culated surface of the body to be seen. It very probably belonged to a cetacean 
animal, and is remarkable on account of the relatively deep concavity of its sur- 
faces before and behind. For the animal to which the vertebra belonged, the 
name Pontogeneus priscus was proposed. 

Dr. Leidy further made some remarks upon the comparative osteology and 
dentition of the Hippopotamus, and proposed to consider the small species, 
H. Libeiiensis, Morton, as belonging to a new genus of Hippopotamidae, under 
the name of Chcerodes. 

Mr. Lea called attention to a specimen of Dipsas plicatus, Leachy 
which was very remarkable for its size. It was a single valve, and 
measured in length 6f inches, and in breadth 10 J inches. Its weight 
was IO5 ounces. The heaviest specimen of a Vnio known to Mr. Lea 
weighed two pounds ten ounces. 

Mr. Lea also exhibited some specimens of Uniones, which were appa- 
rently hybrid, but in reality not so, the discrepancy arising from acci- 
dental causes. 

March dth. 
Mr. Isaac Lea in the Chair. 

Dr. Charles M. Wetherill read a paper intended for publication in the 
Proceediiigs, entitled " Examination of Molybdate of Lead from the 
Wheatley Mine near Phcenixville, Pennsylvania,^' which was referred to 
Mr. Ashmead, Mr. A^aux and Dr. Eand. 

Mr. Lea read a "Description of a new species of SymphynoteUnio," 
which being intended for publication, was referred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. 
Iluschenberger and Dr. Bridges. 

A letter was read from Araory Edwards, Esq., dated New York, 
March 3d, 1852, accompanying the donation of the heads of two 
Gentoo Indians received this evening, of which the following is an ex- 
tract : 

*The Gentoo tribe of Indians inhabit the sources of the Purus river, a South- 
ern tributary of the Amazon. The marshy banks of this river render it so very 
unhealthy that very little is known of its inhabitants. At intervals a half-breed 

1852.] 53 

trader will venture up from the town of Barra, at the junction of the Annazon 
and Negro rivers, who may be able to procure a very small quantity of Balsam 
de Copaiba, or some gums. These traders report this tribe as inoiTensive, living 
on fish and fruits, entirely without clothing, and killing animals with a blow gun 
and poisoned arrows. 

The owner of one of these heads carried it with him, and when fishing, had it 
placed with the face towards him "for luck's sake," and it is extremely rare to 
get them to part with one. 

These are the only ones I have ever met with from this river ; those in the col 
lection of the late Dr. Morton, presented by me, were of the tribe of Mundrucus, 
living between the Tapajos and Madeira rivers, and one is, I think, figured in 
the works of Spix and Von Martius." 

March 10 th. 
Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Librarian of the British Museum, dated Feb. 24, 1852, 
acknowledging the receipt of the Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 11. 

From the Faculty of Harvard College, dated Cambridge, Feb. 27, 1852, 
acknowledging the receipt of a copy .of the Memoir of Dr. Morton by 
Dr. Meigs. 


Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to five heads lying upon the 
table, of what were usually considered as belonging to a single species of Hip- 
popotamus, under the name of H. amphibius. Two of the specimens are 
from North Western Africa, and three from Southern Africa. Between those of 
the two localities, various differences were pointed out, the most important being 
the existence of a single band of enamel upon the upper canines of the North 
Western Hippopotamus, and the band being divided into two by a space of three 
lines on the outer side of the posterior groove in the Southern Hippopotamus. 
Dr. L. therefore concluded with Desmoulins and Duvernoy, that there were two 
distinct species of Hippopotamus, and as that of Northern Africa was the ear- 
liest known, the name, H. amphibius should be retained for it, while that of the 
South should retain Desmoulin's name of H. capensis. 

Dr. Le Conte mentioned that the specimens of Casteroides Ohioensis, 
presented this evening, were important, as giving a new locality to this 
animal. They were obtained by Dr. Feuchtwanger from a well near 
Shawneetown, forty feet below the surface. 

Dr. Hays stated that the tooth of the fossil Tapir presented by him 
this evening, was found in the bed of a canal in North Carolina. It 
had been in his possession for several years, and was the first fossil 
Tapir tooth found in North America. 

March 23c?. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Dr. Leidy called attention to the very fine skeleton of Troglodytes 
gorilla, recently presented to the Academy by Dr. Henry A. Ford of 
Liberia, which is now mounted and in the Hall. The height, as it now 
stands, is four feet nine inches. 

54 [March, 

Mr. Lea made some remarks on the subject of the periodicity of the Family 
TJniouidcB. He mentioned that some of the species matured and ejected from 
their oviducts the perfect shell in the autumn, others in the sprintr, and some 
apparently in the winter. He mentioned that few observations had yet been 
made on this interesting branch of animal economy. He had himself made some 
observations many years since on the JJniones and Anodoiitcs of our vicinity ; 
and his brother, T. G. Lea, had, at his request, made some interesting observa- 
tions of those in the vicinity of Cincinnati, part of which had been noted in the 
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. He then read part of a 
letter from Mr. Joseph Clark of Cincinnati, in vi'hich he mentions having ob- 
served the ))eriodicity of several species within the last six months. Th*^ Ano- 
doiita edentiUa^ Say, was found with oviducts fully charged in September, as 
were also JJnio ellipsis^ Lea, Z7. irroratus^ Lea, U, securis, Lea, TJ. foliauis^ 
Hild. and TJ. orhiculatus, Hild. In October he found the ova of the JJnio multi- 
pllcatiis, Lea, more than half developed, and thinks they would have been ma- 
tured in the spring. In the Unio aiiodontoides, Lea, they were beautifully de- 
veloped, and would probably have been matured and voided in the winter. The 
oviducts of the last species are bordered with a beautiful blue color. 

Thus Mr. Clark's conclusions were the same as to the different periods of 
various species as Mr. Lea's, and there cannot be a doubt but that the terms of 
the species differ according to their own law. 

March ZOtli. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee on Mr. Lea's description of a new Unio, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of a new species of Symphynote JJnio. 

By Isaac Lea. 

Unio Chmingii. Testa alata, plicata, triangulari, valde compressa, postice 
angulata, valde inaequilaterali ; ala elevata, acuminata, margine crenulata ; val- 
vulis subtenuibus, ante et post nates connatis ; natibus, et alae posterioris basi 
apiceque undulatis ; natibus compressis, ad apicem undulatis, baud prominenti- 
bus ; epidermide nitida, tenebroso viridi, perradiata; dentibus cardinalibus la- 
mellatis, lateralibus longissimis, lamellatis subcurvisque; ligamento celato; 
magarita alba et iridescente. 

Shell alate, plicate, triangular, very much compressed, angular behind, very 
inequilateral ; wing high, acuminate, crenulate on the margin ; valves ratiier 
thin, connate before and behind the beak; beaks, and the base and summit of "the 
posterior wing undulated ; beaks compressed, undulated at the tip, not promi- 
nent ; epidermis shining, dark green, radiated all over ; cardinal teeth lamellar ; 
lateral teeth very long, lamellar and somewhat curved; ligament concealed; 
nacre white and iridescent. 

Habitat northern part of China. H. Cuming, Esq. 

Diam. .7, length 2.G, breadth 3.1 inches. 

This very beautiful and rare JJnio is, in form and general outline, very much 
like the Dijysas pUcaticsy Leach, but they cannot be confounded with each other, 
as they belong to very distinct genera, the Dipsas having but one linear tooth 
in each valve, while the above described shell has perfectly well defined lamellar 
cardinal teeth, double in the right and single in the left valve. It also has long, la- 
mellar, lateral teeth, double in the left and single in the right valve. It differs also 
in the folds, having them extending over the flattened side from the beaks, in this 
specimen, which is not half grown, to half the length of the shell. The folds 

1852.] " 55 

on the wing: also differ, the Cumhigii having the row from the beak to the pos- 
terior nnargin much nearer to the umbonial slope. The folds in the superior part 
of the wing are smaller. This shell is very much compressed at the beaks and 
reminds one of the Margaritana compla/iata (nobis.) 

Mr. Cuming informs me that he has received several specimens from the 
northern part of China, and that the full grown ones are 5h inches by 6i 
inches. I dedicate ihe specimen to my friend, Mr. Cuming, to whose kindness I 
owe the possession of my specimen. 

The Committee on the foUowincr paper of Dr. C. M. Wetherill, re- 
ported in favor of publicatiou in the Proceedings : 

Examination of Mohjbdate of Lpad, from Wkeatley^s Mine near Phanixville, 

Chester County^ Pennsylvania , 

By Charles M. Wetherill, Ph. D. 

The mineral was given to me by Mr. W. S. Vaux, who received it from Mr. 
Wheatley. It was found at his mine near Phcenixville, Chester County, Pa. 
The Molybdate occurs with Phosphate of Lead. The crystals (square tables 
modified,) are of light red color. Lustre adamantine, translucent, streak white. 
Before the blow-pipe on charcoal decrepitates, and fuses with reduction of lead. 
On platinum wire with borax in the outer flame is dissolved to a trans- 
parent glass, yellow while hot, colorless on cooling; in the inner flame, the bead 
becomes deep brov^-n when cool. In salt of phosphorus in the outer flame, the 
same reaction occurs as with borax ; in the inner flame the green color charac- 
teristic of Molybdena appears. It dissolves almost completely in nitric acid, 
and in hydrochloric with a residue of chloride of lead ; these solutions are yellow. 
Hardness between selenite and calc spar, or between two and three of Mohs' 
scale. Density ascertained with one gramme of the crystals 5-6. 

A portion of the crystals was analyzed in the moist way by dissolving in boil- 
ins: dilute hydrochloric acid, and separating the crystals of chloride of lead, 
which form on cooling. These crystals were not completely soluble in boiling 
water, but left a residue in small quantity, apparently silica. The solution fil- 
tered from the chloride of lead, treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, gave a dark 
brown precipitate, composed of the sulphurets of lead and molybdenum, the latter 
was dissolved from the lead by hydrosulphuret of ammonia. The filtrate from the 
sulph. hydrogen precipitate contained a trace of iron. 

I was not able to detect chromium either by Ihe moist way or before the blow- 
pipe. The earths and alkaline earths were also absent. 

I am not aware that a red molybdate of lead of American locality has been 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That a copy of the Proceedings, as far as published^ be pre- 
sented to Dr. Henry A. Ford, of Liberia, Africa, in return for his re- 
cent valuable contributions to the Academy, from that country. 

Dr. Elwyn offered the following, which was adopted : 

Rcsolvedj That a Committee be appointed to communicate with Com- 
modore Perry, in relation to making collections of objects of Natural 
History in India, by the IT. S. Expedition which is to sail shortly 
for that station. 

Committee Mr. Cassin, Dr. Ruschenberger and Dr. Elwyn. 

50 [April, 


Amory Eclwanis, Esq., of New York, and Charles IT. Budd, M. D., 
of Peniberton, N. J., were elected 3fembei'!i, and Henry A. Ford, 
M. D., of Liberia, Western Africa, was elected a Correspondent of the 

April QfJi. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

L-'tters were read 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences at Vienna, dated October 26, 
and December 12, 1851, transmitting the " Benksehriften, Mathe- 
matische-Naturwissen. Classe,'^ rol. 3, part I, and '-Sitzungsbericht, 
Mathemat. Naturwissen. Classe/' vol. 6 and vol. 7, parts 1 and 2. 

From Dr. F. H. Troschel, dated Bonn, Jan. 16, 1852, acknowledsinor 
receipt of Proceedings of the Academy, vol. 5, Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, 
and requesting other numbers deficient in his series; also transmitting 
" Archiv fur Naturgeschichte/' No. 6, 1849, No;?. 2, 3, 4 and 5,1850, 
and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1851. 

From the Hoyal Academy of Sciences of Naples, dated Jan. 24, 1852, 
acknowledging the receipt of late Nos. of the Proceedings. 

A paper was presented by Col. George A. McCall, intended for publi- 
cation in the Proceedings, describing a new species of Carpodacus. Ee- 
ferred to Mr. Cassin, Dr. AYoodhouse and Dr. LeConte. 

Dr. Woodhouse read a paper, intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled, "Description of new species of Birds of the genera 
Vireo, Vieill. and Zonotrichia, Sicain.," collected by the author in Texas, 
while attached to the late U. S. Expedition under Captain L. Sitgreaves, 
for exploring the Zuni and Colorado Rivers of the West. Referred to 
Col. McCall, Mr. Cassin and Dr. Wilson. 

Dr. LeConte offered the following additional remarks on some 
fovssil Pachyderms, from Illinois, referred to on page 3 of the present, 
volume : 

Having recently had an opportunity of inspecting an entire skull in the pos- 
session of Dr. Leidy, closely allied to, if not identical with the craniuna described 
by me as Hyops, and afterwards as Dicotyles depressifrons, I have the satisfac- 
tion of being able to arrange this confusing nnixture of bones in a natural man- 
ner. I have seen distinctly that the parts described as belonging to the upper 
jawof Platygonus compressus, in reality belong to Hyops, but that the singularly 
dilated lower jaw associated with them, is part of another animal for which the 
name Platygonus must be retained. The large inferior canine referred to Dico- 
tyles depressifrons is perhaps the canine of the genus with dilated jaw ; at any 
rate, it cannot belong to Hyops, and until the canine of Platygonus is found in 
situ, it would be more natural to consider it as not indicating a third animal, of 
which no other trace remains. 

The inferior molars and canine from another locality, on which the genus 
Protochcerus was founded, also belong to Hyops. In palliation of this blunder, I 
may say, that the cranium end superior canines and molars of Hyops were asso- 
ciated with no lower teeth except those in the fragment of dilated jaw, which 




certainly seemed to accord very closely in size and shapt? with the upper jaw. 
Any one who has observed the very close correspondence between the dentition 
of suiline pachyderms, and the great variation in different portions of the dental 
series, w-ll appreciate the difficulty of apportioning properly small fraiiments of 
closely allied species, and will excuse the faults which I have unconsciously 
committed. As the best reparation for these errors, I subjoin the following 
synonyms of the fiagmcnts of the head, described by me : 

Hyops depressifrons Lee. Am. Journal of Sc 2d series, 5, 103. 

Dicot]jhs .depressifrons Lee. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 6, 3. 

(In part.) Flatygonus comjnesstis Lee. Am. Journal, 1. c. and Trans. Am. 
Ac. Arts, N. ser. 3, p. 1, 2, 3. 

Protocliariia frismaticin Lee. Am. Journal, 1. c. -5, 103: Proc. Ac. 6, 5. 

The fragments to be here referred, are a cranium: fragments of anterior part 
of head with premolars and canines : the entire dental series of upper jaw : except 
the last molar, the canine and two inferior molars of lower jaw, the latter be- 
longing to a smaller specimen of perhaps another species. 

Platygonus c o m p r e s s u s Lee. Am. Journ. 1. c. and Trans. Am. Ac. 

Lower jaw with twoposlerior molars : pi. 3, fig. 7. 

Upper teeth,* posterior molar and two premiolars : pi. 3, fig. 12 and 13, (left 

Mt. Lea stated some of his views .regarding species, and mentioned that the 
subject had engaged the attention of eminent naturalists, some of whom had given 
definitions, which did not fulfil his idea of what constituted that term. Lindley, 
in his Introduction to Botany, has given some very judicious and philosophic 
views on classification. " Species," he says, " are created by Nature hersell, 
and remain always the same in whatever manner they may be combined ; they 
form the basis of all classification, and are the only part of it which can be con- 
sidered absolute." In this he makes no attempt to define his ideas of species. It 
is assumed to be a distinct creation, and unchangeable. 

MM. Ray and Drouet (" Revue et Mag. de Zoologie, 1849 "') give their views 
of what forms a species, in the following terms : " Generalement on entend, par 
ce mot, (espece) un type d'organization de forme et d'activite, rigoureusement 
determine, qui se perpetue successivement par generation directe et d'une ma- 
niere indefinie avec la meme Constance de caracteres." 

Milne Edwards' definition of species, Mr. Lea thought was less clear. He says, 
" On donne le nom d'espece a la reunion des individus, que se reproduisent entre 
eux avec les memes proprietes essentielles." 

Cuvier considered that the fact of the succession, and of the constant succes- 
sion, constituted alone the validity of the species. 

Dr. Morton comprised his view of species, as "a primordial organic form." 

Neither of these definitions fulfil Mr. Lea's idea of what forms a species. It 
seemed tohim,that a species must be considered to hez. primcay estaUished lati\ 
stamped with a persistent form pertaining solely to itself, with the power of 
successively reproducing the same form, and none other. 

Mr. Lea also stated he was about to issue a new edition of his Synopsis of thg 
Family Naiades, with much additional matter. That in the introductory part, 
he had given the classification of various zoologists, and among others those who 
had divided the Naiades by their anatomical differences, viz: D'Orbigny, Tro- 
schel, and Agassiz. In these he said it would be observed, by consulting the 
works of the two first, and a work entitled " Shells of New England," by Mr. 

*The figures of these leeth were sn ban' I y drawn by the artist engaged by nie, and 
still farther deteriorated and altered while in the hands of Mr. Endicoir, that the minute 
differences which distinguish such cloFr'y allird nrvrrials are not lo be seen : in excuse 
for permitting such figures to go before llie uur.d, I must say that the memoir was 
printed during my absence on a scieatifie expedition, and that no opp(<rtunity was offered 
for correcting the proof. 

58 [April, 

W. Stimpson, who cites Prof. Agassiz's MSS., that they do not differ essentially 
in their modes of division. Mr. Lea farther remarked, that our knowledge of 
the structural differences of the soft parts of these animals, he thought, was not 
sufficiently advanced to found a perfect and permanent system. That such a one 
would be instituted he had no doubt, as he had expressed himself in 1838, in a note 
on Anodonta BlainviUia?ia, in the second edition of his Synopsis, p. 31, and he 
trusted, that the able physiologists above cited would continue their investisa- 
tions; but he was disposed to think that, until zoologists had examined carefully 
the soft parts of most of the existing numerous species, the exo-skeletons* 
(so to call them) of which have only come under our notice the facilities which 
a good system ought to afford, cannot be reaped by a partial anatomical know- 
ledge, which does not now embrace probably one eighth of the ascertained spe- 
cies of the family. Besides, he was not at all disposed to think, that we can en- 
tirely dispense with the aid we find in the various characters of the exo-skele- 
tons in making out subgroups. They often, indeed, afford striking and obvious 
differences, which the eye schooled with but little experience, can with facility 
and certainty detect, and which if happily grouped by an experienced eye may 
greatly aid the student. These considerations had induced him still to retain 
nearly the same divisions in the new edition of the Synopsis, which had been 
used in the last one. 

Ajpfil loth. 
Vice President Brides in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Lyceum of Natural History, of New York, dated March 
24, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of a copy of the " Notice of the 
Academy," recently published. 

From Commodore Perry, dated New York, April 9, 1852, addressed 
to Dr. Ruschenberger, expressing his desire and intention to comply 
with the request of the Academy to make scientific researches in the 
East Indies, during the cruise of the U. S. Squadron on that station. 

Dr. LeConte read a paper entitled, "Remarks on some Coleopterous 
Insects, collected by S. W. Woodhouse, M. D., in Arkansas and New 
Mexico," which was referred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. F. Beck, and Dr. Rusch- 

Dr. Zantzinger presented a paper from Mr. Charles Girard, of Wash- 
ington, entitled, " Observations on the North American Astaci, by 
Charles Girard ;" which being intended for publication, was referred to 
Dr. Bridges, Dr. LeConte and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Hallowell read a paper describing new species of Reptilia from 
Western Africa ; which was referred to Dr. Woodhouse, Dr. LeConte 
and Mr. Lea. 

Mr. Lea read a note from Wm. H. Prescott, Esq., dated Boston, 
April 8, 1852, accompanying his donation of the rare work "Registro 
trimestre," announced this evenine:. 

On motion of Mr. Lea, the thanks of the Society were unanimously 
presented to Major LeConte for the valuable donation announced this 
evening, of his entire herbarium of North American Plants. 

Forming the calcareous coverings and fulcra fur muscular fibres, as well as protec- 
tion fi-om exterior forces. 

1852.] 59 

^pril 20th. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Cap^,t. Wm. McCluney, U. S. N., addressed to Dr. Ruschenber- 
ger, dated New York Navy Yard, April 17th, 1852, offering to further 
the objects of the Academy, during the cruise of the U. S. Squadron on 
the E. India station. 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences of Brussels, dated January 10th, 
1850, and March 13th, 1851, acknowledging the receipt of the Journal 
Part 4, Vol. 1, and Part 1, Vol. 2. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper entitled '^ Characteristics of some new Rep- 
tiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, by Spencer F. 
Baird and Charles Grirard;" which, being intended for publication in 
the Proceedings, was referred to a Committee consisting of Dr. Hal- 
lowell. Dr. LeConte and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Leidy also presented a paper from Prof. Dana, being a continu- 
ation of his descriptions of the Crustacea of the Exploring Expedition 3 
which was referred to the original Committee. 

Dr. Leidy read also a paper ^'On the Osteology of the Head of the Hip- 
popotamus and a Description of the Osteological Characters of a New 
Genus of Hippopotamidse," which being intended for publication in the 
Journal, was referred to Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Woodhouse and Dr. 

Dr. Leidy stated that he had been studying the characters of the fossil tortoises 
from Nebraska Territory, and had come to the conclusion that they had been 
terrestrial and not aquatic in their habits,and belonged to the genus Testudo. In all, 
the penultimate vertebral plate is inverted Vformed,enclosing with the pygal plate 
the last vertebral plate ; the costal plates are alternately broad and narrow ; and 
in those specimens in which the marks of the pygal scute remains, it is undivided, 
as in the recent Testudo. The names of those species described recently should 
be changed as follows : 

Testudo Nebrascensis, Leidy. 

Stylemys Nebrascensis, Pr. A. N. S., v. 173. 
Testudo hemispherica, Leidy. 

Emys hemispherica, ib. 
Testudo Oweni, Leidy. 

Emys Oweni, ib. 327. 
Testudo Culbertsonii, Leidy, 

Emys Culbertsonii, ib. vi. 34. 

Dr. L. also called the attention of the members to a specimen of " Red Snow " 
Protococcus nivalis, beneath the microscope, which was brought by Dr. E. K. 
Kane, U. S. N., from the Arctic region. It consists of simple, spherical vesi- 
cles, with a transparent, colorless, shining cell wall, and bright red, granular 
contents. The vesicles or cells measure from the i-1750th to the l-777th of 
an inch in diameter. 


60 - [APRIL;, 

Aj)ra 27th. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee on the following paper by Dr. "Woodhouse, reported 
in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Descriptions of new species of Biyds of the genera Virco, Vieill.f and Zo?^o- 

trichiaf Stvains . 

By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. 

The specimens described in the present paper were procured by me in Texas, 
whilst attached to the expedition under the command of Captain L. Sitgreaves, 
Topographical Engineer U. S. Army, which explored the rivers Zuni and Colo- 
rado of the West. 

Vireo atricapilla, nobis. 

Form. Robust, wings short and slightly rounded, first quill short, third long- 
est; tail extending about one inch beyond the closed wings. 

Dimensions. Total length, 4 5-10, extent of wings, 71, from flexure, 2 1-10, 
length of tail 1 6-10 inches. 

Colors. Head above black, which color extends over the cheeks and ears to 
the base of the lower mandible ; a white ring encircles the eye, and then forms 
a broad band extending to the nares. The plumage of the back is dark olive 
green, slightly tipped with black, and gradually becoming lighter over the rump 
and tail-coverts. Wings and tail dark brown, inclining to black, with their 
outer margin light olive ; greater and lesser wing-coverts broadly tipped with 
dingy white. 

The primaries have a white line extending along their inner edge. Throat, 
belly, and feet white. Sides very light yellow. Iris bright red. Bill, tarsi and 
feet, black. 

Habitat. Western Texas. 

Obs. I procured this bird on the 26th of May, 1851, on the Rio San Pedro, 
two hundred and eight miles from San Antonio, on the road leading from that 
place toEl Paso del Norte. 

I was first attracted by its singular note, which I am unable to imitate. It 
was feeding in the dense cedars, and resembled in its habits our Sylvias, being 
continually in motion, which rendered it rather diflicult to shoot. I procured 
two specimens, both of which, on dissection, proved to be males. 

Zonotrichia Cassinii^ nobis. 

Form. Bill slender and conical, with a well marked ridge between the nos- 
trils, extending about half way down the bill ; wings short and rounded, first 
quill shortest, third and fourth about equal. Tail long and rounded. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail 5 5 10 inches, 
wing from flexure 2 6-10 inches. Tail extending beyond the closed wings about 
1 5-10 inches. Total length, 2 5-10 inches. Bill along the ridge 5i-10 inches. 
From gap to tip 5-10 inch ; tarsus IJ-IO inches. 

Colon. Head and back cinereous brown; throat and breast very light cine- 
rous brown ; sides light brown, with longitudinal brown stripes next the shafts, 
and at their extremities and the surrounding portions of the feather, brownish 
white. Belly and vent dingy white, a strip of dingy white^extending from the 
base of the upper mandible, over and behind the eye. Primaries brown, with 
their outer edges light brown ; secondaries and scapulars brown, with a white- 
ened band encircling them ; wing at the flexure light yellow; the tail, with 
the exception of the two middle feathers, brown, tipped with white, the mid- 
dle feathers light brown and slightly barred; in the outer feathers the white 

1852.] , 61 

extends from the shaft along the outer side ; upper mandible light brown, lower 
light yellow. Tarsus and feet flesh colored ; iris dark brown. 
Habitat. Western Texas. 

Obs. This interesting bird I shot on the prairie near San Antonio, on the 25th 
of April, 1851, and, at the time, took it for the Z. savanna (Wilson,) which it 
much resembled in ' its habits, but upon examination it proved to be totally 
distinct. I found but one specimen, which is a male. 

I have named this in honor of my friend Mr. John Cassin, the Corresponding 
Secretary of this Society, to vv'hose indefatigable labor in the department of 
Ornithology we are so much indebted. 

The Committee to which was referred the followmg paper by Col. 
McCall, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings, 

Note 071 Carpodacus frontalis, (^Say,) with descriptiotv of a new species of the same 

ge?i7is, from Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

By Col. George A. McCall, U. S. A. 

In the Proceedings of this Academy for the months of May and June, 1851, 
was published some account of such Birds as I had met with during the preced- 
ing year in Texas and New Mexico. In that paper, under the name oiCarpoda- 
cus frontalis. Say, I gave an account of the habits of a bird I had found at 
Santa Fe. 

At the time I first observed the bird to which I allude, I believed it to be of 
a species not previously described, and I brought \\\t\\ me from New Mexico 
specimens of the adult birds, the young, the nest and the eggs. But on my ar- 
rival in this city, a comparison with C. frontalis resulted in the decision that 
my specimens were of that species ; they were accordingly presented to the 
Academy as such, together with an account of their habits. Recently, however, 
my attention has been called to these birds (a close examination of them having 
been made by Dr. Wilson and Mr. Cassin) and a satisfactory conclusion has 
been arrived at, that the birds referred to do not belong to the s'^ecies frontalis, 
but are of a species not previously described ; I therefore propose the name fami- 
liaris, and annex hereto an accurate description which w^as taken from an ex- 
amination of a number of specimens, killed at Santa Fe in the spring of 1850. 

~Carj)odacns familiaris .* 

Adult male. Front, sides of head, chin, throat and rump, crimson; crow^n, 
hind-neck and fore part of back, brownish crimson passing into brown on the 
after part of the back ; fore part of the breast brownish crimson fading into light 
dusky brown on the abdomen, which, with the under tail coverts, is striped wath 
blackish brown ; wungs and tail, dusky brown, each feather edged with pale 
brown, which is broadest on the wing coverts ; bill robust and curved on the 
ridge, and together with the legs and feet dark dusky; iris black. Length, six 
inches one line, alar extent ten inches ; wdng from the flexure three and a quar- 
ter inches. 

The female, (in size rather less than the male,) is above, of a dusky brown 
edged with light brown ; beneath, pale brown longitudinally striped with dark 
brown ; wings and tail dusky, edged with pale brown. The young on the first 
of May were nearly full fledged, and were similar in color to the female, though 

It will be seen from the foregoing description that the present species differs 
from C. frontalis in having the crimson less decidedly defined that color being 
diff'used over a greater part of the body, and gradually fading into brown. 

62 [April, 

The Committee on Dr. HallowcH's paper describing new species 
of Reptiles, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Descrlptio7i of netif species of Keptilia from Western Africa* 
By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 
PHRACTOGONUS,* Halloivell. 

Snbgeneric Characters. Head conical, presenting two large plates upon its 
upper surface. Nostrils below the rostral. A row of longitudinal shields upon 
the chest. Body and tail annulated ; lateral pores near the anus. 

Phractogonus gahatus. 

Specific Characters. Five teeth in the lower jaw on each side ; four maxillary 
on each side of the upper jaw, and two intermaxillary teeth; two large plates upon 
the head; lateral pores near the anus; pectoral shields four in number, long 
and narrow; two hundred and fourteen rings upon the body, eighteen upon the 

Description. The head is small and somewhat triangular, rounded in front. 
It presents upon its upper surface two large plates, one of which forms the ros- 
tral. The posterior of these is much the larger, and is more extended 
transversely than in its antero-posterior diameter. It presents three 
distinct margins anteriorly, its posterior margin being somewhat 
rounded ; its superior surface is convex. The rostral is rounded an- 
teriorly, depressed above ; its anterior margin presents an acute edge. 
The snout extends nearly a line beyond the mouth. In an angle formed by the 
plates just described, on each side of the head, is one which is narrow and 
oblong ; and immediately behind it another very small and quadrilateral ; behind 
this at the angle ofthe mouth is a triangular plate, its base presenting back- 
ward ; between them at the posterior part of the head are four narrow and 
more or less oblong and two smaller ones. The nostrils are 
quite small, V shaped, a line apart, and are situated upon the under 
part of the snout, in a narrow plate immediately behind the 
rostral. The eyes are not visible. Five labial plates margin the 
upper jaw on each side. There are three upon the margin of the lower 
jaw', tfe posterior of which is very large and quadrilateral. The mental 
plate is also large, with a rounded posterior margin. The pectoral shields 
are four in number, the two middle ones by their junction forming a tri- 
angle superiorly. They are each about three lines and three-fourths in length, 
and a line in breadth. The two lateral shields, which are pentagonal, have their 
/^.ys. bases precisely in aline with those of the intermediate plates. Im- 
/\X-J\ mediately above the two middle pectoral are two small quadrilateral 
J r T ones about a line in breadth ; their external and inferior margin is 
j I "in contact with the superior and internal margin of the long and 

' V I J / narrow external pectoral shields. There are nine semicircular 
rings upon the upper part of the body terminating at the base ofthe 
pectoral plates. There are 214 rings upon the body, and 18 upon the tail. 
Body slender, cylindrical, fifteen lines in circumference at its middle, of an 
obscure white color : (the specimen has been preserved in alcohol). The back 
of the animal is covered with numerous small quadrangular scuta, looking 
^ I j j-p, like mosaic : they are wider apart upon the abdomen, which has a 
V' '^JJ.^Jtg/ smooth appearance. No longitudinal sulci are observed upon the body. 
There are two lateral pores quite distinct, each in a separate scale 
on the left side of the row of pmnanal scales, and one near the centre of a scale 
on the right ofthe same row. The scales in front ofthe anus are six in riumber, 
the two middle ones oblons; and quadrilateral, the lateral ones irregular in shape. 
Biviensioiis. Length of head Ah lines, of neck and body 13 inches (Fr.) 10 
lines, of tail l-Oi lines. 

Geographical distribution. Liberia, West Coast of Africa. 

<I>/i*xTof munitus, ymoi; angulns. 

1852.] 63 

Habits. But little is known of the habits of this animal. They probably re- 
semble those of the Amphisba'nidcT. 

General Remarks. But three species of Lepidosternon are described by Dume- 
ril and Bibron in their Erpetologie Generale, viz., Lep. microcephalum, L. 
phocaena, and L. scutigerum. From the microcephalum, the species upon which 
the genus was founded by Spix, galeatus differs in the form and number of the 
pectoral shields, the number of plates upon the head, and in being a much more 
slender animal. Lepidosternon phocaena presents twelve plates upon the head, and 
the pectoral shields are small and lozenge shaped. The resemblance between the 
animal just described and the L. scutigerum, the Cephalopeltis Cuvieri of Muller, 
is more close, but it differs from it in several well marked particulars, viz., the 
position of the nostrils, which in all the species described by Dumeril and Bibron 
are stated to be in the rostral plate. They are distinctly so drawn in the figure of 
the L. microcephalum of Spix, in his work on the serpents of Brazil. In L. galeatus 
the nostrils are situated in a plate immediately below the rostral. It differs also 
in having lateral anal pores, which are not mentioned as existing in either of the 
described species of Lepidosternon, and in the number of rings upon the body 
and tail. These are stated by Dumeril and Bibron to be three hundred and four- 
teen for the body and fourteen or fifteen for the tail. The L. scutigerum is there- 
fore a much longer animal, measuring 18! inches. All the species of Lepidos- 
ternon hitherto described are from South America. 

The reptile most nearly resembling the above described animal is undoubtedly 
the Monaspis capensis of Dr. Andrew Smith, (Illustrations of the Zoology of 
South Africa. Keptilia, pi. 67.) The nostrils in the plate of Dr. Smith are 
placed as in Phractogonus, but no mention is made of his description of lateral 
anal pores. The number of rings upon the body is 206, of the tail 7. The 
prfeanal scale is divided as in L. galeatus into six compartments, and the pectoral 
shields are the same in number but differ in shape. The head, however, has but 
a single plate or shield, and hence the name Monaspis, which cannot with pro- 
priety be applied to an animal with two. I therefore prefer the name Phracto- 
gonus. The greater or less number of plates upon the head may, as Dr. Smith 
observes, be of specific importance only, but the position of the nostrils and the 
presence of lateral anal pores are characters of sufficient value to warrant the 
establishment of a subgenus. 

Hemic ACT YLUS angulatus. 

Specific Characters. Upper part of body co^'ered with tubercles, dis- 
posed in oblique parallel rows converging toward the middle line of 
the back. A large triangular plate under the chin. Tail of same 
length as head and body. Tail subquadrangular at its base, tapering 
gradually towards a point. 

Description. The head of this animal is of moderate size, flattened above, 
somewhat swollen at the temples. The snout is triangular, depressed abovp, 
the nostrils which are small and circular being: placed nearly a line apart about 
half a line above the opening of the mouth. There is a row of nine or ten plates 
upon each side of the upper jaw; of these the two or three nearest the snout 
appear to be the largest. The same number exists upon each side of the lower 
jaw. The nostril is in a narrow, oblong, quadrilateral plate. The mental plate is 
large and triangular, with two smaller quadrangular plates on each side at the 
apex of the trians^le. The meatus auditorius is very distinct, of moderate size, 
oval in shape. The eyes are large and lateral, with rounded pupils. The upper 
half of the orbit is bordered by a single row of conical scales. The chin and 
throat are covered with small granular scales, which are somewhat larger near the 
chin. The scales upon the neck and abdomen are smooth and quadrangular, 
running in oblique rows. The upper part of the body presents numerous tuber- 
cles arranged in oblique rows, converging toward the middle line of the back* 
The interspaces between the tubercles are covered with very numerous black 
points. Upon the head and neck, numerous tubercles, larger and more abundant 
upon the neck, are observed, arranged in an irregular manner. The upper and 
lateral surfaces of the snout are covered with tubercles thickly agglomerated. 

64 [April, 

A well marked depression exists upon the snout and upper part of the head. 
There are thirteen or fourteen femoral pores in the specimen examined, but no 
pores immediately in front of the anus. Three or four of these pores extend 
beyond the thigh on each side about a line in front of the anus. The under sur- 
face of the extremities is covered with small imbricated scales, which are very 
minutely punctated with black. The under part of the fingers is provided with 
a double row of imbricated scales divided by a median line. The upper surface of 
the tail presents numerous scattered tubercles, the under surface transverse scuta, 
somewhat indistinct. 

Coloration. Upper part and sides of head yellowish. Upper part of body 
light chocolate color, with numerous minute points of black ; upper surface of 
extremities of a lighter color than rest of body. Under part of body and extre- 
mities light straw color. 

Dimensions Length of head eight lines ; greatest breadth five lines. Length 
of body one inch and a half (Fr.) ; of tail two inches. 

Geographical distribution. \^ est coast of Africa. 

Remarks. This species differs from all the species of Hemidactylus described 
by Dumeril and Bibron. It is well characterized by the angular plate at the 
chin and the disposition of the rows of tubercles upon the back. 

AcONTiAS elegans. 
Specific Characters. No inferior eyelid; two internasal plates, 
pentagonal, articulating with the rostral; frontal heptagonal, broader 
than long; an interparietal hexagonal, more extended transversely 
than antero-posteriorly ; an occipital plate larger than either of the 
others, hexagonal, its supero-external margin hollowed ; a parietal 
plate, a fronto-parietal, one supra-ocular, two posterior-oculars; a fre- 
nal, and a freno-orbitar much smaller than the frenal. 

Bescriftion. The head ot this animal is small, depressed, triangular in shape 
above, rounded in front; the rostral plate encloses the extremity of the snout and 
presents a slit on each side posteriorly, extending backward and inferiorly in a 
curved direction to its posterior border; immediately above the rostral are two 
internasal plates, pentagonal, their inferior margin articulating with the posterior 
margin of the rostral ; the frontal, interparietal and occipital form a longitudinal 
row nearly equal in size, upon the middle and upper part of the head. The in- 
ternasal articulate with each other by their narrowest or internal margin, with 
the frontal, the frenal and the first labial; the frontal with the internasal, the 
interparietal, the freno-orbitar and the supra-ocular ; the interparietal with the 
supra-ocular ; and the fronto-parietal with the frontal anteriorly and the occi- 
pital posteriorly ; the occipital articulates in front with the interparietal, later- 
ally on each side with the parietal and the fronto-parietal ; the parietal are oblong, 
inequilateral, longer from behind forward than in the opposite direction ; the 
fronto-parietal are hexagonal, larger than the parietal ; the supra-ocular are also 
hexagonal; the frenal plate is quadrangular articulating with the internasal, the 
frontal, the supra-ocular, the freno-orbitar and the first labial. The eyes are 
distinct but without an eyelid. They are situated in an interspace formed by five 
scales, and covered by a scale a very little larger than the eye; the inferior of 
the five is the second supra-labial. Three plates margin the upper jaw on each 
side ; there are three upon the lower ; the most anterior of the upper row is 
quite large, presenting an acute angle forward and upward. The plate upon the 
under jaw, immediately behind the mental, is long and narraw ; the nostrils are 
small, oval, nearly a line apart: immediately behind the mental is a transversely 
elongated triangular plate, the apex of the triangle presenting backward. Body 
slender, flattened below ; tail long, covered at its extremity with minute trape- 
zoidal scales ; body and tail covered with smooth imbricated scales above and 
below: their posterior margin is convex, and they have a striated appearance, 
each scale having from two to five whitish striae ; the striation on the under sur- 
face ; is quite remarkable ; a single scale in front of the anus. There are twenty 
longitudinal rows of scales around the body. Tongue oval, covered with nu- 
merous small papilla-, slightly bifid at its extremity. Marginal teeth very 

1852.] ^5 

small ; no teeth in the palate, which is also without a longitudinal groove ; no 
meatus audilorius externus visible. 

Coloratioji. Above dark chestnut color, the edges of the scales bordered with 
ash color, giving the whole a tesselated appearance ; under part of abdomen and 
tail same color, but brighter ; chin, snout, upper and under jaw yellow. 

Dimensions. Length of head 4 lines, greatest breadth 2 lines. Length of 
head and body 5 inches (Fr.) ; of tail 2 inches 4 lines. 

Geograpliical distrihulion. Liberia, West Coast of Africa. 

General Remarks. This animal has a general resemblance to the Acontias 
meleagris of Cuvier, the only species of Acontias hitherto described, but it 
differs from it in many important particulars, several of which beeome evident 
even upon a superficial examination. Thus it is only necessary to compare the 
plates of the head with the figure of them given in the filty-eighth plate of Du- 
meril and Bibron, to perceive at once that it is not the same animal. The A. me- 
leajiris is also larger, measuring 9! inches (Fr.) ; but the tail is nearly an inch 
shorter, measuring 1^ inches. It differs also in having an inferior eyelid, which 
elegans has not ; and in the form of the eye, which in meleagris resembles a 
longitudinal slit, but which in elegans is circular. The longitudinal fissure in the 
posterior part of the rostral plate is straight in meleagris, in elegans it is 
curved; meleagris presents a longitudinal groove in the palate, elegans has 
none; the scales upon the body are hexagonal in meleagris, in elegans they 
are trapezoidal. The number of rows of scales differs in the two animals. In 
the one there are but fourteen, in the other twenty. 

The species of reptiles just described, with a beautiful specimen of Onycho- 
cephalus Liberiensis, were presented to the Academy by Dr. Henry A. Ford of 
Liberia, the gentleman to whom we are also indebted for the magnificent skele- 
ton of Troglodytes gorilla, the largest known Troglodyte. 

The Committee on the following paper by Dr. LeConte, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Remarks on some Coleofterous insects collected by S. TV. Woodhoicse, M. jD., in 

Missouri Territory and New Mexico. 

By John L. LeConte, M. D. 

The collection of insects made by Dr. Woodhouse, to whom science is so 
much indebted for extensive researches on the natural history of the regions 
west of the Mississippi, consists chiefly of species from the boundary of the 
tract of land which the liberal policy of our Government has set apart for the 
Creek Indians, and were procured while he was attached to a surveying party 
under Capt. Sitgreaves, of the Topog. Corps. The bulk of the collection made 
in Texas and in New Mexico, has unfortunately been lost in the acccidents to 
which the traveller is so frequently subjected in those wild and dangerous 
regions. The few, however, that remain, are of such interest as to cause us 
doubly to regret the destruction of the rest, and fervently to hope that the in- 
dustry of future travellers may soon repair these unavoidable losses. 

1. Cicindela cuprascens subelongata, subcylindrica, capite thoraceque 
fusco-aeneis, hoc lateribus leviter rotundatis tenuiter albo-pubescente, impression- 
ibus transversis profundis, linea longitudinali tenui, elytris thorace sesquilatiori- 
bus dense punctatis cupreis, macula basali, margine toto laterali, striga obliqua 
subhumerali, apice hamata, faspia media elongata valde refracta intus dentata, 
lunulaque apicali ochroleucis dilatatis, apice oblique sinuatis acutis, serrulatis ; 
trochanteribus posticis testaceis ; labro albo, transverso, edentato. Long. '4 '53. 

Cicindela blanda var. /S. Lee. Ann. Lye. 4, 180. 

I found several specimens of this elegant species on the Arkansas river, and 
have heretofore considered it as a variety of C. blanda Dej. After further ex- 

66 [April, 

amination I am convinced that it must be considered as distinct. It is closely- 
allied to C. blanda, but is less elongated in its form, and the elytra, although 
cylindrical, are not so convex. The labrum is short, and, as in C. blanda, the 
teeth of the anterior edge are obsolete ; the palpi are pale, with the tips brassy 
green. The thorax is very finely, not densely wrinkled ; the sides are more 
rounded than in C. blanda, although as in that species, they are less convex in 
the female. The elytra are of a brilliant copper-color, more coarsely and dense- 
ly punctured than in C. blanda. The markings are as in C. blanda, but very 
broad, and the upper part of the medial fascia is less tortuous. The elytra of 
the female is strongly excised on the outer edge near the tip, precisely 
as in C. blanda. The body beneath is greenish bronze, covered with fine dense 
white hair ; the posterior trochanters are testaceous. 

The insect that I have considered as C. blanda var. y must also be separated 
as a distinct species under the name. 

C. t a r s a 1 i s , elongata, vix cylindrica, fusco-picea opaca, thorace lateribus 
rotundatis, utrinque leviter constricto, breviter albo pubescente, elytris ochreis, 
sutura antice lineolisque obliquis fuscis, apice oblique attenuatis serrulatis ; 
labro transverso, edentato ; tibiis testaceis trochantibusposticis flavis, tarsis pos- 
ticis longissimis. Long. -48. 

One male, Canootche river, Georgia. The diagnosis enables this species to 
be distinguished from the preceding and from C. blanda. The color is dull, 
without any metallic gloss. The elytra are less cylindrical and less convex, and 
the markings are so broad that the interstices between them are reduced to nar- 
row fuscous lines ; the punctures of the dark parts of the elytra are large and 
dense, but not deep. The tibiae are pale, with the tip darker ; the posterior tarsi 
are more than one-fourth longer than in C. blanda. The body beneath is black, 
covered with short, dense white hair. 

2. Cicindela cumatilis Lee. Ann. Lye. 5, 173. 

A variety of this beautiful species was found with the spots much larger than 
in the type, so that the medial band attains the margin, and is only interrupted 
on the disc : the spot anterior to the apical lunule is also enlarged, and there is 
a very minute white humeral dot. 

3. C i cind e 1 a n. sp. 

A very small species, probably allied to C. germanica, indicated only by a 
single elytron. The markings are so different from any other species within 
our territory, that a description of even this fragment will enable the species to 
be easily recognized. 

The color is brownish black, without metallic lustre ; the surface is sericeous 
with fine granulations ; the punctures are distant, large and deep ; the humeral 
lunule is very narrow ; the oblique posterior part is curved ; the margin is 
white, interrupted only at the apical lunule ; the anterior band perpendicular, 
and united to the margin externally, descending slightly at its inner part, and 
terminating in a small spot near the suture ; the margin along the apical lunule 
is finely serrate, and obliquely attenuated almost to the tip, which is very 
suddenly rounded, and almost truncate ; the suture is armed with a very mi- 
nute spine. 

4. Lachnophorus elegantulus Man. Bull. Mosc. 1843, p. 43: ibid 
184G, p. 7. 

Tacky pus mediosignatiis Menetries, Bull. Soc. Petrop. 1843. This pretty 
little insect seems to have a very extensive distribution. I found it in abun- 
dance on the banks of the Gila near the Pimas villages. Dr. Woodhouse 
took it on the Creek Boundary, and Mr. Pease brought a specimen from 
Mexico. ' , 

5. Chlcenius vafer, nigro piceus, capite cyaneo, thorace cyanescente, 
latitudine breviore, antrorsum angustato et lateribus rotundato, subtiliter obso- 
lete punctato, elytris thorace latioribus dense punctulatis, et pubescentibus, 
striis fere ad apicem fortiter punctatis, antennarum basi pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Long. "45. 

1852.] 67 

Creek Boundarj^. This species is allied to C. tricolor, nemoralis, vicinus, &c., 
but the punctures on the thorax are very small and alnnost obliterated. The 
labrum is wide, scarcely emarginate ; the head is bright blue, very finely punc- 
tulate and wrinkled; the thorax is blueish, wider than long, at the apex nar- 
rower than at the base; very much rounded on the sides anteriorly ; the base 
is truncate ; the angles obtuse, not rounded ; the disc scarcely convex, finely 
and very obsoletely punctured; the basal impressions long and shallow. The 
elytra are wider than the thorax, dull black; the striae are deeply punctured 
nearly to the tip ; the interstices are slightly convex, and very finely punc- 
tured. The first three joints of the antennae, the palpi and the legs are ferru- 

6. Euryderus zabroides Lee. An. Lye. 4, 152, tab. 8, fig. 5. 
The genus Eurydera Lap. seems to be founded upon good characters, although 

it was for a long time refused by entomologists. Its adoption requires a change 
of name for my genus, and in allusion to the singular form of .the anterior tibiae, 
I give Nothopus as the new generic name. 

7. Calosoma externum. Carabus externns Say. J. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 
150: Lee. An. Lye. 4, 445. Calosoma longipemie Dej. Sp. Gen. 5, 568. This 
insect after all, seems to be a genuine Calosoma, by the structure of the antennae 
and palpi. I have seen specimens without wings, but extensive observation has 
convinced me this is to be considered as accidental. Its form is more similar 
to Carabus than any other species of Calosoma. 

8. Euphoria melancholica Schaum. An. Ent- Soc. Fr. 2d ser. 2, 
374. A specimen from New Mexico has the thorax and elytra much less punc- 
tured than the Louisiana specimens, but I can find nothing worthy of being con- 
sidered as a specific difference. 

9. Eleodes s u 1 c ata, nigra, thorace parvo, ovato, parce punctulato, 
basi truncato, elytris ovalibus apice acutis,dorso depressis, postice valde declivi- 
bus, profunde sulcato-striatis, sulcis granulatis, femoribus anticis breviter ar- 
matis. Long. '75 -97. 

A fine species, abundant in every part of Missouri Territory and easily dis- 
tinguished by its sulcate elytra. Head punctured. Thorax a little wider than 
long, rounded on the sides, narrowed behind ; moderately convex, sparsely 
punctured, anterior angles prominent acute, base truncate. Elytra more 
than twice as wide as the thorax, elongate oval, depressed on the disc, 
deflexed at the apex, which is acute ; the lateral margin obtuse ; striag broad, 
deep and obtuse, rough with elevated points ; interstices not wider than the 
striae, convex, marked each with a single series of distant punctures; epipleurae 
less deeply striate than the disc. Anterior thighs armed with a short, sharp 
tooth. The female differs by having the elytra broader and less acute at 
the tip. 

10. Myodes scaber, ater confertim punctatus, vertice elevato, tho- 
race antrorsum angustato, utrinque truncato, medio obsolete carinato, elytris 
parce punctatis, abdomineque flavis. Long. '35. 

A very imperfect specimen from the Creek boundary, which is distinguished 
from another Southern species having a yellow abdomen, by its much larger 
size, more punctured head and thorax, and immaculate black feet. I am in- 
clined to believe that the color of the abdomen is a sexual character as in the 
European M. subdipterus. 

11. AcmcEodera variegata, cupreo-aenea, pilosa, thorace brevi 
confertissime punctato, macula laterali lutea, elytris basi minus convexis, fasciis 
irregularibus luteis anterioribus confluentibus. Long. '35. 

The specimen of Dr. Woodhouse being imperfect, ni)'" description is taken from 
some collected by Mr. Fendler near Santa Fe. 

Body coppery-bronzed, with erect brown hair. Thorax very densely and 
coarsely punctured, three times as wide as long, sides rounded anteriorly, al- 


68 [April, 

most parallel behind ; margin behind the middle with a yellow spot. Elytra 
less convex at the base than in A. pulchella, with rows of large points, becom- 
ing striae behind the middle ; interstices with a single series of small distant 
punctures ; the ordinary yellow bands are more numerous, and those before the 
middle are confluent, so oidy the suture, a large humeral spot and a transverse 
spot one fourth way from the base, remain bronzed. The two posterior fasciffi 
are oblique ; the anterior one of them includes a small marginal spot ; the tip is 
yellow. Beneath immaculate, bronzed, punctured. Varies with the anterior spot 
of the elytra large and confluent with the suture. 

12. Dicerca Woodhousii, aenea, nitida, chalybeo-variegata, tho- 
race cribratim punctato, brevi, lateribus valde rotundatis, antrorsum angustato, 
angulis posticis rectis, elytris apice integris, seriatim crenatis, maculis irregu- 
laribus opacis transversis profunde impressis. Long. "72 '97. 

I take great pleasure in dedicating this fine species, to the enterprising travel- 
ler to whom we owe its discovery. 

Body coppery-bronze, varied with bluish reflections, moderately stout and 
convex ; head strongly punctured, with three faint confluent elevated lines on 
the front, labrum green ; thorax cribrate, more than twice as broad as long, nar- 
rowed in front, very strongly rounded on the sides, narrowed a little towards 
the posterior angles, which are rectangular and sharp. Elytra with rows of 
large points, and with numerous deep impressed subconfluent spaces, which are 
opake, densely punctured and finely pubescent ; tip entire. Legs green bron- 
zed, knees, tip of the tibiae, and tarsi steel blue. Tip of the abdomen of the 
male very slightly truncate ; of the female rounded. 

13. Pristilophus puncticollis, niger, nitidus, thorace antrorsum 
subangustato, lateribus confertim, disco minus dense punctato, elytris crenato- 
striatis, interstitiis paulo convexis, distinctius punctulatis. Long. -75 -9 

This species is tolerably abundant in every part of Missouri Territory. It is 
closely allied to P. m o r i o Germ. Zeitsch. 4, 85, but the elytral strias are not so 
deep, and the interstices are but very slightly convex. Head strongly punctur- 
ed. Thorax longer than wide, somewhat narrowed in front, slightly rounded on 
the sides, which are strongly margined ; disc moderately punctured, sides very 
densely punctured, scarcely impressed towards the anterior angles, posterior 
angles slightly diverging. Elytra as wide as the thorax, striae punctured, not 
deeply impressed, intertices scarcely convex, finely and irregularly punctured. 

14. Arhopalus charus, Lee. Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. 2d ser. 2, 17. 
Among those brought by Dr. Woodhouse is a variety, in which the yellow tip 
of the elytra is much larger, inclosing a black spot. 

The Committee to whicli was referred a paper by Prof. Baircl and 
Mr. Charles Girard on the characteristics of some New Reptiles in the 
Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, reported in favor of publication 
in the Proceedings. 

Characteristics of some New Reptiles in the Musenvi of the Smithsonian 


By Spencer F. Baird and Charles Girard. 

Full descriptions and figures of these species will shortly appear in Capt. 
Stansbury's Report to Congress on the great Salt Lake (Utah.) 

SiREDON LICHENOIDES, B, Body uniform blackish brown, covered all over 
with licheniform patches of grayish yellow ; snout rounded ; tail compressed, 
and lanceolated ; toes broad and short. Caught by R. H. Kern, Esq., in a lake 
at the head of Santa Fe Creek in New Mexico. 

1852.] 69 

Cnemidophorus TIGRIS, B. and G. Scales on the subguttural fold small in size; 
four yellowish indistinct stripes along the dorsal region. From the Valley of 
the great Salt Lake. Collected by Cupt. Stansbury. 

Crotaphytits Wislizenii, B. and G. Head proportionally narrow and elong- 
ated ; cephalic plates and scales on the back very small ; yellowish brown, spot- 
ted all over with small patches of deeper brown or black. Caught near Santa 
Fe, by Dr. Wislizenius ; specimens of the same species sent in by Lieut. Col. 
J. D. Graham, collected between San Antonio and El Paso del Norte. 

L/TA (nov. gen.) B. and G. Upper part of body covered with small scales ; a 
pectoral fold of the skin ; auditory apertures ; femoral pores present, whilst anal 
pores are wanting. 

Uta Stansburiana, B. and G. Tail slender, elongated and conical, provided 
with large scales disposed in verticils ; a subgular fold in advance of the pecto- 
ral one. From the valley of the great Salt Lake ; brought home by Capt. Stans- 
bury. ' 

ScELOPORus graciosus, B. and G. Head subconical ; scales of the back 
larger than in any other part of the body ; tail of medium size, slender and 
conical. From the valley of the great Salt Lake. 

Elgaria sci.vcicauda, B. and G. This is the Tropidohpis scincicaudus of Mr. 
Skilton as published in Silliman's Journal vii. 1S49, 202. The specimen there 
described and figured is immature. From full-grown individuals we have 
drawn the following characters : Dusky green above, light ash colored below. 
Eleven transverse black bands on the back interrupted on the dorsal line, white 
dotted on their posterior margin. There are six or more of these bands on the 
tail. Thirteen to fourteen rows of scales, all of which well carinated. This 
species inhabits Oregon and California. 

Plestiodon SKILTONIA^^u3I,B. and G. Head small, continuous wdth the body ; 
tail stout, very long and subquadrangular. Olivaceous brown, with one broad 
band of black on each side. Inhabit Oregon in company with the preceding. 
Collected by Rev. George Geary. 

Phrynosoma PLATYRHiNos, G. Suout truucatcd, flattened, concave ; nostrils 
situated within the internal margin of the superciliary ridge ; occipital and tem- 
poral spines of middle size ; one row of pyramido-horizontal and abdomino- 
peripheric scales, smaller than in Fhr. Douglassii. Lower surface of head 
covered with small and nearly uniform scales ; on the sides and near the neck 
a series appears a little more conspicuous, slightly raised and acute. Infra- 
marginal series of plates large, of stout appearance, sharp and acute, above 
which two row^s of small plates are seen lining the margin of the lower jaw. 
Scales of the body of middle size. Femoral pores very conspicuous, but more 
apart than in Phr. Douglassii. The lower surface of the body is unicolor. 
From Great Salt Lake ; collected by Capt. Stansbury's party. 

Phrynosoma modestum, G. Snout truncated, flattened, but not concave. 
Nostril openings situated within the internal margin of the superciliary ridge. 
Occipital and temporal spines but little developed. No pyramido-horizontal 
scales at the periphery of the abdomen. Lower surface of head covered with 
minute, generally uniform, scales. Row of inframarginal plates resembling 
that in Fhr. platyrhinos, above which, however, one single series of smaller 
plates is observed, lining the margin of the lower jaw. Scales on the belly pro- 
portionally larger than in any other species, smooth, subquadrangular or trape- 
zoidal. Femoral pores conspicuous, the series from right and left meeting on 
the middle line of the belly and forming a curve, the convexity of which is 
turned backwards towards the vent ; the lower surface of the body is unicolor. 
Brought from the valley of the Rio Grande west of San Antonio, by Gen. 
Churchill, and from betw^een San Antonio and El Paso del Norte, by Lieut. 
Col. J. D. Graham. 

70 [April. 

Churchillia (nov. gen.) B. and G. Three pairs of frontal plates, one more 
than in Coluber and TropidoJiotus ; a very small loral, and several small post- 
orbitals. Scales carinated. 

Churchillia bellona, B. and G. Body yellowish, with a series of large sub- 
hexagonal patches of brown bordered with black, and two or three rows of 
smaller patches on the sides ; a brownish black band across the eyes from top of 
head to the angle of the mouth. Collected by Gen. Churchill on his march 
along the Rio Grande in 1846. 

Coluber mormon, B. and G. Posterior frontal plates very large ; vertical 
plate long and narrow on its middle ; eyes very large. Found in the valley 
of the Great Salt Lake by Capt. Stansbury. 

Heterodon nasicum, B. and G. Numerous minute frontal plates instead of 
two large pairs ; two brown stripes over the head ; temporal patches very broad. 
Collected in Texas by Gen. Churchill. 

The Committee to which was referred a paper by Dr. Leidy, entitled 
"On the Osteology of the Head of the Hippopotamus and a description 
of the osteological characters of a new genus of Hippopotamidae/' reported 
in favor of publication in the Journal. 


The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Academy, viz. : 
J. C. Trautwine, Esq. ; J. Forsyth Meigs, M. D. ; Jacob G-. Morris, 

Esq.; Rev. Henry W. Ducachet; Frederick A. Genth, M. D. ; Elias 

Durand, Esq,; J. M. Allen, M. D.; James Aitken Meigs, M, D. ; 

William Camac, M. D.; Mr. Henry J. Boiler; Mr. Greorge Zeager; all 

of Philadelphia. 


Mmj \t\ 1852. 
Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

Letters were read : 

From Commander H. F. Adams, U. S. N., dated Philadelphia, 
April 20th, 1852, addressed to Dr. Ruschenberger, acknowledging the 
receipt of a copy of his ''Notice of the Academy of Natural Sciences,^' 
and expressing his desire to further the objects of the Institution, 
during his connection with the projected U. S. Expedition to the East 

From Dr. Wm. F. Daniel, dated London, March 12th, 1852, accom- 
panying the donation of a copy of his work on the Diseases, &c., of 
Western Africa. 

Dr. LeConte presented a communication intended for publication, en- 
titled, '' Synopsis of the Anthicites of the United States.'' Referred 
to Dr. Leidy, Dr. Henderson and Dr. Hallowell. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of members to two crania of extinct species of 
Ox. One is the original specimen described by Dr. Wistar in the Transactions 
of the Am. Phil. Soc.,and afterwards named Bos bombifrons by Dr. Harlan. The 
second specimen was found on the shore of the Arkansas river, and was brought 
to this city by Mr. Thomas Kite, of Cincinnati. It is remarkable for the very 
large process crowning the top of the head, resembling a thick exostosis. Dr. 
Dekay has described a fragment of the same species,* and referred it to the Bos 
Pallasii, from which it is, however, very distinct. Dr. L. stated that this fossil, 
as well as that described as Bos bombifrons, were remarkable for the possession 
of large larmiers or lachrymal depressions, as in the deer ; and if these are pos- 
sessed by the Ovibos moschatus, the two fossils would belong to the same genus 
as Ovibos bombifrons and O. cavifrons ; but if they are not possessed by Ovibos, 
as is stated to be the case by Desmarest, the two latter species would form a new 
genus, for which the name Bootherium is proposed. 

May 11th. 
Major John LeConte in the Chair. 

Letters were read : 

From the Smithsonian Institution, dated Washington, April 14, 
1852, acknowledging the receipt of the Proceedings of the Academy, 
Vol. vi. No. 1. 

From Prof. A. Retzius, dated Stockholm, Oct. 16, 1851, accompany- 
ing his donation of works announced this evening. 

From the Rev. Dr. Ducachet, dated May 5, 1852, acknowledging the 
receipt of his notice of election as a Member. 

Mr. Langstroth, referring to the specimens of Honey Ant presented by him 
this evening, remarked that they were obtained by his brother in the vicinity 
of Matamoras, Mexico. He had learned that a part of the colony are incapable 
of locomotion, and are used as living repositories for the surplus honey of the 
colony, which in time of need answer the purpose of the full honey-combs of 
the bee. 

An. Lye. Nat. Hist., Vol. 2, p. 280, pi. vi. 


72 . [May, 

Dr. Leidy remarked that the honey was contained within the stomach, which, 
with the abdomen, was enormously distended, assuming a globular condition. 
The pergamentaceous segments are widely separated and appear as black bands 
upon the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the translucent abdomen. The thorax 
and head are about two lines long ; the distended abdomen 4^ lines in diameter. 
All the other viscera of the abdomen are completely obliterated, and even the 
tracheal vessels have entirely disappeared, which is an important physiological 
fact, as by the supply of oxygen being cut off, none of the honey is consumed 
in the process of respiration. On the outside of the basement membrane of 
the stomach, is a single layer of branching fibres, (muscular ?) The striped 
muscular fibres connecting the abdominal segments together, are collected in 
very thin bands with wide intervals, and are exceedingly elongated. 

A paper by Dr. Woodhouse was presented, entitled ^' Description of a 
new species of Lepus " (L. larreae,) and intended for publication ; which 
was referred to Dr. Fisher, Dr. Watson and Dr. Zantzinger. 

Also a second paper by the same, describing a new species of Ecto- 
pistes, (E. marginella,) which was referred to the same Committee. 

Mr. Lea read a paper entitled " Description of a fossil Saurian of the 
New Red Sandstone of Pennsylvania, with some account of the Forma- 
tion ;" which being intended for publication in the Journal, was 
referred to Mr. Aubrey H. Smith, Mr. W. P. Foulke, and Mr. Vaux. 

3Ia7/ ISth. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Trustees of the New 
York State Library, dated Albany, May 12th, 1852, acknowledging the 
receipt of the Proceedings, Vol. vi. No. 1. 

Mr. Lea read a paper intended for publication in the Journal, *' On 
some new Fossil Molluscs in the Carboniferous Slates of the Anthracite 
Seams of the Wilkesbarre Coal Formation,'^ which was referred to Dr. 
Wilson, Dr. D. D. Owen and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Owen read a paper entitled " Notice of a Mineral from Califor- 
nia,^' which being intended for publication in the Proceedings, was re- 
ferred to Dr. C. M. Wetherill, Mr. Vaux and Dr. Rand. 

Dr. Bridges read some additions to a paper lately presented by Mr, 
C. Girard, on the North American Astaci ; which were referred to the 
Committee on the former portion of the paper. 

J/ay 25th. 

The President, Mr. Ord, in the Chair. 

The Committee on Mr. Dana's continuation of his descriptions of the 
Crustacea of the Exploring Expedition, reported in favor of publication 
in the Proceedings : 

1852.] 73 

Conspectus Crustaceorum, 6'c. Conspectus of the Crustacea of the Exploring 
Expedition under Capt. Wilkes, U. S. N.. including the Crustacea Can- 
cRoiDEA Corystoidea. By James D. Dana. 


A synopsis of the genera of Cancroidea the Cyclometopa of Edwards in-, 
eluding their arrangement into families and other groups, has been published by the 
writer in the American Journal of Science, 2d ser., vol. xii, p. 121. The follow- 
ing pages contain descriptions of the new species in the Expedition collections, 
arranged in accordance with the classification explained in that paper. The 
distinctive characters of the genera will there be found, both of those of other 
authors, as far as accepted, and those here instituted. 

Subfam. CANCRIN.E. 

Genus Cancer, Leach, (Platycarcinus, Udw.) 

Cancer magister. Carapax nudus, granulatus, paulo convexus, superficie 
paulo undulatus, lateraliter triangulatus et acutus, margine postero-laterali fere 
recto, antero-laterali lO-dentato, dentibus paululo prominentibus, margine 
dentis postero longissimo et fere recto, subtiliter crenulato, dente ultimo 
triangulato ; fronte inter-antennali 3-dentato ; articulo antennarum externarum 
Imo apicem crasse producto. Pedes antici subaequi, manu supra cristata, multi- 
dentata, extus costata, digito mobili supra denticulato. Pedes 8 postici valde 
compressi, tarso paulo lato, articulis supra granulatis, 4to supra canaliculato, 
tarso articuloque 5to pedis 5ti infra bene ciliatis. Articulus maxillipedis externi 
3tius oblongus, apice externo oblique truncatus. Hai^. portu " San Francisco." 
Long, carapacis 4|", /at. 1". 

^ Cancer gracilis. Carapax nudus, partim minute granulatus, valde convexus, 
non distincte areolatus, superficie non undulatus, lateraliter triangulatus et 
acutus, margine postero-laterali fere recto, antero-laterali 9-dentato, dentibus 
regularibus, acutis, paulo prominentibus, dente Imo vix longiore quam 2dus, 
totis margine postero fere rectis et longis et subtiliter denticulatis, fronte inter- 
antennali 3-dentato. Maxillipedes externi pubescentes, articulo 3tio apicem 
externum valde arcuato aut rotundato, margines apicalem et externum longe 
ciliato. Pedes antici subaequi, manu subcristata, crista 1 2-dentata, superficie 
externa costata. -Pedes 8 pastici nudi, tarso longo, tenuissimo, nudo. Hab. 
portu " San Francisco." Long, carapacis 13'", lat. 19'". 

Subfam. XANTHIN.^. 
Genus Liomera, Dana. 

Carpilio, aspectu, pedibus nudis quoad margines obtusis antennisque similis. 
Carapax valde transversus, subellipticus, lateribus rotundatis, margine antero- 
laterali non breviore quam postero-lateralis, fronte brevissime bilobato. Ramus 
maxillipedis primi internus non lobatus, apice fere rectus. Pedes usque ad 
tarsos nudi. An Carpilius cinctivianusy White, hie pertinet ? 

LioMERA LATA. Carapax nitidus, valde transversus, transversim bene 
ellipticus, antice versus marginem anticum subareolatus, in medio areolis in- 
conspicuis ; fronte brevi, perpendicnlariter deflexo, superne viso fere recto et 
super orbitas vix saliente, leviter emarginato ; margine antero-laterali crasso et 
crasse rotundato, 4-lobato, lobis 2do 3tio 4toque validis, rotundatis, 3tio majore. 
Pedes antici asqui, mediocres, manu laevi, digitis brevibus. Hah. ad insulas 
*'Feejee." Iro??o-. carapacis 7'", lat.\'i\"'. 

Genus Act^a, [DeHaan) Dana. 

AcT^A AREOLATA. A. hirtissimo vel specioso aflfiinis. Carapax latior, valde 
transversus, infra omnino brevissime hirsutus, supra omnino areolatus, sub- 

7-t , [May, 

tilissime hirsutus pilis vix longioribus quam granuli, areola 2M* subdivisa, 
ejus parte extern;^ etiam partim subdivisa, 3M tripartita, iP tripartita; margine 
antero-laterali longo, leviter 5-lobato, postero laterali brevi, valde concavi. 
Pedes brevissime hirsuti ; antici subaequi, granulosi, manu carpoque paulo 
nodosis, digitis striatis, scabris, brevissime hirsutis, bene triangulato-dentatis. 
Pedes postici gxanulosi, dense brevissimeque hirsuti. Hah. freto " Balabac." 
Long, carapacis 5.9"', lat. 9.33'". 

AcT.BA CELLULosA. Carapax antice posticeque male areolatus, omnino cellu- 
losus, nudus, margine antero-laterali imperfecte 3 4-lobato et cellulis excavato, 
margine postero-laterali perbrevi et concavo. Pedes antici subaequi, manu 
carpoque superficie cellulosis, manu extus infraque subtiliter villosa, digitis 
scabris, etiam villosis. Pedes 8 postici cellulis excavati, breves. Hab. ad 
insulam " Tutuila " Samoensem. Long, carapacis 3'", lat. 4.3'". 

Genus Xantho. 
Subgenus Xantho. 
Articulus antennarum externarum Imus orbitae fissuram internam fere implens, 
articulum sequentem medio gerens. Corpus bene transversum, margo antero- 
lateralis ab angiilo orbitae incipiens. 

1. Pedes S postici cristati. 

Xantho nitidus. Carapax laevis, paulo nitidus, antice partim leviter areolatus, 
areolis 2M 5L 6L postice vix circumscriptis ; fronte fere recto, non emarginato, 
margine antero-laterali leviter 3 4-lobato, lobis subtriangulatis, angulo orbitali 
externo non saliente. Pedes antici subaequi, inermes, fere laeves (subtilissime 
corrugatae,) manu bene cristata, digito mobili subcristato et deute basali magno 
carente. Pedes 8 postici bene cristati, fere nudi, marginibus integris, apice 
margineque inferiore articuli 5ti brevissime hirsuti-villosis, tarso supra infraque 
etiam villoso. Hab. juxta insulas " Viti " vel "Tonga." Long, carapacis 
3.2'", lat. 5'". 

Xantho superbus. Carapax paulo convexus, antice sed non medio areolatus. 

Areolae carapacis normales dentesque sic nobis deominati. 

F. Regio Frontalis. IF, areola praefrontalis ; 2F, post-frontalis. 

M. Regio Mediana. IM, areola praemediana ; 2M, extra-mediana ; 3M, 
intra-mediana vel gastrica ; 4M, post-mediana. 

P. Regio Posterior. IP, areola cardiaca; 2P, intestinalis. 

L. Regio Antero-lateralis. Areolae sunt normales, 1L,2L, 3L, 4L, 5L, 6L. 

R. Regio Postero-lateralis. Areolae sunt normales, iR, 2R, 3R. 

O. Regio orhitalis. 

Dentes normales antero-laterales numero quinque sunt et designati D, E, N, 
T, S. Alter dens supplementalis pone S, s denominatus et alter inter dentes 
D et E, d. Vide " Amer. Journ. Sci." [2], vol. xi, p. 95. 

1852.[ ^ 75 

areolis 3M 4M 5L 6L fere coalitis et postice vix circumscriptis, sulcis anteriori- 
bus villosis ; fronte paulo sinuoso, emarginato ; margine untero-laterali crasse 
4-dentato, dentibus duobus anticis rotundatis. Pedes cristati, manu extus 
subseriatim minute tuberculata, supra valde cristata ; pedibus posticis quoad 
margines dense hirsutis, tarso villoso. Ilab. ad insulam " Raraka " archipelagi 
Paumotensis. Long, carapacis 13'"; lat. 21'". 

2. Pedes S postici non cristati. 

Xantho dispar. Carapax fere planus, ellipticus, latere rotundatus, non 
nitidus, antice non bene areolatus, prope marginem impressus, margine antico 
areolarum IM 2M paulo impresso, lineis duabus regionem antero-lateralem 
intersecantibus ; fronte fere recto, non producto, margine antero-laterali cras- 
siusculo, subacuto, fere integro, levissime trilobato, lobo antico (DEN respon- 
dente) plus duplo longiore quam 2dus (T) angulo post-orbitali non saliente. 
Pedes antici valde inaequi, manu supra late rotundata, corrugata et partim 
granulosa, digito mobili non canaliculato, dente magno basali. Pedes 8 postici 
breves, subnudi, articulis 4to 5toque supra granulosis, 5to tarsoque minute 
villosis. Hab. portu "Rio Janeiro." Long, carapacis 5h"' ; lat. SI'". 

Xantho minor. X. parvulo, affinis. Carapax antice areolatus, areolis leviter 
elevatis, 2M 3M 5L 6L postice circumscriptis, 2M cum rugatransversimdivisa ; 
fronte fere recto, leviter emarginato ; margine antero-laterali tenui, 4-dentato, 
dentibus tribus posticis subtriangulatis. Pedes antici mediocres, carpo manuque 
supra paulo granulosis, manu extus leviter granulato-costata et supra sulcata, 
digito mobili cum dente magno basali non armato. ' Pedes S postici sparsim 
pubescentes. Hab. insulam Madeira vel " Cape Verds." Long, carapacis 2.1"', 
lat. 3.1'" 

Subgenus Paraxanthus, Lucas, (D'Orb. S. A. p. 18.) 

Hie referemus Xantho sexdecimdentatum, Edw. et Lucas, (D'Orb. S. Ame- 
rica, tab. 7, p. 2,) fronte, ac in Paraxantho, horizontaliter producto, latejibus 
rotundatis et expansis, abdomine angusto, articulo anteunarum externarum Imo 

Subgenus Euxanthus, Dana. 

Articulus antennarum externarum Imus orbitae fissuram internam ad summum 
implens, cavitate in ejus apicis latere antico articulum proximum gerente. 
Margo antero-lateralis sub orbita antice productus. 

Elxanthis SCULPTILI5. Carapax antice posticeque profunde areolatus, areola 
2M bipartita, ejus partibus transversim subdivisis, totisque areolis plus minusve 
rugatis aut incisis ; fronte inter-antennali bilobato, paulo prominente, maro'ine 
orbitae sub antenna saliente ; margine antero-laterali 6 7-dentato, dentibus' sat 
crassis, pyramidicis, obtusis. Pedes antici aequi, carpo crasse nodoso, manu 
supra tuberculata, extus costata, digito mobili supra denticulato. Pedes postici 
mediocres, articulo 3tio granuloso, 4to 5toque supra rugatis aut tuberculosis 
tarso villoso. Abdomen valde areolatum. Hab. archipelago Vitiensi (Feeiee) 
vel Tongen&i. Long, carapacis lis'", lat. llh'". 

ErxAXTHus xiTiDus. E. sculptili quoad pedes anticos et posticos maro^inem 
carapacis antero-lateralem frontemque similis. Carapax omnino valde areolatus 
areolis plerisque levibus, interdum leviter rugatis, angulo orbitce externo tenui 
et non tuberculiformi nee angulato. lZii. ibid. -Lo?;^-. carapacis 9'" ; lat.W". 

Subgenus Xaxthodes, Dana. 

Articulus antennarum externarum Imus brevis, processum frontis oblongum 
attingens tantum. Carapax saepe angustior, saspe Pilumno paulo similis 
lateraliter angulum ad dentem S habens, et non rotundatus ac in Paraxantho. 

Xanthodes graxoso-manus. Carapax laevis, prope margines anticum et 
antero-lateralem granulosus, antice parce areolatus, areolis 2M 3M postice 
saepius vix circumscriptis, 4L 5L 6L coalitis et postice non circumscriptis 
fronte fere recto, emarginato, margine antero-laterali non tenui, 5-dentato', 

76 [May, 

dentibus sat isolatis, vix acutis, D vix prominente, E parvulo et granuliformi. 
Pedes antici fere aequi, manu supra rotundata, supra infraque granulosa, extus 
late costata, costis granulosis, carpo granaloso, digitis canaliculatis. Pedes 
postici fere nudi, articulis 4to Stoque supra granulosis, tarso brevissime villoso. 
Hab. ad insulas Samoenses (" Navigators ") quoque credimus Tahitienses 
("Society") et Paumotenses. Long, carapacis AY" '-, lat. 6f ^ 

Xanthodes nitidulus. Carapax laevis, nitidus, antice partim areolatus, 
areolis iM 2M 3M vix discretis, 2L 3L extus abruptis, 2L cum4L 5L 6L saepius 
coalitis hisque postice non bene circumscriptis, 3L circumscripta; fronte leviter 
arcuato, emarginato ; margine antero-laterali 4-dentato, dente D obsolete, denti- 
bus E N T S subconicis, subacutis, nitidis. Pedes antici paulo inaequi, inermes, 
laeves, manu supra obtusa, prope marginem supernum uni-canaliculata ; carpo 
prope articulationem apicalem paulo excavato. Pedes 8 postici margine superno 
articulorum 3tii 4ti 5tique valde hirsuti, tarso hirsuto, articulo 3tio supra non 
denticulate). Hah. archipelago Paumotensi. Long, carapacis 5'" ; lat. 1\'" . 

Xanthodes notatus. Carapax antice bene areolatus, areolis planis, fere 
laevibus et subtilissime erosis, sulcis abruptis, fronte fere recto, emarginato ; 
margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dente D fere obsoleto, E N tuberculiformibus, 
T S acutis et spiniformibus. Pedes antici valde inaequi, manu carpoque pedis 
majoris minute tuberculatis, manu infra lagvi, nitida, manu carpoque pedis 
minoris spinulis dense armatis. Pedes 8 postici hirsuti, articulo 3tio supra den 
ticulato. Hah. ad insulas Paumotenses vel Tahitienses ; quoque insulas 
Hawaienses. Long, carapacis feminae ovigerae 3|'"; lat. 5V^'. 

Genus PanopvEUS, Edioards, 

Panop^us LvEvis. Carapax laevis, vix nitidus, non bene areolatus, fronte fere 
recto, non producto, minute emarginato, margine antero-laterali tenui, 
4-lobato, lobis 2do 3tioque bene dentiformibus et acutis, margine eorum postico 
arcuato, 4to angustiore. Pedes antici valde inaequi, inermes, supra rotundati, 
manu laevi, extus paulo nitida, digito mobili laevi, dente magno basali carente. 
Pedes 8 postici tenues, marginibus pubescentibus, articulo 3tio fere nudo. Hah. 
? Long, carapacis Qh'" ; lat. H' \ 

Genus Med^us, Dana. 

Carapax angustus, paulo transversus. Orbitae margo inferior externusque 
dentibus tribus instructus. , Frons sat brevis. Margo carapacis antero-lateralis 
sub orbita productus. Articulus antennae externae Imus orbitae fissuram fere 
implens ac in subgenere Xaut/io. Abdomen maris 5-articulatum, segmento 
ultimo brevi. Pedes antici crassi. ornatus. Carapax paulo transversus, profunde areolatus, areolis 
asperatis praecipue in parte anteriore, nee 2M nee 3M subdivisa, margine antero- 
laterali ^ fi-dentato, dentibus D d E NT S designatis, scabris, orbita 4 denti- 
bus circumdata ; fronte producto, latiore, bene emarginato, lobis margine 
concavis. Pedes antici aspere tuberculato, manu tuberculis asperatis fere 
oblongis et non acuminatis armata, digitis asperatis. Pedes postici pubescentes, 
articulo 3tio supra spinuloso. Hah. prope insulam " Lahaina " Hawaiensem. 
Long, carapacis 5.1"'; lat. 1'". 

Subfam CHLORODTNi^:. 
Genus Etisus, Leach. 

Etisus deflexus. Carapax leviter bene areolatus, laevis, fronte inter-anten- 
nali 4-lobato, tenui, valde deflexo, setigero, margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, 
dentibus subacutis, 2do minore. Pedes antici sat longi, manu carpoque extus 
supraque bene granulosis, digitis laevibus ; reliqui angusti, valde pilosi. Abdo- 
men maris 5-articulatum eoque levimani simile. Hah. archipelago Vitiensi. 
Long, carapacis 6'" ; lat. ^\"'. 

Etisus levtmanus, Randall, (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. viii. 115,) -ad in- 
sulas Vitienses et Hawaienses lectus. Long, carapacis 19'", lat. 31'". 

1852.] 77 

Subgenus Etisodes, Dana. 

Etiso differt brachio parce exserto, carapace angnstiore et non lateraliter pro- 
ducto, forma Xantho simili et non Cancro uti in Etiso. 

Etisodes frontalis. Carapax vix nitidus, minus transversus ; antice areo- 
latus, postice planus, areolis fere planis, areola SM sinriplice ; fronte producto, 
horizontali ; margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dentibus subtriangulatis, dente 
posteriore (S) nninore. Pedes antici inernnes, n.anu supra non laevi, digito 
mobili supra fere 3-carinato, carpo granuloso, prope articulationeni manus pro- 
minente. Pedes 8 postici paulo pubescentes, articulo 3tio inernai. Hab. mari 
Suluensi. Lo^. carapacis S""'; lat.31'". 

Etisodes c^latus. Carapax valde convexus et areolatus, areolis tuberculi- 
formibus, parce granulosis, areola 2M longitudinaliter subdivisa, 3M tripartita, 
4M tripartita, IP et 2P ^valde^ disjunctis et bene circunascriptis, transversis ; 
fronte inter-antennali 4-lobato, lobis externis parvulis, non salientibus ; margine 
antero-laterali 5-dentato, dentibus obtusis. Pedes antici sat crassi, carpo tubei- 
culoso, manu extus seriatim spinulosa aut spini-tuberculosa, digito supra spinu- 
loso. Pedes reliqui compressi obsolete pubescentes, marginibusque valde 
hirsuti. Abdomen feminae 7-articulatum. Hab. ad insulam " Wakes," maris 
Pacifici. Long, carapacis 10"' ; lat. 14". 

Genus ZozYMUS, Leach, (^gle, De Haan.) 

Atergati Acteceque differt pedibus 8 posticis cristatis. 

ZozYMUs GEMMULA. Carapax nudus, non granulatus, nitidus, antice bene 
areolatus, areolis paulo monticulosis, IM 2M discretis, 2M subdivisa, fronte 
fere recto, emarginato, margine antero-laterali tenui, leviter 4-lobato, lobis tribus 
posticis fere asquis. Pedes antici aequi, noncarinati, manu carpoque tuberculatis, 
tuberculis cum granulis acervatis instructis ; manu extus partim seriatim granu- 
lata. Pedes 8 postici bene carinati, carina articulorum 3tii 4tique prope apicem 
profunde incisa, tarso sparsim hirsuto. Hab. mari Suluensi. Lo?ig. carapacis 
2-G'"; lat. 3-9'". 

ZozYJMus LJEvis. Carapax latus, laevis, paulo nitidus, areolis plerisque obso- 
letis, 2L et IM prominulis, margine antero-laterali dilatato et tenui, obsolete 
2 3-lobato, dente nullo. Pedes antici aequi, inermes, manu lata, supra rotun- 
data, digito mobili valde uncinato. Pedes postici subcristati, fere nudi. Hab. 
freto " Balabac." Lo?ig. carapacis 5-1'" ; lat. 9'". 

Genus Carpilodes, Dana. 

Carapax latus, undique convexus, nudus, marginibus crasse rotundatis. Pedes 
nudi, fere laeves et subcylindrici. Aliis Zozymo similis. Carpilio Liomerceqtie 
habitu affinis sed digitis cochleariformibus differt. 

Carpilodes TRisTis. Carapax latior, late subrhombicus, laevis, non nitidus, 
antice sat areolatus, areolis iM 2M conjunctis, 2L 3L conjunctis, 4L 5L 6L 
conjunctis; fronte brevi, fere recto, levissime emarginaio; margine antero- 
laterali 4-lobato, lobis rotundatis ; latere postero-laterali recto, convexo. Pedes 
antici aequi, breves et parvi, nudi et inermes, laeves. Pedes postici vix com- 
pressi, nudi. Hab. archipelago Paumotensi? Long, carapacis 6-15'"; lat. 10*5"'< 

Genus Act^odes, Dana. 

Carapax postice fere planus, versus margines anticum antero-lateralemque cur- 
vatim declivis. Digiti instar cochlearis excavati. Pedes 8 postici articulo 3tio 
non cristati. Typus Zozymus tomentosus. Actaea differt, digitis plus minusve 

1. Carapax sive Icevis sive vio: granulatus .y nee tomentosus, 

AcTiEODES AREOLATUS. Carapax bene areolatus, laevis, areola 2M simplice, 
IR 3R discretis, IP vix circumscripta; margine frontali fere recto, emargi- 
nato; margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dente 5to parce minore. Pedes antici 
eequij manu extus parce rugata, digitis canaliculatis, 2 3-dentatis, digito mobili 

78 [May, 

valde uncinato. Pedes postici paulo nudi, articulis compressis, 3tio supra fere 
acuto. Ha5. insulam "Raraka" Paumotensem. I/o?^^. carapacis 2^'''; lat.W", 

AcT^oDES FABA. Carapax transversim ellipticus, valde convexus, non granu- 
losus, antice bene areolatus, regione postica simplicissima, cum regione postero- 
lateral! coalita, areola 2M fere bisecta, areolis 2L 3L coalitis, superficie areo- 
larum plana; fronte inter-antennali fere recto, medio parce emarginato, margine 
antero-laterali parce expanso, 5-angulato aut obsolete 5-dentato. Pedes antici 
mediocres, carpo manuque subtiliter erosis et interdum areolatis, digitis inermi- 
bus. Pedes 8 sequentes fere nudi, compressi, articulo 3tio supra paulo carinato, 
articulis 4to 5toque paulo granulosis. Abdomen maris 5-articulatum,/e//ii?/ 
7-articulatum, nudum piaster marginem ciliatum. Hah. ad insulas "Cape 
Verdes." hong, carapacis "iY" ; lat. b'" . 

AcT^ODEs BELLUS. Carapax latior, antice bene arcuatus, non nitidus, laevis, 
anlice et lateraliter subtilissime granulosus, antice areolatus, sulcis angustis, 
areolis IM 2M conjunctis, 4L 5L 6L regioneqne postero-laterali totis con- 
junctis ; fronte fere recto, emarginato ; margine antero-laterali crasso, 4-lobato, 
lobis 3 posticis dentiformibus, obtusis. Pedes antici aequi, manu supra rotundata, 
extus subtiliter granulosa, granulis partim seriatis, digitis canaliculatis, carpo 
intus obtuso. Pedes 8 postici sat compressi, fere nudi. Hah. ad insulas Samo- 
enses, quoque insulam " Wakes." Long, carapacis 3^; lat. 5^". 

2. Carapax gramdatiLs aut tomentostcs. 

AcT^ODEs AFFiMs. A. tovientoso areolis affinis, areola cardiaca fere bisecta. 
Carapax paulo angustior, minutius granulosus, parce tomentosus. Margo antero- 
lateralis 4-dentatus. Digiti manus spinulosi, spinulis majoribus quam in tomen- 
^050 et paucioribus. Maxillipedes externi nudi, laeves. Abdomen sparsim pubes- 
cens. Hah. ad insulas Tahitienses. Long, carapacis 5h"' ; lat. Ih'". Granulae 
in dimidio utroque areolae cardiacae numero 40 ; sed tomentosi ferme 12. 

AcTiEODES sPEciosus. Caiapax paulo angustior, undique granulosus, fere 
nudus, pilis interstitialibus brevioribus quam granuli, antice bene areolatus, 
sulcis perangustis, subtiliter tomentosis, areolis planis, areola 2M partim sub- 
divisa, 3M tripartita, margine antero-laterali bene 4-lobato, postero-laterali con- 
cavo, brevi. Pedes toti omnino granulosi et fere nudi, marginibus non ciliati, 
manu carpoqile superficie irregulariter areolatis ; manu granulis seriatis extus 
ornata, digitis perbrevibus, instar cochlearis male excavatis, digito mobili clauso 
fere verticali, articulo 4to pedum 2di 3tii 4tique superficie tripartito.. Hab. ad 
insulas Samoenses. Long, carapacis 3Y" lat. 5'". 

AcTyEouEs CAViPES. Carapax latior, infra omnino villosus, supra fere nudus, 
granulosus, omnino areolatus, sulcis nudis aut vix tomentosis, areolis minute 
granulosis, valde convexis et paulo irregularibus, 2M subdivisa, 3M tripartita, 
margine antero-laterali irregulariter 5-dentato. Pedes granulosi, antici subaequi, 
manu carpoque partim granulosis et superficie cavernosis, manu extus seriato- 
granulosa, subtiliter tomentosa, digitis male excavatis, scabris, striatis, partim 
subtiliter tomentosis ; postici paulo hirsuti, articulis 4to 5toque supra valde 
cristato, crista integra, lunulata, sublaterali, hac crista et margine pedis superno 
cavitatem grandem includentibus. Hab. ad insulas Vitienses et Samoenses. Long. 
carapacis 5"' J lat. TV". 

AcT/EODEs spoNGiosus. Carapax postice vix areolatus, areola 2M subdivisa, 
superficie, sulcis exceptis, breviter et rigide velutina, aspectu spongiosa ; margine 
antero-laterali simplicissime 5-dentato, dentibus gracilibus, acutis. Pedes bre- 
viter rigideque pubescentes, antici paulo armati. Hah. marl Suluensi. Long. 
2Y"\ lat.3h"'. 

Genus Chlorodius, Leach. 

Subgenus Chlorodius. 

Carapax transversus. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus fissuram orbitae 
fere implens. 

1852.] 79 

1. Carapax antice posticeque areolatitSf areola 2M bipartita* Articulus picdum 

posticorxtm 3tlus siipcnie spi/iiiloszcs. 

CnnoRODius monticulosus. C ^uigulato affinis, areolis valde distinctis, mar- 
gine antero-laterali 5-dentato, fronte inter-antennali 4-lobato, pedibus 8 posticis 
pauIo pubescentibus et supra spinulosis. Areola 2M decomposita, 4L plus 
minusve divisa. Pedes antici tuberculis parvulis subacutis armati, digito mobili 
inermi. Segmentum abdominis maris penultimum parce oblongunn. Hah. ad 
insulas Vitienses, Tahitienses, Samoenses, et in freto " Ralabac." 'Long, cara- 
pacis S>"' \ lat. \W'. T. ungulati tuberculi manus obtusij areolaeque cartpacis 
vix decompositae. 

2. Carapax antice areolatus, postice planus aut imperfecte divisiis.^ areola IM. non 
siihdivisa. Pedes antici inermes ; articulus pedum 8 imsticorum Stius supra non 

Chlorodius NTJDiPES. Carapax non nitidus, antice bene areolatus, postice fere 
planus, areola 2M non omnino divisa, 3L 4L sejunctis, IP 2P coalitis aut 
vix sejunctis, fronte enaarginato, juxta antennas saliente, margine antero-laterali 
10 11-denticulato, uno dente pone S. Pedes toti nudi; antici crassi, manu car- 
poque supra subtiliter exesis, carpo spina brevi intus armato. Pedes 8 postici 
sat breves, articulo 3tio dorsum non acuto. Hab. ad insulam "Mangsi," freti " Ba- 
labac." Long, carapacis Ah'" 't lat. ly. 

Chlorodius sanguineus, Edtvards. Hab. ad insulas Vitienses, Paumotenses, 
Hawaienses. Margo antero-lateralis 7-dentatus, dente uno pone S. 

Chlorodius exaratus, Edw. Hab. mare Pacifico. Margo antero-lateralis 
5 6-dentatus, dente pone S carens. Hie pertinet Chloroditis Floridamcs^ 
Gibbes, (Proc. Amer. Assoc, iii. 175,) insula, " Key West" lectus. 

Chlorodius gracilis. C sanguineo affinis. Carapax non nitidus, antice 
areolatus, postice non areolatus, sulcis non profundis, areolis 2R 3R non dis- 
cretis, margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dentibus bene regularibus. Manus car- 
pusque crassi, laeves, nee rugati nee exesi. Pedes 8 postici compressi, inermes, 
pubescentes. iZai. ad insulam " Wakes." Z(0^. carapacis 5'" ; lat.lY". 

Chlorodius nodosus. D. Etisus nodosus, J. W. Randall^ (Jour. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philad. viii. 111.) Sanguineo ferme affinis; sed pedes 8 postici fere nudi, 
margine articuli 3tii antico omnino nudi ; tarsus superne nudus ; carapax super- 
ficie punctatus ; et areola 2M depressione V-formi antice notata. 

Chlorodius cavipes. Carapax non nitidus, latere rotundatus, superficie 
antice areolatus, areolis partim granulosis et imbricato-granulosis ; fronte fere 
recto, emarginato, margine antero-laterali crassiusculo, 8 9-dentato, dentibus 
p, d, E, E', N (vel N, N',) T, S, s, totis parvulis, D vix saliente. Pedes antici 
inccqui, valde granulosi et corrugati, manu infra breviter villosa et granulosa, 
digito mobili canaliculato, supra denticulato: Pedes 8 postici paulo asperati, 
articulo 3tio breviter pubescente, 4to bene bicristato, cristis tenuibus cavitatem 
elongatam includentibus, 5to tarsoque omnino breviter hirsuto, tarso brevi. Hab. 
1 Z<o?i^. carapacis 7'''; lat.\^\"'. 

3. Carapax postice non areolatus antice vix areolatris^ fere planus aut paulo con- 

vexics, 5L 6L nunquain circ2im,scriptis. 

Chlorodius cytherea. C. nigra affinis. Carapax fere laevis, areolis media- 
nis indistinctis, antero-lateralibus melioribus, angulatis, margine antero-laterali 
5-dentato, dentibus N T subacutis, E S minoribus, T valde prominentiore quam 
S ideoque carapacis latitudine T majore quam latitudo S. Pedes antici ac in 
C. nigra, digitis nigris, fere contiguis. Pedes 8 postici inermes, margine pu- 
bescentes. Hab. ad insulas Paumotenses, Tahitienses et Hawaienses. Long. 
carapacis 31'"; lat. 5|'". C. 7iigro difTert, dente S multo minus prominentiore 
quam dens T ; dente E distincto, dentibus quinque conspicuis ; areolis IL 3L 4L 
plus angulatis et non laevibus, nee cum dentibus bene continuatis ac in nigra. 

An. C. hirtipes, Adams et White, (Crust. Samarang p. 40. tab. 11, f.4,) C. nigro 
differ t. 


80 [May, 

Chlorodius nebdlostjs. C.nigro affinis. Carapax laevis, antice obsolete areo- 
latns, fronte parce emarginato, regione antero-laterali 4-dentato (D, N, T, S,) 
dentibus tribus posticis acute spinilormibus. Pedes antici subaequi, sat breves, 
brachio paululum saliente, carpo subtiliter granulate, intus acuto aut subacute, 
manu compressa, laevi, digitis paulo canaliculatis. Pedes postici mediocres, 
paulo pubescentes. Hab. mari Suluensi. Long, carapacis 2*2''' ; lot. '3'". 

Chlorodius l^vissimtis. C nigro affinis. Carapax perlaevis, nee ad medium 
nee versus latera areolatus, nnargine antero-laterali 4 5-dentato, dentibus N et 
T paulo remotis, E sa?pe obsolete, S minore, T et S obtusis, carapacis latitudine 
T majore qiiam latitude S. Pedes antici longi, pervalidi, laeves, digitis multp 
hiantibus. Pedes 8 postici paulo pubescentes. Hah. ad insulas Hawaienses. 

Subgenus Pilodius, Da7ia, 

Pilnymio aspectvi fere similis ; pedibus antennisque Chlorodio affinis.' Arti- 
culus antennaruna externarura Innus brevier, processum frontis eblongum attin- 
gens ac in Xanthode. Articulus maxillipedis externi 3tius paulo transversus, 
subrectangulatus. Chlorodiiis pilumnoides, White, hie pertinet. 

Pilodius pubescens. P. filumnoidi similis. Carapax breviter pubescens, 
antice leviter areolatus, margine antero-laterali simplicississime 5-dentato, den- 
tibus tenuibus, acutis. Pedes antici validi, minute tuberculati et pubescentes, 
digitis subspinulesis, brachio antice dentigere. Pedes 8 postici pilosi, articulo 
3tie supra spinuloso. Hah. freto Balabac. Long, carapacis 3f"'; lat. 5y\ 

Pilodius nitidus. Carapax bene nitidus, antice optime areolatus, areolis pie- 
risque superficie planis, IR 2R sulco discretis, areola IR 2 3ve tuberculis antice 
ornata; margine antero-laterali bene 5-dentato, dentibus duebus posticis acutis. 
Pedes antici spinis valde armati, digito mobili prope basin interdum spinuloso, 
carpo duabus spinis tenuibus acutis intus armato. Pedes 8 postici pubescentes, 
articulo 3tio supra armato. Hab. ad insulam " Tutuila " Samoensem. Long, cara- 
pacis 3}''' ; lat.b'". 

Pilodius pugil. P. nitido affinis. Carapax paulo nitidus, antice areolatus, 
postice fere planus, areolis 5L 6L discretis, IL 2L 3L subconicis, IR 2R paulo 
discretis; margine antero-laterali 4-dentate, dente E fere obsolete, dentibus tri- 
bus posticis valde acutis. Pedes antici validi, manu carpoque bene tuberculatis, 
tuberculis plerumque conicis, manus minoris spiniformibus, angulo carpi interne 
duabus spinis tenuibus acutis armato, brachio apicem anticum spinoso. Pedes 
postici pilosi, articulo 3tio supra armato. Hah. ad insulas Samoenses ; quoque 
in freto " Balabac." Long, carapacis IV" \ lat. A.'". An \diX.77itidi. 

Pilodius scabriculus. Carapax fronte latus, antice leviter areolatus, paulo 
scabriculus, areolis IL 3L 4L subacutis et scabriculis, margine antero-laterali 
fere longitudinali, 4-dentato (dente E fere obsolete), dentibus tribus (N T S) 
acutis, spiniformibus. Pedes antici fere asqui, manu carpoque subtilissime tuber- 
culatis, tuberculis partim seriatis, digitis canaliculatis, paulo scabriculis, articulo 
3tio antice denticulate. Pedes postici sparsim pubescentes, articulo 3tio supra 
minute spinuloso, tarse lengo. Hab. in freto " Balabac ;" quoque insula <' Ra- 
raka" Paumotensi. Long, carapacis l-l'", et lat. 2-Q>"' ; alterius lojig, 21'", et 
lat. 4.'". 

Subgenus Cyclodius, Dana. 

Chlorodio affinis, carapace angustiere, suborbiculate, articulo maxillipedis ex- 
terni 3tio subtriangulato, paulo transverse, latere interne brevissime. Articulus 
antennaruna externarum Imus orbitcB fissurann fere implens, ac in Chlorodio, 
Pilodio dissimilis. 

Cyclodius ornatus. Carapax nudus, parce nitidus, antice posticeque valde 
areolatus, areolis saRpe compesitis, 2M subdivisa 3M tripartita; margine antero- 
laterali 5-dentato, dentibus tumidis, apiculatis, dente E minore, rotundato, D ob- 
tuse. Pedes spinulis armati, 8 posticis parce pubescentibus, manu seriatim 
spinulosa, digitis spinulosis. Hah. mari Suluensi. Lo;^^^. carapacis 3V" ; lat A\"'. 

Cyclodius gracilis. C. ornato aspectu areolisque similis. Parce latier, den- 
tibus antero-lateralibus tribus posticis tenuioribus et bene acutis, areolis vix 

1852.] 81 

compositis, 2M subdivisa, 3M vix tripartita. Pedes armati, 8 posticis paulo 
pubescentibus, manu seriatim spinulosa, digitis spinulosis. Hah. ad insulas 
Samoenses. iowo^. carapacis 3'"; lat.A'". 


Genus PoLYDECTUS, Eihcards. 

PoLYDECTus viLLOsus. Caiapax pedcsquB densissime villosi, pilis plumiformi- 
bus, fronte margineque antero-laterali integris. Digitus mobilis paris antici 
duabus spinis elongalis remotis armaius, et alter spinis tribus. Antennae exter- 
nae fronte vix lotigiores, flagello lO-articulato. Hab. ad insulam " Raraka " 
Paumotensem. Long, carapacis 4'". 

Subfam. OZIN^. 

Genus Galene^ De Haan. 

Galene HAWAiENSis. G. nataUnsi ferme affinis. Pedes 8 postici sat graciles, 
articulo Stio supra paulo pubescente, sequentibus pubescentibus. Margo antero- 
laterali 4-dentato, dentibus 2 anticis obtusis, anteriore marginem paulo excavato. 
Hah. ad insulas Hawaienses. Lo7ig. carapacis li'" \ lat. lO^'". An. varietas 
/tutaleusis, Krauss (Crust. Siidaf. p. 31, tab. 1, f. 4.) 

Genus Pseudozius, Dana. 

Carapax plus minusve transversus, margine antero-laterali breviore quam pos- 
tero-lateralis. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus angustus etbrevis, frontem 
non attingens (eoque Menippi affinis.) Area praelabialis linea elevata utrinque 
bene divisa (eoque Ozio affinis.) Digiti acuminati. 

PsEUDoziiTs PLANUS. Carapax latus, laevis, fere planus, non areolatus, antice 
prope marginem leviter impressus : fronte fere recto, paulo emarginato, margine 
antero-laterali paulo acuto, fere integro, levissime 4-lobato, margine postero- 
laterali paulo recto. Pedes antici paulo inaequi, Iseves et nudi,caipo non rugato, 
manu supra rotundata, digitis sat longis, non canaliculatis, digito mobili prope 
basin armato cum dente crasso obliquo. Pedes postici fere nudi, tarso hirsuto. 
Hab. ad insulas Paumotenses ; quoque ad insulam *' Wakes." Lon^. carapacis 
^5'"; lat. Q'". 

Pseudozius inornatus. P. piano carapace affinis. Carapax paulo latior, 
prope marginem anticum abruptius impressus, margine antero-laterali distinctius 
4-lobato. Pedes antici inaequi, carpo leviter rugato. Pedes postici latiores, arti- 
culo penultimo supra sparsim hirsuto, tarso hirsuto. Hab. ad insulas Hawaien- 
ses. Long, carapacis feminae ovigerae ^V" \ lat. \\\"' . 

Pseudozius dispar. Carapax angustus, lasvis, paulo nitidus, omnino usque ad 
frontem nee areolatus nee inaequalis, fronte fere recto, leviter emarginato ; 
margine antero-laterali levissime 3-dentato, dentibus non salientibus. Pedes an- 
tici inaequi, major crassus, leevis, nudus, manu supra rotundata, manu minora 
minute tuberculata,tuberculis partim paulo seriatis. Pedes postici fere nudi, 
paucis pilis sparsis. Hah. in mari Suluensi. Long, carapacis feminae 3'3''^ ; 
lat. ^"'. 

Genus Pilumnus, Leach. 

PiLUMXus GLOBosus. Carapax valde convexus, subglobosus ; parce trans- 
versus, non areolatus, vix granulosus, breviter pubescens, fronte emarginato, 
margine antero-laterali fere integro, dentibus minutis tribus vel quatuor granuli- 
formibus, isolatis. Pedes antici crassi, inaequi, omnino hirsuti et minute tuber- 
culati, tubercuiis nullis seriatis. Pedes 8 postici omnino hirsuti. Hah. ad 
insulam " Tahiti ; " quoque insulas " VVaterland " et *' Raraka." Long, cara- 
pacis ^h"'\ lat. ^\"'. 

PiLUMNus LEViMANus. Carapax convexiusculus, non areolatus, antice vix 
laevis, fronte emarginato ; margine antero-laterali 3-dentato angulo orbitae ex 

82 [May, 

terno vix prominente excluso, dentibus minutis, non acutis. Pedes antici valde 
inaequi, carpo obsolete tuberculato, manu majore crassa, nuda, lawi, extus non 
costata, minore hirsuta et nninute tuberculata. Pedes 8 postici partim hirsuti. 
Hab. in freto Balabac. Long, carapacis maris 3'"; lat. 3-9"'. 

PiLUMNUs L^vis. P. levimano affinis, latior. Carapax omnino laevis, nitidus, 
non areolatus, convexiusculos ; fronts enaarginato ; nnargine antero-laterali 3- 
dentato, dentibus minutis spiniformibus, posteriore minimo, angulo orbitae exter- 
no non prominente. Pedes antici valde inaequi, carpo laevi, non obsolete tuber- 
culato, rnanu majore omnino laevi, minore sparsim hirsuta, non tuberculata. 
Pedes 8 postici tenues, paulo hirsuti. if^. in freto " Balabac." Lo??"-. cara- 
pacis feminae 2-1'''; lat. 2-95'". 

PiLUMNUs CALCuLOsus. Carapax convexiusculus, antice non areolatus, paulo 
inaequalibus et pubescens, fronte emarginato, raargine antero-laterali perbrevi, 
4-dentato, dente postico minimo, ceteris crassiusculis ; margine orbitali inferiore 
3-dentato. Pedes antici subaequi, carpo tuberculis paucis grandibus elongatis 
nudis complanatis armato et inter hos tuberculos hirsuto, manu supra quoque 
armata. Pedes 8 postici hirsuti, articulis 4to Stoque supra gibbosis. Hab. ad 
insulam Madeira (?) Long, carapacis 3k'" i la-t. 4i"'. 

PiLUMNUs TENELLUS. Carapax pedesque toti subtilissime tomentosi. Carapax 
convexiusculus non areolatus, fere quadratus, paulo transversus ; fronte emargi- 
nato; margine antero-laterali perbrevi, 3-dentato, dentibus minutis spiniformi- 
bus, posteriore minimo. Pedes antici non tuberculati, 8 postici longi et per- 
tenues, filiformes, tarso subtilissime pubescente. Hab. mari Suluensi. Long. 
carapacis 2-4'"; lat. 3'". 

PiLUMNUs Mus. 'P. Ursula affinis, carapace pedibusque dense crasseque lanatis, 
capillis longis tubulatis. Carapax parce granulatus. Frons fimbria longa orna- 
tus. Margo antero-lateralis crasse tridentatus, dente altero brevi inter duos 
anteriores infra insito. Pedes antici inaequi, manu minute tuberculata, tuber- 
culis superficei externae seriatis. Hab. ad insulas Samoenses vel Tougenses. 
Long, carapacis Hi'"; lat. 16"'. 

Subfam. ACTUMNlNiE.. 

Genus Actumnus, Dana, 

Carapax angustus, valde convexus, fronte et lateribus curvatim declivis. Area 
praelabialis linea elevata longitudinali utrinque bene subdivisa. Articulus an- 
tennarum externarum Imus processum frontis oblongum attingens tantum. 
Digiti breves, instar cochlearis excavati. 

AcTUMNus TOBiENTOsus. Carapax angustus, convexus, subglobosus, subtiliter 
tomentosus, antice leviter partim areolatus, fronte emarginato; margine antero- 
laterali leviter 4-lobato, margine postero-laterali concavo, laevi. Pedes antici 
crassi, subaequi, subtilissime tomentosi, minute tuberculati, digitis brevibus, 
dentibus eorum contiguis et non hiantibus. Pedes 8 postici aeque tomentosi, pos- 
teriores paulo dorsales. Hab. ad insulam " Upolu " vel "Tahiti." Long. 
carapacis 4'1'"; lat. 5'\."'. 

AcTUMNus OBESus. Carapax maxime convexus, suborbicularis, antice leviter 
areolatus, areolis planis, granulosis, 2M non subdivisa, granulis nudis, interstitiis 
et sulcis subtilissime velutinis ; fronte paululo producto, emarginato ; margine 
antero-laterali arcuato, fere integro, laevissime 4-lobato, lobis minute denticu- 
latis ; margine postero-laterali valde concavo. Pedes antici crassi, manu acie 
supra instructa, valde granulosa, granulis vix seriatis, superioribus paulo elon- 
gatis et acutis, digito mobili spinuli-granulato, pollice perbrevi. Pedes 8 postici 
valde compressi, minute velutini, marginibus hirsutis. Hab. prope insulam 
*'Maui" Hawaiensem. Long, carapacis 6i'"; lat. SV". 

Subfam. ERIPHIN^. 

Genus Eripiiia. 

Eriphia scabricula. Carapax partim scabriculus, areola 3M circumscripta, 
2M 1M2F coalitis, non transversim rugatis, regione antero-laterali non areolata ; 

1852.] 83 

fronte integro, subtilissime denticulato ; margine orbitali, nee infra nee supra 
spinuloso, (angulo orbitali excluso.) Pedes antici omnino scabriculi, manu car- 
poque pubescentibus, dijiito mobili cum dente basali paulo grandi armato. Pedes 
antici subtenues, paulo hirsuti. Hah. ad insulas Vitienses et Tahitienses, quoque 
in mari Suluensi. Long, carapacis maris Qi'" \ lat. 10"'. 

Eriphia armata. Mediocriter crassa. Carapax antice transversim paulo 
rugatus, margine areolarum iM 2M et 5L per rugam granulosam conspicuis, 
areola 2L 3L circumscripta, spinosa; fronte paulo deflexo, emarginato, denticu- 
lato, denticulis parvulis conicis, regione orbitali interna, 1 2-spinosa, ejus mar- 
gine externo 2 3-spinoso, margine superno subtiliter denticulato; margine 
antero-laterali carapacis subacuto, 5-spinoso (spinis orbitae exclusis), spinis acutis. 
Pedes antici spinulis valde armati et extus hirsuti, manu majore extus seriatim 
spinulosa, infra Icevi, digito ejus mobili cum dente magno obliquo infra armato. 
Pedes postici hirsuti. Hab. juxta portum "Rio Negro," Patagoniae Orientalis. 
Long, carapacis dh'" \ lat. \Zl"'. 

Genus Trapezia, [LatreiUe,) Dana. 

1. Later a carapacis inernnia. 

Trapezia speciosa. Frons fere integer, versus oculos et ad medium obsolete 
emarginatus. Pedes antici subaequi, carpo supra obtuso, articulo 3tio apicem 
internum acuto (rectangulato) et marginem internum denticulato, denticulis sub- 
quadratis, minutis. Pedes 8 postici toti tenues, articulis 3tio et sequentibus per- 
ansustis, subcylindricis. Hah. ad insulam " Carlshoff" Paumotensem. Long. 
2j"'. Carapax carneus, lineis paucis rubris latissime areolatus. 

Trapezia eella. Frons subinteger, obsolete sinuosus, crenaturis sex obso- 
letis. Pedes antifti subaequi, nudi, carpo obtuso, articulo 3tio apicem internum 
acuto (rectangulato), marginemqueregulariter serruiato, denticulatis triangulatis. 
Pedes 8 postici graciles, articulis 3tio et sequentibus subcylindricis. Hah. ad 
insulam " CarlshoiF." Lon^.2\"'. Carapax carneus rubro punctulatus. An 
varietas speciosce ? 

2. Later a carapacis dente armata. 

Trapezia areolata. Frons sinuosus, angulo orbitae inferiore interno sub- 
acuto. Pedes antici mediocres, margine articuli 3tii interno serrato, dente api- 
cali curvato, carpo angulum internum acuto. Pedes 8 postici sat breves, sparsim 
pubescentes, tarso paulo breviore quam articulus precedens. Carapax colore 
brunneo late areolatus. Hah ad insulam ''Tahiti." io??^. carapacis 3h"' ; lat. 
4'". T. dentata (M'Leay) affinis, an varietas alia. Forsan varietas T. ferru- 

G-enus Tetralia, Dana. 

Trapezia affinis. Frons subtilissime denticulatus. Pedes antici breviores, 
brachio apicem paulo exserto, pollice valde deflexo ; 8 postici extremitate 
breviter unguiculati. Maxillipedes externi margine postico valde obliqui et 
non transversi, apicibus internis articulorum 2dorum inter se paulo remotis. 
Abdomen maris 7-articulatum. Trapezia differt, brachio longe exserto ; pedibus 
8 posticis non unguiculatis ; maxillipedibus externis margine postico fere trans- 
versis ; fronte leviter 6 8-lobato, non bene subtilissime denticulatis. Trapezia 
glaberrima, Herbst, et digitalis Edw. verae Tetraliae sunt. 

1. Latera carapacis inermia. 

Tetralia nigrifrons. Frons subtiliter denticulatus parce sinuosus, medio 
obsolete bilobatus. Pedes antici valde inaequi, carpo intus spini-acuto. Pedes 
8 postici fere nudi, articulo 3tio paris postici latissimo, sesqui longiore quam 
lato, fere triplo latiore quam articulus 5tus. Hah. ad insulam "Honden" 
Paumotensem. Long. 2 d'". Carapax albus margine antico nigro. Pedes 

2. Carapacis latiis spina armatum. 
Tetralia armata. Frons subtilissime denticulatus, non sinuosus. Pedes 
antici inaequi, manu extus prope basin pubescente, carpo spinis duabus intus 

81 [May, 

armato, articulo 3tio prope apicem internum 4 denticulis tenuibus ornato. Pedes 
postici mediocres, articulo 3tio paulo angusto. Hab. ad insulam " Tongatabu." 
Long. 2'". 

Genus Quadrella, Dana. 

Carapax sat convexus, laevis, subquadratus, margine iateraliferelongitudinalis 
fronte lato, horizontali, regulariter spinoso, oculis ad angulos insitis. Articulus ^ 
antennarum externarum Imus perbrevis, secundo non longior, frontem non 
attingens, margine orbitae hiatu carenti exclusus. Pedes longi, posteriores 
graciles, tarsis unguiculatis. 

QuADRELLA COE.ONATA. Carapax laevis, lateribus paululum arcuatis et medio 
uni-spinosis, dentibus frontis sex medianis paulo longioribus externis perbrevibus, 
dente infra-orbitali elongato. Pedes antici elongati, manu angusta, triplo longiore 
quam corporis dimidium, inermi, laevi, carpo intus 2-spinoso, brachio ad raarginem 
anticum bene 7-spinoso. Pedes postici graciles, fere cylindrici, articulis sub- 
tilissime pubescentibus, articulo 5to marginibus parce pubescenti, tarso infra 
spinuloso. Hab. mari Suluensi. Long, carapacis et lat. 3h"\ Long, manus 
5i'''; digiti mobilis 2i% brachii Si'''. 


Subfam. LUPINx^. 

Grenus LuPA, Leach. 
LuPA PUBESCENs. ^-Carapax valde convexus, angustior, subtiliter granulatus, 
breviter hirsutus : fronte angusto, dentibus quatuor subsequis, parvulis, dente 
praeorbitali prominentioribus, emarginatione mediana profundiore ; margine 
antero-laterali 9-dentato, dente postico plus duplo longiore. Pedes antico 
breviores, non crassiores, hirsuti, brachio antice trispinoso, et apice postico non 
armato, manu superne trispinosa, costis valde prominentibus, digito mamis 
majoris mobili cum dente crasso obliquo basali armato. Hab. ad insulam "Maui'' 
Hawaiensem. Long, carapacis 13'"; lat. dentibus lateralibus longis inclusis 20'". 

Grenus Ampiiitrite, (i)e Haaii) Dana. 

1. Dens lateralis non elongatus. 

Amphitrite speciosa. Carapax areolatus, parce transversus, nudus, granu- 
latus, fronte inter-antennali 5-dentato, dente mediano minutissimo, triangulate, 
proximo non prominente, remotiore prominente, obtuso ; margine antero-laterali 
paulo arcuato, 9-dentato, dentibus alternatim paulo minoribus. Pedes antici 
sat validi, brachio postice 2-spinoso, antice 4 -spinoso, carpo 2-spinoso, manu 
breviore quam latitudo carapacis, 2-spinosa spina anteriore brevissima et vix 
conspicua. Areola carapacis cardiaca bipartita ; intestinalis grandis, tripartita, 
parte mediana fere lineari. Hab. ad insulas Vitienses. Long, carapacis &'" ; 
lat. IU"\ 

2. Dens lateralis valde elongatus . 

Amphitrite longi-spi.nosa. Carapax areolatus, paulo transversus, spina 
laterali diametro carapacis non duplo breviore, paulo reflexa, dentibus antero- 
lateralibus numero quinque (angulo orbitre excluso), minutis,non contiguis, inter 
se subaeque remotis, fronte inter-antennali 4-dentato, dentibus medianis minutis, 
exterioribus prominenter triangulatis. Pedes antici mediocres, manu superne 
3-spinosa, carpo 2-spinoso, brachio apice externo uni-spinoso, margine antico 
3-spinoso. Hob. ad insulas Vitienses. Long, carapacis 3"'; lat. spinis longis 
lateralibus inclusis ^\"' \ long, spinac longa2 \h"'' 

^Amphitrite vigilans. Carapax areolatus, paulo transversus, granulatus, 
spina laterali fere triplo breviore quam latitudo carapacis, dentibus parvulis 
antero-lateralibus numero sex (angulo orbitae excluso), quatuor posterioribus, 
duobus anterioribus ; fronte 4-dentato, dentibus duobus medianis minutis, 
exterioribus prominenter triangulatis. Pedes antici mediocres, manu superne 
3-spinosa, carpo 2-spinoso, brachio apice externo uni-spinoso, margine antico 

1852.J 85 

4-spinoso. Hab. ad insulas Vitienses et Hawaienses. Long, carapacis 7"'; lat. 
spinis longis lateralibus inclusis 14"'. 

Genus Carupa, Dana. 

Pedes antici sequentibus vix longiores, 2di 3tii 4tif,uo longi, gracillimi, tarso 
valde tenui, 5ti bene natatorii, tarso elliptico. Articulus antennarum externa- 
rum Imus cylindricus, sequent! similis. Carapax trausversus. 

Carupa TENUiPES. Carapax tiansversus, non areolatus, laevis, granulatus, 
nudus, fronte integro, medium paululo emarginato, margine antero-laterali 
7-dentato, dentibus acutis, subcequis, dente 5to minimo ; margine orbitali inferiors 
4-lobato. Pedes antici breves, manu non armata, brachio antice 3-spinoso, 
spina mediana majore. Pedes sex proximi gracillimi, nudi, t^rso longissimo. 
Pedes postici breviores, tarso oblongo, elliptico, apice breviteruni-spinoso. Hab. 
in archipelago Paumotensi. Long, carapacis 2^" ; lat. Sj"'. 

Genus Thalamtta, (^Latr.), DeEaan, 

1. Frons suhinteger. 

Thalamita Integra. Carapax convexior, glaber, nitidus, regione mediana 
lineis elevatis non intersecta, fronte paulo arcuato, lobo praeorbitali longo et 
marginem recto, et paululo elevato, margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dentibus 
acutis, 4to minuto. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus praelongus, crista 
longa integra. Pedes antici breves, manu nitida, omnino laevi, extus non costata, 
superne breviter 3-spinosa, spina una in margine superno ad medium insita, 
secunda in linea parallela externa, tertia juxta basin. Hab. ad insulas Paumo- 
tenses et Hawaienses. 

2. Frons multilobatus. 

Thalamita spinimana. Carapax valde transversus, regione mediana lineis 
elevatis intersecta, margine antero-laterali aeque 5-dentato, dentibus longis, 
acutis, curvatis, lobis frontalibus prominentibus, 2do latiore quam Stius, lobo 
praeorbitali elongato et valde prominente. Articulus antennarum externarum 
Imus prcelongus, crista irregulariter spinulosa. Pedes antici valde armati, carpo 
6-spinoso, manu 7 9-spinosa (margine superno 4 5-spinoso) costis duabus 
externis cum spinulis obsoletis seriatis instructis. Hab. archipelago Yitiensi. 
Long, carapacis 19'"; lat. 27'". 

Thalamita crassimana. Carapax valde transversus, laevis, nitidus, regione 
mediana 2 lineis elevatis intersecta, fronte recto, lobis latis, perbrevibus, 
truncatis, 2do latiore quam Stius, 3tio rotundato, lobo prsorbitali longo, paululo 
prominente, margine antero-laterali 5-dentato, dentibus acutis, 3tio non breviore, 
4to brevissimo. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus praelongus, crista 
irregulariter divisa. Pedes antici crassi, manu paulo tumida, superne 5-spinosa, 
(margine superno spinis duabus medianis armato et apice nulla), extus 2-cosTata, 
superficie minute tuberculata, carpo 4-spinoso et minute tuberculato, brachio 
margine antico 3-spinoso. Hab. ad insulas Vitienses. Long, carapacis 19'"; 
lat. 27'". Forsan T. prymna^ DeHaan, (Faun. Jap. tab. 12, f. 1); non T. 
prymna, Herhst et Edw. 

Genus Charybdis, DeHaan. 

Charybdis orientalts. Carapax laevis, regione mediana 2 3 lineis elevatis 
intersecta, fronte arcuato, dentibus valde obtusis, 3tio triangulate, margine 
antero-laterali 6-dentato, dentibus acutis, 2do minimo, postremo non longiore. 
Hab. ad insulam " Mindanao " Philippensem. Long, carapacis 151'"; lat. 22"'. 

Charybdis affinis. C. crncifcrce affinis. Margo antero-lateralis 6-dpntatus 
dente postremo duplo longiore, primo truncato et emarginato. Carapax 
superficie subtiliter velutinus ; frontis dentes subtriansulati, vix acuti. Manus 
supra 5-spinosa extus 3-costata ; brachium 3-spinosum, spina inferiore dimidio 
breviore. Hah. prope portum M Singapore." Long, carapacis lU'"; lat. denti- 
bus lateralibus inclusis 111'"' 


86 I May, 

Genus Lissocarcinus, White. 
LissocARCiNus ORBICULARIS. Carapax paululo latiorquam longus,levissimus, 
nitidus, fronte medio parce angulato, integro, margine antero-laterali tenui, paulo 
reflexo, obsolete 5-lobato. Pedes antici perbreves, manu superne bicarinata, 
carinis integris, digito mobili supra bene carinato. Pedes 8 poslici nudijarticulo 
3tio superne obtuso, tarso pedis postici anguste subovato,apicem acutoetinflexo. 
Ha3. ad insulas Vitienses. io^^^. carapacis 5'^' ; lat.^i'". 

Genus Platyonychus, Latreille* 

Platyonychus purpureus, B. bipzistulato affinis. Carapax paulo transversus 
(latitudine quarta parte majore) ; margine antero-laterali breviore, crasse 
5-dentato ; fronte 4-dentato, dentibus acutis, inter se non seque remotis, medianis 
propioribus. Pedes antici fere aequi, carpo granulis minutis reticulato et scabri- 
culo, intus elongate acuto, manu granulis asperata, inferne transversim pliculata. 
Pedes postici marginibus dense ciliati, articulo 3tio superne nondenticulato, tarso 
fere duplo longiore quam lato. Abdomen maris fere lineare, segmento penultimo 
basin non latiore. Carapax purpureo punctatus, regiouis medianae parte poste- 
riore valde purpureus et sublunatus. iZaS. juxta port um " Valparaiso." Long. 
carapacis 2" 6"'; lat. 2" ^"\ 


Synopsis Generum Familiarumque Corystoideorum in Amer. Jour. Sci., Ser. 
2da, V. xiii. p. 119, auctore edita, q. v. 


Trichocera oregonensis. Carapax transversus, convexus, gibbosus, granu- 
losus, antice lateraliterquci bene arcuatus, angulo laterali vix instructus, margine 
lateral! (postero-laterali incluso) 13-dentato, dentibus regularibus, brevibus ; 
margine postero-laterali recto; fronte inter-antennali brevi, recto, medium non 
emarginato. Pedes antici crassi, manu perbrevi, alta, superne minute tubercu- 
lata, extus laevi et obsolete 5-costata. Pedes 8 postici pubescentes. Hab. freto 
Pugettensi Americae occidentalis. Long, carapacis Sj'''; lat. W". 

Fam. THIID^. 
Genus Kraussia, Dana. 

Kraussia rugulosa, Platyonychus rngulosics Krauss (Siidaf. Crust, p. 26, 
tab. 1, f. 5) ad insulas Hawaienses lecta. 


Genus Telmessus, White. 
Telmessus serratus. White, in freto Pugettensi Americae occidentalis lectus. 

Genus Gomez A, Gray. 

Gomeza serrata. Carapax subovatus, scaber, breviter hirsutus, rostro apicem 
truncato, margine juxta apicem utrinque inciso, lateribus acute 5-serratis, 
serratura 4ta. fere mediana, quoque subtilissime denticulatis. Pedes marginibus 
pubescentes. Hab. mari prope Patagoniam orientalem. Long, carapacis li'". 

1852.] 87 

The Committee on the following paper by Mr. Charles Girard, of 
Washington, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

A Revision of the North American Astaci, with observations on their habits and 

geographical distribution. 

By Charles Girard. 

According to recent investigations,* the crawfishes or Astaci, have been dis- 
tributed into several genera : thus, the genus Astamis proper includes all the 
species of Europe and Asia, and two of Australia ; the genus Astacoides is com- 
posed of two species one from Madagascar and another from Van Diemen's 
Land ; the genus Chr,raps comprehends three species peculiar to New Holland ; 
the genus Engceus embraces two species confined to Van Diemen's Land ; and 
finally, the genus Camharus includes the American species: one from Chili, 
another from Cuba, two from Mexico and six from the United States. 

Investigations of a still more recent date,t the results of which have not yet 
been given to the scientific world, refer to the genus Astacus a species from the 
Columbia river, thus giving again that genus to North America. 

At the request of Dr.Baird, we have examined critically the Astaci preserved at 
the Smithsonian Institution, collected chiefly by himself. Our researches have 
made us acquainted with several new species within the limits of the United 
States, and which we now characterise briefly, deferring to another opportunity 
ipore full descriptions, accompanied with necessary graphic illustrations. 

First group. Rostrum subquadrangularly elongated, terminated anteriorly by 
three conical and acute spines, the two lateral smaller than the middle one, 
which forms the tip. Extremity of the anterior pair of abdominal legs (in the 
male) straight and acute. 

1. Ca:vibarl's PELLrciDus, Erichs. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, i. 95. 

Astacus pellucidus, Tellk. in Mull. Archiv, 1844, 383. 
Locality. Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, (Tellkampf, &c.) 

2. Cambarus affinis, Erichs. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, i. 96. 

Astacus affiiiis, Say, Journ.Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. i. 1817, 168 and 443. 

Harl. Med. and Phys. Res. 1835, 230, fig. 2. 
A. Barto7iii^ M. Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. 331. 
A. limosns, Rafin. Amer. Month. Mag. ii. 1817, 42. 
Localities. Schuylkill, at Reading (Baird), Delaware (Say and Rafinesque). 

3. Ca-mbari's oreganus, Erichs. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, i. 375. 

Astacus uregajius, Rand. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. viii. 1, 1839, 
138, PL vii. 
Locality. Columbia River (Nuttall). 

4. Cambarus Pealei, Girard. Diff'ers from C. affinis in having longer anten- 
nae, and a broader area between the dorsal lines of suture of the carapace. The 
lateral spine of the rostrum are also much less developed. The color is green- 
ish brown above, with small green dots on the claws, and sometimes on the 
cephalo-thorax. A green line or narrow band is observed along the outer edge 
of the big claws, the tips of which, as well as the tips of the other legs, are 
orange, preceded by a deep green, almost black circle or ring. On each articu- 
lation of the tail there is a double, irregular and transverse blood-red band, 
which extends to the lateral appendages of the caudal rings. Underneath, the 
body is whitish and rusty. 

Locality. Potomac, at Washington (D. C.) 

Erichson (W. F.) Uebersicht der Gattung Astacus. Wieg?n. Archiv fiir 
Naturgeschichte, 1846, i. 86. 

t Proc. Acad. Nat Sc. Philad. vi. 1852, 20. 


88 [May, 

5. Cambarus RusTicus, Girard. Rostrum narrower than in both C affinis 
and C. Pealei, and besides, concave on the sides. Terminal point shorter than 
in either of the preceding species ; anterior pair of abdominal legs (in the male) 
elongated, slender, with their tip curved inwards, whilst the same tips are 
straight in C. affinis y and twisted in C. pelhicidus. The dorsal area is broader 
than in C. Pealei. 

'' Locality. The Ohio, at Cincinnati, 

6. CAMBARrs pRopiNQUus, Girard. Closely allied to C. affinis, from which 
it differs, as well as from C. Pealei, by a proportionally shorter rostrum, and 
from C. rusticus by a much broader one. The area between the dorsal sutures 
of the carapace is still broader than in either C. affinis, C. Pealei or C rusticus. 
There are also differences in the structure of the anterior pair of abdominal legs 
of the male. . " 

Localities. Lake Ontario, four miles from the shores, opposite to Oswego, 
found in the stomach of Lota maculosa; Garrison Creek, Sackett's Harbor; 
Four-mile creek, Oswego (Baird). 

7. Cambarus fossor, Girard. Astacus fossor, Rafin. Amer. Month. Mag. ii. 

This species we have not seen, but if Rafinesque's description is correct, 
" rostrum short, one toothed on each side, "^there can be no hesitation in referring 
it to this group. He further states that its vulgar name is " burrowing lobster," 
and that " it burrows in meadows and mill-dams, which it perforates and da- 
mages." This would indicate habits similar to a species of the second group, 
which we*describe hereafter, under the name of C. diogenes. We cannot help, 
however, from expressing some apprehension that on the examination of au- 
thentic specimens from the same localities whence Rafinesque had obtained his, 
the rostrum should be found without lateral tooth, in vv^hich case the C. fossor 
might not differ from our C. diogenes. 

Localities. Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York (Rafinesque.) 

Second group. Rostrum generally broad, conical and short, with margins 
entire and toothless, terminated anteriorly by an acute and comparatively short 
point. Anterior pair of abdominal legs (in the male) recurved on their extremity, 
the tip of which is rounded. 

8. Cambarus Bartonii,, Erich. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, I, 97. 

Astacais Bartoiiii, Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 407. Latr. Gen. Cr. and Ins. v, 
240. Bosc, Hist. Nat. Cr II, 62, pi. II, fig. 1. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. I, 1817, 167 and 443. Harl. Med and Phys. Res. 1835, 230, fisr. 3. 
Gould, Rep. Inv. Mass. 1841, 330. De Kay, N. Y. Fauna VI, 1844, 22, pi. 
viii. fig. 25. 

Astacus ciliaris, Rafin. Amer. Month. Mag. II, 1817, 42. 

Localities. Foxburg, Carlisle and Berwick (Pa.) ; New York (De Kay) ; Mas- 
sachusetts (A. A. Gould). Brooks near Fishkill, Newburg, &c. (Rafinesque.) 

9. Cambarus carolinus, Erich. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, I, 96. 
Astacus affiuis, M. Edw. Hist. Nat. Cr. II, 332. 
Localities, Carolina (Erichson); Anderson, S. C. 

10. Cambarus montanus, Girard. Antennae more elongated and more fili- 
form than in C Bartonii. Rostrum intermediate in shape between the latter 
and C. carolinns, being proportionally longer than in C.Bartouii and shorter and 
less tapering than in C. carolinus. Dorsal sutures of the carapace more apart 
than in both of the latter species. 

Localities. Within the Alleghany ranges in Virginia and Maryland: tributaries 
of James river in llockbrid^^e Co. (Va.); Shenandoah river in Clarke Co. (Va.), 
and Cumberland (Md.) of the hydrographical basin of the Potomac ; Sulphur 
Spring, Greenbrier river, an affluent of Kenhawa river (Va.) of the Ohio basin. 

11. Cambarus diorenes, Girard. Rostrum proportionally the most elongated 
and the most conical amongst all the species of (his group. Dorsal lines of 

1852.] 89 

sutures of the carapace almost contiguous. Body uniform yellowish brown above 
and below, greenish on the sides and on the claws, the tips of which are red. 

This species, like C. fo.tsorj burrows in the meadows. Such places we have 
visited in the neighborhoods of the city of Washington, in order to study its pe- 
culiar habits. The holes, as they appear at the surface of the ground, are nearly 
circular, from seven-tenths of an inch to one inch and one inch and a half in 
diameter. The depth of the burrows varies according to the locations; this, we 
generally found to be from sixteen inches to two feet, and sometimes to three 
feet and more. The construction of the burrow itself is often exceedingly 
simple : from the surface of the grouud the excavation exhibits a gradual slope, in 
direction more or less undulating for a distance from five to ten inches, when it 
becomes vertical for six or eight inches, and then terminates jn a sudden bottle- 
shaped enlargement in which the animal is found. The bottom of the burrow 
having no subterraneous communication, no other issue except towards the sur- 
face ; it is entirely isolated from its neighbors, and leaves no chance for escape 
to its inhabitant. The same burrow may have several external holes connected 
with it, several inclined channels, which, however, meet at the depth where it 
becomes vertical. We found constantly the cavity full of water, but this was in 
March and April; the bottom, for several inches, was hlled with a soft and pulpy 

There are other instances of burrows somewhat more complex. Their di- 
rection may be oblique throughout their whole extent, and composed of a series 
of chambers or ovoid enlargements succeeding each other at short intervals. Some- 
times also, and connected with one of the chambers, a narrow and nearly vertical 
tubuliform channel extends downwards to a much greater depth, and appears to 
us as a retreat either during the cold winters or else during the dryness of the 
summer, when water is low. That it is not for the mere purpose of escaping 
pursuit, we infer from the fact that we repeatedly caught the animals in the 
chambers above, where they remained quietly instead of attempting to disappear 
into the apartments below. 

We generally found a single individual in one burrow, it being either a male 
or a female, the latter in March and April, carrying under the tail a bundle of her 
eggs. Sometimes, when numerous individuals are gathered on a small space, it 
may happen that the windings of the upper part of their burrows will accidentally 
meet and have in this case a communication which was not contemplated. Each 
individual, however, remains in its own apartment; so at least we constantly 
found to be the case. 

To accomplish the act of breeding, males and females must come together at 
one particular time. In one of the burrows which we examined we found a male 
and a female. We are inclined to believe that the male quits its retreat and 
goes in search of the female, as one individual of the former sex was found, 
at one time, walking over the surface of the ground. 

In the spring, and we are told in the fall also, the burrowing crawfish builds 
over the holes of its burrow a chimney of the maximum height of one loot, but 
most generally lower. This chimney, circularly pyramidal in shape, is con- 
structed of lumps of mud, varying in size, irregularly rolled up, and piled up, 
one upon, each other, and intimately cemented together. Its exterior has a rough 
and irregular appearance ; whilst the interior is smooth and as uniform as the 
subterraneous channel, having the same diameter as the latter. The cementing 
of the successive balls of mud is easily accounted for when we bear in mind that 
the latter are brought up in a very soft state, and that their drainage and subse- 
quent solidification on their exposure to the atmospheric air and rays of the sun, 
is all that is required to unite these parts. 

' The animal works during night. How the work is performed has not yet been 
ascertained by actual observations. As to the question of the manner in which 
the mud is modelled into rolls or balls, either the tail, or perhaps the big claws 
might perform that part of the work. An observation made by John D. God- 
man* leads us to suppose that the mud is brought up embraced between the chest 
and the large claws. On an examination of these chimneys we detected the 

Rambles of a Naturalist. Philadelphia, 1833, pp. 40, 41. 

90 [May, 

imprints of the second and third pair of claws, which indicate, evidently, that 
the parcels of mud, once brought to the surface in the iTianner just stated, are ar- 
ranijed and fixed in their definitive place by means of these organs. 

When the work has thus been carried on towards completion, the last touch- 
consists in shutting up the aperture. This is accomplished by means of several 
balls of mud. brought up from underneath, deposited temporarily on the edge of 
the chimney and drawn back in close contiguity, so as to intercept all commu- 
nication with the external world. 

The number of such chimneys is sometimes very great in one particular lo- 
cality, distributed without any geometrical regularity, and recalling to mind the 
scattered habitations or village of a newly settled colon}^. 

Whether C diogenes is to be found in other places besides the meadows, 
we are not prepared to state definitively. We have seen localities where the 
holes could be traced from the edge of the rivulets to the middle of the 
meadows, still, there being no subterraneous communication from one burrow to 
the other, the animal, at any rate, would have to crawl out of the water and 
walk over land. Colonies of burrowing crawfish are found, we are told, in the 
interior of lands, far away from any rivulets or waters, a circumstance which 
would lead to the supposition that these at least pass their entire life in such 
localities instead of spending one season in the waters and another in dry lands. 
For, one fact must be very apparent, the existence of several species of craw- 
fishes with burrowing habits, even in the hypothesis of an identity between 
C. fossor and C. diogenes. For we learn from Mr. T. R. Peale, of Washington, 
that chimneys of mud, in all points similar to those just described, were ob- 
served by him in New Grenada, along the Rio Magdalena, several hundred miles 
from the sea shore, and consequently indicating the presence there of a species 
of crawfish which we do not hesitate in pronouncing distinct from C. diogenes. 

It remains now to ascertain how many such there are, and whether some of 
them are not to be found both in the running waters of the rivulets and in the 

12. CAMBARTrs LONGULUS, Girard. Rostrum of the same proportional length 
as in C. diogenes, but it is narrower and slightly concave on the sides. The 
dorsal area between the sutures of the carapace is very broad, a character which 
at once distinguishes it from the preceding species. From C. Bartonii it differs 
by a much more elongated and narrower rostrum. 

Locality. Uncertain; labels having been accidentally lost. Its range, however, 
is within the middle States of the Union. 

13. CambarT'S pusiLLTjs, Girard. Astacus picsilluSi'RKViti. Amer. Monthly 
Mag. II, 1817, 42. 

This species comes nearest to C.mo7ita7i?is, hut the antennae are still longer and 
the rostrum more tapering, and terminated by a more elongated point. The 
dorsal area between the sutures of the carapace is likewise narrower. 

Localities. Lake Ontario, three miles from shore opposite Oswego, taken in 
the stomach of Lota maculosa (Baird). Brooks near Saratoga, Lake George, 
Lake Champlain, Utica, Oswego, (Rafinesque). 

14. Cambartjs robttstus, Girard. Differs from C. Bartonii by stouter an- 
tennae, composed of shorter articulations and by proportionally more elongated 
and more conical rostrum and a more acute terminal point- From C.pnsilhis it 
is distinguished by having shorter antennae, besides a difference in the shape of 
the rostrum. The dorsal lines of suture of the carapace, on the other hand, do 
not approximate as much as in C. diogenes., although nearer than in both C Bar- 
tonii and C. pusillns. It differs from C. longalas by a broader rostrum and a 
narrower dorsal area. The anterior pair of abdominal legs in the male, more- 
over, is flattened and twisted. 

Locality. Humber River, near Toronto (Canada). 

15. Cambarus Gambelii, Girard.^-Antennae, about the length of the body, 
from the tip of the rostrum to the origin of the tail. Rostrum proportionally 
long and conical as in C. diogenes and C. longnlt/s, but is bordered on each side 
with a row of minute and conical tubercles. Anterior claw very stout, bearing 

1852.] 91r 

tufts of fine hairs. Anterior pair of abdominal legs, elongated, resembling some- 
what in shape those of C. rub-usttts, to which it bears a close relationship. 

Locality. California. Collected by the lamented Dr. William Gambel, to 
whose memory we inscribe the species. Specimens are deposited at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

16. Cambarus NEBRASCENSis, Girard. Rostrum intermediate, in form be- 
tween that of C robiistus and C. diogenes. Dorsal lines of suture of the cara- 
pace in close contiguity. Large claw nearly conical, giving to the species a very 
peculiar aspect. 

Locality. Fort Pierre (Nebraska) ; collected in 1850 by Thaddeus Culbertson. 

Third Group. Kosixuvcx very much elongated, conical, tapering, provided on 
both sides and rather near the exlremiry with a small and acute spine, some- 
limes, however, but very sliirhtly developed. 

17. Cambarus Blandingii, Erichs. Arch. f. Naturg. 1846, I, 98. 

Astacus Blandingii, Harl. Faun. Amer. & Trans. Philos.Soc. Philad. N. S. 
Ill, 1830, 464; Med. & Phys. Res. 1S35, 229, fig. 1. 

Localities. Marshes and rivulets of Southern States (Harlan) ; Summerville, 
S. C. (Girard). 

18. Ca:mbarus Clarkti, Girard. Antennae long and slender, nearly as long 
as the body and tail. Rostrum tapering, but very gradually from its base to 
the lateral spines, though the terminal point is more elongated than in C Blan- 
dingii. Anterior pair of abdominal legs terminated by two nearly equal and 
rounded tubercles. 

Locality. Between San Antonio (Texas) andEl Paso del Norte ; collected by 
John H. Clark, Esq., under Lieut. Col. J. D. Graham, late head of Scientific 
Corps U. S. Boundary Commission. 

19. Cambarus acutus, Girard. Rostrum proportionally shorter than in both 
C. Blandingii and C acutissivnis ; very broad at its base, and tapering very 
suddenly towards its extremity. The lateral spines of the rostrum are scarcely 
to be seen in this species ; the tip is likewise very short although very acute. 
The structure of the anterior pair of abdominal legs in the male, differs from 
that of C. Blandingii and C. Clarkii, by the more slender shape of the termi- 
nating tubercles. The antennae have nearly the same proportional length as in 
C. Clarl'ii, 

Locality. From an affluent of Mobile river in Kemper Co., Miss. ; specimens 
received from D. C. Lloyd, Esq. 

20. Cambarus AcuTissiML'S, Girard. Rostrum much more elongated than in 
any of the species of the same group; very much tapering and very acute, with 
slight indications of the lateral spines which are so well developed in C. Blan- 
dingii. The anterior abdominal pair of legs is terminated by a slender and re- 
curved tip. 

Locality. Found with the preceding and sent by the same gentleman to Pro- 
fessor Baird. 

The Committee on Dr. Leeonte's Synopsis of the Anthicites of the 
United States, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Synopsis of the Jnthicites of the United States. 
By John L. LeConte, M. D. 

Although it is but three years since M. de la Ferte Senectere published his 
very beautiful and elaborate monograph of Anthicus, yet the species known to 
inhabit our territory have almost doubled in number. Most of these have been 
published by me already in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of 
New York, and in Prof. Agassiz's work on the Physical Character of Lake 
Superior. The object I had in view in the beginning "of my study of this group, 

92 [iMay, 

was to make known several species of genera associated by Ferte with the 
Anthicites, such as Stereopalpus and Eurygenius ; but after an attentive study 
of these genera, I became convinced that they, as well as Macratria,* must be 
removed from this group altogether. The two first must be placed among the 
Pyrochroites, a synopsis of which will shortly appear. Having also increased 
this family by one very distinct genus, I thought that it would be useful to bring 
together the descriptions that are now scattered in several works, into the form 
of a synopsis, so that the species being placed in a natural relation with each 
other, the characters of each might become more obvious. It is remarkable 
that of all the indigenous species, only one (Notoxus monodon) should be com- 
mon to both sides of the continent. Anthicus floralis, found both here and in 
Europe, is most probably introduced in articles of commerce. Ferte mentions 
its occurrence also in California. 

With regard to the affinities of this group I can say but little. Some authors 
imagine that there exists a relation between them and the Scydmaeni, which, 
however, appears rather a resemblance of form, for a certain manner of life, 
than a true affinity ; for besides the differences in the palpi and insertion of the 
antennae, the prosternum in Scydmaenus is entirely separated from the lateral 
infiexed portions of the thorax, while in Anthicus it is all in one piece. The 
true afl[inities appear to be with the Pyrochroites, from which they are dis- 
tinguished only by the form of the parapleurae, which in Anthicus are triangular, 
and in Pyrochroites parallel. Other differences are in the neck of Pyrochroites 
being less narrow and not so distinctly separated as in Anthicus; in the antennae 
being inserted in front of, and very close to the eyes, which are large and more 
or less emarginate, extending far on the under surface of the head, and frequent- 
ly almost uniting on the vertex. 

The diagnosis of the present tribe will then be : 

Coleopteraheteromera^ capite postice valde coarctatOj collo distinctissimo ; ocv- 
lis integerrimisj lateralibus ; nnandihulis apice emarginatis ; ahdomine ft-articu' 
lato, articulis liberis ; parapleitris triangularibic's ; coxis anticis contig%iis ; 
tcnguihiLS simplicibus. 

The native genera are thus related : 

A. Antennae articulo llmo simplici. 
Thorax cornutus ; tarsi articulo 4tf> bilobato . . . Notoxtjs. 
Thorax simplex ; tarsi articulo 4to bilobato ; 

antennae moniliatae, femora incrassata . . Tomoderus. 
Antennae non moniliatae ; humeri indistincti . Formicomus. 

humeri distincti . Anthicus. 

B. Antennae articulo llmo elongato, quasi diviso. 
Thorax simplex ; articulo tarsorum 4to simplici . . Tanartiirus. 

Notoxus Geoffroy. ^ 

1. N. anchora, elongatus, testaceus, thorace globoso, cornu serrato, crista 
sensim elevata, elytris valde punctatis, macula lateral!, fascia postica suturaque 
nigris. Long. '\A. 

Hentz Journ. Ac. Nat. Nat. Sc. 5, 375, pi. 13, fig. 4 : La Ferte, Anthic. 33. 

Monocerus aiicliora "Lee. Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. New. Ser. 1, 89. 

Lake Superior, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Ohio and Missouri Territory : the lateral 
spot is sometimes wanting ; the horn is rounded at the apex and serrate, the crest 
rises gradually, is margined on the sides but not at the apex. The male has the 
apex of the elytra truncate. 

2. N. conformis, elongatus, testaceo-fuscus, thorace globoso, cornu 
elongato, crista subito paulo elevata, elytris parce punctatis, maculis utrinque 2 
ante medium, fascia que postica nigris. Long. 13. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 152. 

One specimen, found on the Gila. The thorax is globose, not transverse, the 
horns margined, not serrate ; the crest is broad, rises suddenly but slightly, and 

There is no reason why this genus should not be associated with Scraptia. 

185:2.] 93 

is strongly margined both on the sides and apex. The elytra are strongly but 
not densely punctured ; the inner of the two spots is near the scutellum, the outer 
one behind the humerus. The posterior band is oblique and sinuous. 

3. N. cavicornis, minus elongatus, fusco testaceus, thorace rotiindato, 
transverso, cornu elongate, apice concavo, crista subito valde elevata, elytris 
punctatis, macula scutellari, lineolis anticis, fasciaque postica nigro-fuscis. 
Long. "ll. 

J^ec. An. Lye. 5, 152. 

San Francisco, California : male with the apex of the elytra acute, obliquely 
truncatp on the outer side. The thorax is one-half wider than long, the horn 
broad not serrate, stronsly excavated at tip, crest broad, high, margined on the 
sides and apex, which is rounded. Elytra distinctly, not densely punctured. 

4. N. serratus, elongaf us, testaceus, thorace globoso, corna antice con- 
cavo, serrato, crista subito valde elevata. elytris subtilius punctatis, macula scu- 
tellari, lineolis anticis, fasciaque lata )X)stica infuscatis. Long. -17. 

Mouocrns .serrat/ff Lee. Journ. Ac. Xat. Sc. New Ser. 1, 90. 

Near the Rocky Mountains. One male specimen has the elytra immaculate, 
with the apex slightly truncate. The horn is broader than usual, strongly serrate, 
concave at the apex; the crest is high and rises very suddenly, is strongly mar- 
gined, but scarcely rounded at the apex. The elytra are more finely punctured 
than in the preceding species. 

5. N. monodon, elongatus, testaceus, thorace globoso, subtransverso, 
cornu antice concavo, serrato, crista sensim modice elevata, elytris minus subti- 
iiter punctatis, macula scutellari fasciaque postica nigris. Long. 12. 

Ferte Anthic. 37. 

AnthicHs monodon Fabr. Syst. El. 1, 2S9 : Say, Am. Ent. 1, pi. 10. 

Mouocerus monodon var. a. Lee. Journ. Ac Nat. Sc. New Ser. 1, 90. 

Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Missouri Territory and California. The 
horn is serrate, broad and concave at the apex; the crest is moderately broad, 
rises gradually and is margined on the sides and tip, which is somewhat acute. 
The elytra are strongly punctured, though less so than in N. anchora ; the scu- 
tellar spot is sometimes wanting. 

6. N. api calls, elongatus, testaceus, thorace globoso, cornu antice con- 
cavo, lateribus serrato, crista subito valde elevata, elytris densius punctatis, 
macula scutellari, fascia postica, apiceque nigris. Long. -15. 

Monocerus monodon Lee. Journ. Ac. New Ser. i. 90. 

Detroit, 3Iichigan. Easily distinguished from the preceding by the form of 
the horn. Tte thorax is not at all transverse ; the horn is broad, concave at the 
apex, serrate on the sides ; the crest rises very suddenly, and is margined at the 
sides and apex, which is rounded. The elytra are tolerably densely punctured. 

7. N. m ar ginat u s, valde elongatus, testaceus, thorace subgloboso, cornu 
vix serrato, crista subito valde elevato, elytris suhtiliter punctulatis, gutta sub- 
scutellari, linea submarginali, fascia tenui postica, apiceque nigris. Long. -16. 

Detroit. Easily distinguished by its much narrower form. The thorax is 
less narrowed behind than usual, and not at all transverse ; the horn is margined 
and scarcely serrate ; the crest rises suddenly and is margined at the sides and 
apex, which is rounded. The black marks of the elytra are very narrow; the 
fascia is angulated at the suture, and does not reach the margin ; the submar- 
ginal line extends from below the humerus to the apex. 

8. N. sub til is, valde elongatus, fusco-testaceus, thorace globoso, subtrans- 
verso, cornu serrato, crista subito valde elevata, elytris subtilissime punctulatis, 
macula scutellari, fascia ad medium apiceque nigris, margine infuscato. 
Long. '13. 

Missouri Territory, one specimen. Differs from all the preceding species by 
the fascia being at the middle of the elytra. The thorax is slightly transverse ; 
the horn is concave at the apex, subserrale ; the crest rises abruptly and is 
strongly margined and somewhat rounded at the apex. 

94 [May, 

Var. ? Entirely testaceous, with a marginal fuscous spot at the middle of each 
elytron. I have only a single specimen of this, which is possibly a distinct 
species ; it is less elongated, and the elytra are broadly truncate at the tip. 

9. N. bifas ciat us, elongatus, fuscus, thorace globoso, cornu vix serrato, 
crista subito elevata, elytris subtilissirae punctulatis, nigris, fasciis duabus 
cinereis ornatis. Long. -13 '16. 

Moiiocerus hifasciatus Lee. Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. New Ser. i. 89. 

Western States and Upper Mississippi. The feet are either fuscous or ferru- 
ginous ; the thorax is sometimes rufous ; the elytra are rounded at the tip in 
both sexes ; the anterior fascia is broad and situated at the anferior fourth of the 
length of the elytra, the second is narrow and placed one-third from the apex. 

10. N. bicolor, elongatus, obscurus, pedibus thoraceque laete rufis, hoc 
cornu serrato, crista lata sensim elevata, elytris opacis cinerascentibus, subti- 
liter punctulatis. Long. -l.?. 

Ferte Anthic. 53. 

AntJdcus bicolor Say, Am. Ent. i. pi. 10. 

Monoceriis bicolor Lee. Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. N. Ser. i. 90. 

Common in the Middle and Southern States. The thorax is subglobose ; the 
horn wider than usual, strongly serrate ; the crest is wide, rises gradually, and 
is margined on the sides and apex, which is rounded. 

Species unknown to me : 

11. N. Pil at i, Ferte Anthic. 297. Texas. 

12. N. plani CO r nis Ferte Anthic. 39, fig. 8. Very distinct by the absence 
of the crest of the horn. 

13. N. t alp a Ferte Anthic. 50. 

14. N. elegantulus Ferte ibid. 52. These are both from California. They 
appear to be allied to N. b if asc iatu s. 

A ToMODERus Ferte. 

This genus is distinguished by its submoniliform antennae, and clavate femora; 
the fourth joint of the tarsi is bilobed as in Anthicus. 

1. T. interrupt^us, parce pubescens, thorace medio valde constricto, 
lobo anteriore latiore, transverso, elytris confuse punctatis, punctis pone medium 
subtilioribus. Long. -11. 

Ferte Anthic, 97. 

Middle and Southern States, varies from black to brown; usually dark brown, 
with the posterior part of the elytra black. 

2. T. constrictus, parce pubescens, thorace medio valde constricto, lobo 
anteriore latiore subtransverso, elytris antice seriatim grosse punctatis, pone 
medium obsolete punctulatis. Long. '12. 

Ferte, Anthic. 101. 

Anthicus constrictus Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 244. 

Southern States; the obsolete punctures of the posterior part of the elytra is 
the only character for separating this species from the preceding, in which the 
punctures frequently show a tendency to form series. I am very doubtful 
whether they should be considered distinct. 

4 FoRMicoMtJs Ferte. ) 
\ Formicilla Lee. J 

This group is only separated from genuine Anthicus by the oval, convex elytra 
without distinct humeri, and by its more strongly clavate femora. J have placed 
it in brackets to signify that 1 do not adopt the name. 

1. A. s c i t u 1 u s , apterus, rufo-testaceus, nitidissimus, thorace elongate, 

1852.] 95 

postice constricto, elytris ovalibus, convexis, macula magna lateral i, fasciaque 
anuusta postica nijjris. Long. -1. 

Sea beach of Sullivan's Island, S. Carolina : June. Body bright reddish yellow, 
very smooth and shining; head large slightly convex, rounded behind, marked 
with a few distant punctures, and four or five erect black hairs ; front blackish : 
antennae with the joints 2 6 slender, nearly equal, 7 11 gradually increasing in 
size. Thorax as long as the head and one half narrower, transversely convex, 
much narrowed and constricted just behind the middle, then widened a little to 
the base, which on each siile has a wide shallow fovea. Elytra oval, gradually 
dilated to the middle, where they are three times as wide as the thorax; apex 
rounded: humeral angles obsolete, disc convex smooth, ornamented with a large 
lateral blackish spot at the middle, and a narrow blackish band between that and 
the apex; margin with a lew black bristles. Body beneath finely punctured, 
and slightly pubescent, thighs slightly incrassated, tarsi slender, lobes of the 4th 
joint very narrow, produced beneath ; posterior tibice slightly compressed and 

I can find no sexual difference. This and the next species might more pro- 
perly enter Ferte's 4th division of Anthicus, but both have the neck of the thorax 
distinct, and this one is completely apterous. At any rate they show the necessity 
of uniting the two genera. 

2. A. mundus, alatus, rufo-testaceus nitidissimus, thorace elongate, pone 
medium constricto, basi 3-punctato, elytris pone humeros impressis, rufis fascia 
lata ad medium, maculaque maxima apicali nigris. Long. "09. 

Formicilla mnnda Lee. An. Lye. 5, 152. Bright reddish yellow, very smooth 
and shining, with a few black setae ; antennas, head and thorax as in the last, 
except that the latter is less convex on the disc, and has three points at the 
middle of the base. Elytra much less convex, slightly dilated as far as the 
middle, rounded at the apex ; humeri distinct obtuse : disc obsoletely and 
sparsely punctured before the middle, post humeral impression large and distinct: 
ornamented with a very broad black fascia at the middle, and a very large 
common black spot, which extends nearly to the apex, leaving only a narrow 
yellow fascia between it and the band just described, and a narrow lateral and 
apical margin yellow. Body beneath ferruginous, finely punctured and pubescent. 
Thighs moderately incrassated. 

I found only two specimens of this insect, on the lower part of the Colorado 
River. It agrees so closely in general characters with the preceding species, 
that it would be unnatural to separate it as a distinct genus. I am, therefore, 
led to believe that the filiform tarsi, ascribed by me to this insect, must be an 
error of observation, depending on the condition of the specimens, which unfor- 
tunately became mouldy at Panama. All my attempts to cleanse the tarsi have 
heretofore proved useless ; and I may add, that in A. scitulus, the lobes of the 
fourth tarsal joint are so delicate, that the slightest dirt is sufficient to render 
them invisible. 

Anthicus PaykuU. 

Although the arrangement followed by Ferte may be the most convenient in 
working with species from every part of the world, yet it has appeared to me 
to be capable of some improvement, when used in the study of our native 
species. I have therefore attempted to separate them into homogeneous groups, 
so that the diagnoses of the species may thereby be shortened, and the labor of 
identifying species diminished. The following table seems to answer the pur- 
pose without any great violation of affinity. 

A. Caput non granulatum, tibiae calcaribus fere obsoletis. Thorax basi 

a. Capite rotundato, occipite non impresso, palpis articulo ultimo maximo, 
thorace postice constricto, elytris basi impressis. Sp. 1 3. 


96 [May, 

b. Capite rotundato, occipite breviter impresso, thorace postice constricto, 
elytris basi impressis. Sp. 4 6. 

c. Capite rotundato, occipite non impresso, thorace postice rrodice constricto, 
elytris non impressis : corpus minus pubescens. Sp. 7 9. 

d. Capite subquadrato, thorace elongate, trapezoideo ; corpus vix pubescens. 

Sp. 1013. 

e. Capite subquadrato, thorace plus minusve trapezoideo, elytris non impres- 
sis ; corpus longius pubescens. 

1. Capite postice rotundato, thorace subcampanulato ; antennis tenuibus. 

Sp. 1418. 

2. Capite postice truncate, pone oculos non angustato, oculis prominulis. 

Sp. 1936. 

3. Capite postice truncate, pone oculos non angustato, oculis parvis ; 
elytris lateribus retundatis, humeris fere nullis. Sp. 37. 

B. Caput non granulatum ; tibiae calcaribus obsoletis ; thorax basi non 
marginatus. Sp. 38. 

C. Caput triangulare, granulatum; tibiae calcaribus valde distinctis : 
thorax ovatus basi marginatus. Sp. 39 40. 

1. A. obscurus, niger nitidus subtiliter pubescens, capite impunctato, 
thorace postice constricto, basi cylindrico, elytris parcius punctulatis, versus 
basin vix cinerascentibus, antennarum basipicea. Long. '12. 

Ferte, Anthic. 116. 

Coney Island, near New York. July, in salt marsh. The elytra are less 
impressed behind the base than in the following. The posterior tibiae of the 
male are not dilated, or bent. 

2. A. nitidulus, niger nitidus, subtiliter pubescens, capite parce punc- 
tate, thorace postice constricto, basi cylindrico, elytris parce punctulatis, basi 
vix cinerascentibus, antennarum basi picea. Long. '12. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 153. 

Two specimens, San Jose, California. Exactly similar in size and form to 
the preceding, but differs by the head being punctured, and the elytra more 
deeply impressed towards the base. 

3. A. elegans, rufo-piceus, subtiliter pubescens, capite vix punctato, thorace 
postice constricto, basi cylindrico, elytris punctulatis, nigris, basi indeterminate 
rufis, et cinerascentibus. Long. "12. 

Ferte, Anthic. 117. 

Georgia and Missouri Territory. I have always considered this species 
as A. cinctus Say, but, after renewed investigation, feel inclined to 
adopt Ferte's conclusion, that Say's species is more allied to A. formicarius. 
The expression " elytra hirsute " will by no means apply to the present species, 
nor is there ever a cinereous spot at the tip of the elytra. The male has the 
posterior tibiae dilated and sinuated internally. 

4. A. tenuis, niger opacus, tenuiter pubescens, capite dense punctulato, 
occipite breviter canaliculate, thorace postice constricto, basi cylindrico, elytris 
vix impressis subtilissime punctulatis, fascia ante medium angusta albida, 
antennis palpis pedibusque testacis. Long. -12. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 153. 

Colorado River, California. Approaches very close to the preceding species 
in form, but the last joint of the palpi is longer than wide. The anterior part of 
the thorax is less globose than in A. formicarius, with which, however, it agrees 
so closely in the form of the body and structure of the palpi, that it would be 

1852.] 97 

quite unnatural to separate them. The elytra of the male are truncate at apex, 
so that the pygidium is visible. 

5. A. formicarius, nigro-piceus, nitidus, parce griseo-setosus, capite 
punctis paucis impresso, occipite brevissime canaliculato, thorace postice valde 
constricto, dein subampliato et punctato, elytris grosse parce punctatis, basi 
indeterminate rufis, impressis, et anguste flavo-fasciatis. Long. -H. 

Ferte, Anthic. 185. 

New York and Massachusetts, usually in salt marshes. The anterior part of 
the thorax is convex, and sparsely punctured ; the posterior lobe is a little 
widened towards the base, and is tolerably densely punctured. The base of the 
antennae and tarsi are testaceous. The punctures of the elytra become small 
behind the middle. The male has the pygidium prominent. 

6. A. cinctus, rufus nitidus, parce griseo-setosus, thorace postice valde 
constricto, dein subampliato, et granulato, elytris parce grosse punctatis, nigris 
basi rufis, fascia pone basin apiceque flavis. Long. "15. 

Say, J. Ac. Nat. Sci. 3, 278 ; Ferte, 274. 

Illinois ; Mr. Willcox. This species is very closely allied to the preceding, 
but differs in color, and in the sculpture of the posterior lobe of the thorax, 
which, instead of being punctured, is densely and finely granulate. The punc- 
tures of the front part of the elytra are also more numerous. The head is 
marked with a few punctures, and the occiput with a very short impressed line, 
just as in the last species. The pygidium of the male projects. 

7. A. a n n e c t e n s , nigro-piceus, nitidus, parce pubescens, capite thoraceque 
vix subtiliter punctulatis, hoc postice constricto, ad basin subtiliter bitubercu- 
lato, elytris minus subtiliter punctatis, tibiis testaceis. Long. !. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 153. 

One specimen, from the sea-shore at San Diego, California. The thorax is 
longer than wide, much rounded on the sides before the middle, then narrowed, 
and slightly constricted before the base, which is cylindrical, very finely punc- 
tured, and distinctly bituberculate. The punctures of the elytra grow small 
behind the middle. 

8. A. californicus, rufo-piceus, nitidus, parce pubescens, capite tho- 
raceque punctulatis, hoc postice constricto, vix bituberculato, elytris mirms dense 
punctatis, macula ad medium apiceque nigro-piceis. Long. !. 

Ferte, Anthic. 128. 

Abundant at San Diego, California, on the sea-shore, and in the marshes. 
The thorax is more obliquely rounded on the sides before the middle than in the 
last species ; the tubercles of the base are scarcely visible. The punctures of 
the head and thorax are very distinct, and those of the latter become very dense 
towards the base. 

This species varies very much in color. The spots are usually quite unde- 
fined. I have a specimen with pale yellowish elytra, and the spots very well 
defined ; the anterior one is placed near the middle, is very large, and extends 
nearly to the suture. Others occur which are entirely black. The male has 
the abdomen subtruncate at the apex. 

9. A. reiectus, rufo-piceus, nitidus, parce pubescens, capite thoraceque 
punctulatis, hoc postice angustato, subconstricto, elytris depressiusculis, sat 
dense punctatis, ad basin medium et apicem infuscatis. Long. -1. 

New York and ^Missouri Territory, in salt marshes. Rufo-piceous, shining, 
sparsely pubescent. Head rounded prominent behind, finely not densely punc- 
tured. Thorax longer than wide, moderately convex, not densely punctured, 
rounded on the sides anteriorly, obliquely narrowed nearly to the base, where it 
is slightly constricted, cylindrical portion of the base shorter than in the pre- 
ceding, densely punctured, with two very obsolete tubercles. Elytra somewhat 
flattened, twice as wide as the base of the thorax, humeri prominent, sides 
slightly widened to the middle : strongly moderately densely punctured, punc- 

98 (May, 

tures smaller towards the apex ; base, middle, and apex darker. Varies with the 
elytra piceous black, at base piceous. The male has the abdomen truncate 
at tip. 

10. A. floral is, piceus nitidus vix subtilissime piibescens, subtiliter 
puncfatus, occipite impresso, thorace, elytrorum basi, antennis pedibiisque 
rufescentibus. Long. '15. 

Payk. Faun. Suec. 1, 256; Fabr. Syst. El. 1, 291 ; Ferte, 150. 

Var. A. hasillaris Say, J. Ac. Nat. Sci. 3, 279. 

Found in every part of the United States. For the synonyms see Ferte's 
Monograph. As they do not relate to the occurrence of the insect on this con- 
tinent, they are here entirely out of place. From the other almost glabrous 
species found here, this is immediately distinguished by its impressed vertex. 
The thorax most commonly has two prominences anteriorly, separated by an 
impressed line. 

The variety without these protuberances has a more distinct posthumeral 
impression on the elytra, and is evidently A. basillaris Say. 

11. A. vicinus, elongatus, rufus, nitidus, fere glaber, capite thoraceque 
parce punctato, hoc elongato, postice angustato, elytris basi medio et apice late 
nigris, sat grosse punctatis. Long. -l. 

Ferte, Anthic. 157. 

Common in the xMiddle and Southern States. This species varies in color 
exceedingly. The diagnosis is from the light colored variety. The basal dark 
spot of the elytra is sometimes wanting ; sometimes the head is fuscous ; some- 
times the whole insect, excepting the base of the antennae and the tarsi, is 
black. Ferte describes the head as impunctured, but I have never met with 
any on the head of which a few points could not be discovered. 

12. A. t h o r a c i c u s , elongatus, niger nitidus, fere glaber, capite thoraceque 
parce punctatis, hoc rufo, elongato postice angustato, elytris sat grosse punctatis, 
pedibus rufis. Long. !. 

Ferte, Anthic. 158. 

Georgia, rare. The co-existence of bright red thorax and legs, with black 
immaculate elytra, is the only character to separate this species from the pre- 
ceding, with which it accurately agrees in the form of every part of the body. 
In one of my specimens there is a faint piceous band behind the middle of the 
elytra, which would seem to be the last trace of the spots which exist in A. 
vicinus. It would therefore seem safer to consider it as a variety of the pre- 

13. A. c o n f i n i s , elongatus, niger, nitidus, fere glaber, capite parce punc- 
tulato, thorace parce punctato, elongato, postice subangustato, elytris densius 
punctatis. Long. !, 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 153. 

One specimen, from the sea-shore at San Diego, California. This species is 
closely allied to the preceding, but differs in having the thorax less narrowed 
behind, and the elytra more densely punctured. 

14. A. horr idus , elongatus, testaceus, pilis longis erectis hispidus, capite 
postice rotundato thoraceque grosse punctatis, hoc longiusculo subcampanulato, 
elytris grosse punctatis, fascia obscura pone medium ornatis. Long. 'll. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 154. 

One specimen, from the Gila River. The head has a small smooth longitudi- 
nal line. 

15. A. cribratus, elongatus, flavo-testaceus, longius pubescens, capite 
postice rotundato thoraceque confertim punctatis, hoc longiusculo, obsolete 
campanulato, postice vix angustato, elytris grosse punctatis, fascia pone medium 
angusta nigra ornatis. Long. !]. 

1852.] 99 

One specimen, St. Isabel, California. The head has an obsolete smooth 
frontal line ; the apex of the elytra is fuscous. 

16. A. difficilis, elongatus, testaceus, albido-pubescens, capite postice 
rotundato, disperse punctate, medio la-vi, thorace subcampanulato, latitudine 
non longiore, confertim punctato, elytris grosse dense punctatis, fascia lata ad 
medium infuscata. Long. '12. 

Lee. Agass. Lake Superior, 230. 

Lake Superior, abundant. The frontal smooth line is broad ; varies with the 
elytral band obsolete. 

17. A. CO nf us us, elongatus, testaceus, albido pubescens, capite grosse 
punctato, postice rotundato, medio laevi, thorace vix campanulato, lateribus 
postice oblique angustato, dense punctato, elytris grosse punctatis, fascia 
obscura ad medium ornatis. Long, -IQ. 

New York; Louisiana, Mr. Wapler ; Southern Illinois, Haldeman. This species 
is extremely similar to the preceding, but the head is more coarsely punctured ; 
the sides of the thorax behind the middle are oblique, not parallel. 

18. A. luteolus, elongatus, flavo-testaceus, albido pubescens, capite postice 
rotundato, thoraceque confertim punctatis, hoc ovato, postice angustato, 
latitudine vix longiore, elytris confertim sat grosse punctatis. Long. '12. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 151. 
- Vallecitas, California. This species resembles the last very much, but the 
thorax is not at all campanulate, the punctures on the head are denser, and the 
only smooth part is on the vertex. A variety has a broad fuscous fascia at the 
middle of the elytra. 

19. A. scabriceps, elongatus, nigro-piceus, densius pubescens, capite 
postice truncato, thoraceque confertissime rugose punctatis, hoc subcampanu- 
lato, elytris grosse minus dense punctatis, apice rufescente. Long. ]. 

Lee. Agassiz Lake Superior, 230. 

Very abundant on Lake Superior. Varies very much in color. The principal 
varieties are : a., black, base of the elytra piceous : Q>. head and thorax 
fuscous, antennas, legs and elytra testaceous, the latter with a broad black fascia 
at the middle ; y. entirely testaceous, fascia of the elytra obsolete. The head 
has a slight impression on the middle of the occiput, the frontal line is scarcely 

20. A. ephippium, subelongatus, testaceus, pubescens, capite postice fere 
truncato, scabro-punctato, medio la?vi, thorace vix campanulato, confertissime 
punctato, elytris grosse minus dense punctatis, fascia ad medium picea ornatis. 
Long. !. 

Ferte, Anthic. 16S: 

New York. Very similar to the last, but is less elongate, and the head is 
less rugous, with a broad frontal smooth line. I am somewhat in doubt if this 
really is Ferte's species, as he makes no mention of the smooth frontal space. 
It is, however, compared with the A. sellatus, in which this line is very 
distinct, so that the probability is that it also existed in his A. ephippium. 

21. A. flavicans, testaceo-flavus, pubescens, capite postice subtruncato, 
confertim punctato, medio laevi, thorace longiusculo, ovato, postice subangustato, 
confertissime punctato, opaco, elytris sat dense grosse punctatis. Long. '12. 

Elongate, testaceous yellow, head and thorax a little darker. Head almost 
truncate behind, not narrowed behind the eyes, which are large and prominent ; 
densely punctured, frontal line smooth, broad. Antennae slender, very slightly 
thickened externally. Thorax a little longer than wide, moderately convex, 
rounded anteriorly, obliquely slightly narrowed to the base, which is strongly 
margined ; neck very distinct, as in the other species of this group. E!ytra 
one half wider than the thorax, elongate, humeri oblique, rounded ; disc ante- 

lOO [May, 

riorly slightly flattened, punctures large, moderately dense, becoming small 
posteriorly. One specimen, from Missouri Territory. 

22. A. r u f u 1 u s , elongatus saturate rufus, nitidus parce pubescens, parce 
hispidus, capite postice truncate, minus dense punctato medio lagvi, thoi'ace 
elongato, postice sub-angustato, subtilius punctato, elytris minus subtiliter punc- 
tatis. Long. -1. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 155. 

One specimen, San Diego. Has very much the form of A. vicinus. The head 
is tolerably strongly punctured, with a narrow smooth frontal line. The 
antennae are less slender than in the other species of this group, and the eyes, 
though not small, are less prominent. 

23. A. cervinus, testaceus, elongatus, subtilius pubescens, capite fusco, 
postice subtruncato, punctato, medio laevi; thorace longiusculo ovato, punctulato, 
elytris densius punctatis, pone medium nigricantibus, gutta utrinque postica 
apiceque flavis. Long. !. 

Ferte, Anthic. 181. 

A. bifasciatusW^dcy , Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 245 ; Hald. Proc. Ac. 1, 304. 

A. terntinalis Lee. Agass. Lake Superior, 230. 

A. hizonatus Ferte, Anthic. 274. 

Found everyplace, from Lake Superior to Georgia, and from New York to 
Nebraska- A very variable species; the most common form is that above 
described ; there are others fuscous, legs and antennae testaceous, elytra black, 
with a basal spot, and one behind the middle testaceous ; others, again, are 
entirely yellow-testaceous. 

Some of these varieties come very near to A. Haldemani, but are immediately 
distinguished by the occiput not being channeled. 

24. A. punctulatus, elongatus, niger nitidus, cinereo-pubescens, capite 
postice subtruncato, thoraceque confertim subtilius punctatis, hoc longiusculo, 
postice subangustato, elytris minus convexis, dense punctatis. Long. !. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 155. 

San Jose and San Diego. The frontal line is narrow and slightly elevated. 
The eyes are smaller than in the preceding, but are moderately prominent. 

25. A. H a Id e m a n i, ater,subnitidus, breviter pubescens, confertim punctatus, 
capite postice truncato, occipite impresso, thorace longiusculo ovato, elytris 
maculis utrinque duabus magnis flavis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. '11. 

A. quadngnttatus\^z\di. Pr. Ac. 2, 304. 

Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Varies with the anterior spot diffuse so as 
to cover nearly the anterior half of the elytra, and the posterior spots coalescing: 
so that the elytra become yellow, with the suture, a transverse band at the mid- 
dle, and the apex fuscous. The thighs are sometimes fuscous. The frontal line 
is narrow and indistinct, and the points on the head are not very dense. Those 
of the elytra are a little larger and very dense. The thorax becomes very 
slightly cylindrical at base. It seems to resemble very much A. 4-maculatus 
(Ferte 203) from Europe, but the pubescence is distinct, and equally distributed 
over every part of the body. 

26. A. quadrilunatus, ater subnitidus, breviter pubescens, confertim 
punctatus, capite postice truncato, occipite vix impresso, thorace ovato, convexo, 
elytris maculis utrinque duabus, tibiis, tarsis, antennarumque basi ferrugineis. 
Long. '12. 

? Ferte, Anthic. 201. 

One specimen, New Mexico, Fendler. Very close to A. Haldemani ; the 
head is a little more square behind, and there is scarcely a trace of an occipital 
impression. The thorax is more convex in front, though scarcely enough so to 
be described as round, and T have therefore doubts about it being identical with 
the California species described by Ferte. 

1852.] 101 

27. A. biguttulus, magis elongatus, ater subnitidus, tenuifer pubescens, 
confertim punctatus, capite postice subtruncato, thorace longiusculo, ovato, 
elytris macula pone medium rotundata ferruginea. Long. '15. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 255. 

One specimen, San Francisco. A fine species, differing from the two pre- 
ceding by having the head less truncate behind, and the occiput not impressed; 
frontal Ime none. The pubescence, though fine, is longer than in the preceding, 
and the thorax is extremely densely punctured. The punctures of the elytra 
are larger and not so dense. 

28. A. n i g r i t u 1 u s , elongatus, niger, nitidus, tenuiter longius pubescens, 
capite parce punctulato, basi subtruncato, thorace elongato, postice subangus- 
tato, punctulato, elytris depressiusculis minus subtiliter punctatis, omoplatis 
prominulis. Long. -08. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 154. 

San Francisco, California. The form of the body is altogether that of A. 
V i c i n u s , but the pubescence has caused me to separate it from that group. 
The antennas are much thicker than in the preceding species, and the eyes are 
smaller, in both of which respects it agrees with A. vicinus. 

29. A. obscurellus, elongatus, fuscus, dense pubescens, capite punctu- 
lato basi truncato, linea frontali laevi tenui, thorace longiusculo, ovato, confertim 
punctulato, elytris elongato-ellipticis, punctatis, pone medium infuscatis. 
Long. -OS. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 155. 

San Jose, California, abundant. A small elongate species, with the humeral 
angles of the elytra more rounded than usual. The elytra are transversely 
moderately convex, and a little flattened towards the base. The eyes are small, 
and the antennae tolerably thick. 

30. A latebrans, sub-elongatus, flavo-testaceus, parce pubescens, capite 
punctato, basi truncato, occipite breviter impresso, linea frontali tenui laevi, 
thorace confertim punctulato, vix cordato, elytris basi emarginatis, punctatis, 
pone medium vix infuscatis, humeris valde rotundatis. Long. '08. 

One specimen, New York. Similar to the preceding, but less elongate. The 
thorax is narrowed and very slightly cylindrical at base, which causes it to appear 
somewhat cordate. The elytra are a little flattened at base ; the rounding of 
the humeral angles gives them a more convex lateral outline than usual. 

31. A. spretus, fuscus, longiuseulus, pubescens, capite punctato, basi 
truncato, linea frontali integra laevi, thorace confertim punctulato, trapezoideo, 
elytris basi emarginatis, punctatis, humeris rotundatis, elytrorum basi, antennis, 
pedibusque testaceis. Long. '08. 

New York and Boston. A pale variety found on the Upper Mississippi. This 
species very nearly resembles the last, and when pale colored, can only be dis- 
tinguished by the want of the occipital channel ; the thorax is not longer than 
wide, and not at all cylindrical at the base. The elytra are a little longer and 
more parallel. 

32. A. nanus, fuscus, elongatus. dense pubescens, capite punctato, postice 
truncato, medio laevi, thorace rufo confertim punctulato, trapezoideo, postice 
subangustato, elytris confertim punctatis apice testaceis, basi rufis truncatis, 
humeris rotundatis, antennis pedibusque testaceis. Long. -09 -08. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 156. 

San Diego, California. Varies in color to pale yellow, without any fuscous 
marks. It is very closely allied to the preceding, but the punctures of the head 
are larger; the elytra not so coarsely but more densely punctured, and the 
humeral angles are less rounded. 

33. A. b e 1 1 u 1 u s , rufo-testaeeus, subelongatus, pubescens, capite confertim 
punctato, linea frontali vix distincta, postice truncato, thorace trapezoideo, 

102 [May, 

postice angustato, punctulato, elytris basi truncatis) dense punctatis, fascia ad 
medium apiceque nigris. Long. -07. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 156. 

A very pretty little species found at San Diego, on the sea shore, and nearly 
related to the preceding four species ; the head is densely and more finely 
punctured, the frontal line very fine. The thorax is scarcely as wide as long, 
slightly narrowed behind ; the basal margin is indistinct. The elytra are convex, 
truncate at the base, with the humeral angles moderately rounded. The punc- 
tures are denser and a little finer than in A. nanus. 

34. A. pubescens, nigro-fuscus, pul)e cinerea suberecta hispidus, capite 
postice truncato, thoraceque subtiliter punctatis, hoc quadrato, postice vix 
angustato, elytris parallelis convexis grosse punctatis, basi truncatis. Long. 12. 

Ferte, Anthic. 177. 

One specimen, New York. This species and the two following differ from 
all the preceding, in the form of the elytra, which are convex, truncate at base, 
and with the sides straight as far as the middle, parallel in the males, slightly 
diverging in the females, with the base each side of the scutellum a little 
elevated. The head of this species is wider than the thorax, the eyes large ; 
the frontal line narrow ; the occiput impressed ; thorax almost square, rounded 
anteriorly, scarcely narrowed behind, very finely and densely punctured. Elytra 
twice as wide as the thorax, punctures coarse, not dense ; the feet and base of 
the antennae are piceous. 

35. A. fulvipes, nigro-fuscus, brevius subtiliter pubescens, capite postice 
truncato, parcius punctulato, thorace subtiliter confertissime punctulato, postice 
subangustato, elytris parallelis, basi truncatis, grosse punctatis, antennis pedi- 
busque rufis. Long. -1. 

Ferte Anthic. 177. 

Louisiana, Mr. Wapler. Smaller than the preceding, with which it agrees 
pefectly in shape, except that the thorax is more distinctly narrowed behind. 
The head is much less densely punctulate, and the occiput is not impressed. 
The pubescence is very different, being fine, short and not all erect. 

This is very evidently La Ferte^s species, although he says that the thorax 
is not margined at base. I fear this is an error, as of all the American species 
I have examined, there is but a single one, A. coracinus Lee. in which the 
marginal line is not to be discovered. 

36. A. corticalis, fusco-piceus, pube longa suberecta vestitus, capite tho- 
raceque impunctatis, illo postice truncato, hoc trapezoideo, postice subangus- 
tato, elytris basi truncatis, parallelis, convexis, grosse punctatis, pedibus rufis. 
Long. '11. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 154. 

I found this species very abundant at the junction of the Colorado and Gila 
rivers, under the bark of trees. It agrees accurately in form with the two pre- 
ceding species, but the head and thorax are impunctured; there is no occipital 
impression ; the thorax is scarcely longer than wide, and is but slightly narrowed 
behind. '1 he antennae are fuscous, with the base testaceous. 

37. A. maritimus, pallidus, cinereo-pubescens, capite thoraceque subti- 
lissime punctulatis, illo truncato, hoc longiusculo ovato, elytris subtilius punc- 
tatis, murinis, ellipticis convexis, basi emarginatis. Long. '09. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 156, 

San Diego, under sea-weed. At once distinguished by the roundness and 
convexity of the elytra, which have scarcely any humeral angles; the frontal 
line is very fine ; the thorax is as wide as the head, regularly narrowed to the 
base, which is scarcely perceptibly margined. A variety occurs with the 
suture and base of the elytra pale. Ferte's figure of A. bignttatus 
represents very well this insect ; the species resembling it from the Atlantic 
coast of the United States (A. i c t e r i c u s Ferte,) I have not yet seen. 

1852.] 103 

38. A. coracinus, elongatus niger, brevissime pubescens, capite subquad- 
rato, basi subemarginato, thoraceque longiusculo postice angustato confertim 
punctulatis, elytris elongatis, basi truncatis, grosse punctatis. Long. '17. 

Two specimens from the Upper Mississippi. This species differs from all the 
preceding by the thorax being perfectly without a basal margin, even at the 
sides. The head is wider than the thorax, subquadrate, posterior angles broadly 
rounded, base slightly emarginate, and impressed in the middle ; it is finely and 
tolerably densely punctured; the eyes are small ; the antennae moderately thick. 
The thorax is longer than wide, a little narrowed behind, punctured as the 
head ; anterior constriction distinct. Elytra scarcely wider than the head, 
parallel, truncate at base, strongly and coarsely punctured, base very slightly 
prominent each side ; the pubescence is scarcely visible. The male has the 
pygidium prominent. 

39. A. pall ens, pallidus, subtiliter punctulatus pubescens, capite parce 
granulato-punctato, medio laevi, triangulari, basi emarginato,'thorace transverse 
postice valde angustato, elytris convexis, 'basi truncatis, abdomine nigricante. 
Long. 'll. 

Lee. Agassiz' Lake Superior, 231. 

Shores of Lake Superior. This and the next species differ from all the 
others, in having the head triangular, with the posterior angles almost acute, 
and the surface granulated. The eyes are moderately large. The antennae are 
slender and long ; the thorax is transverse and much narrowed behind. The 
terminal spurs of the tibiae are very distinct, and those of the anterior tibiae 
unequal ; in the male the anterior tibiae are slightly sinuate internally, and the 
terminal spur more prominent. 

40. A. granular is, nigro-piceus, pubescens, capite thoraceque confertim 
granulatis, illo triangulari basi emarginato, hoc transverso, postice valde angus- 
tato, elytris basi valde truncatis confertim punctatis, apice testaceis, antennis 
tibiis tarsisque testaceis. Long. '13. 

Lee. Agassiz' Lake Superior, 231. 

Lake Superior, abundant. Varies in color : et. elytra testaceous, with a broad 
black band ; /2. testaceous, band of the elytra and abdomen black ; y. testaceous, 
elytra with an indistinct fuscous spot at the middle. The sexual niarks as in 
the preceding, with which this species agrees in form. Both species vary in 
having the thorax sometimes obsoletely channeled. 

Species unknown to me : 

A. exilis Ferte, Anth. 121. 

A. ictericus Ferte, Anth. 149. 

A. laetus Ferte, Anth. 157. 

A. melancholicus Ferte, Anth. 174. 

A. pusillus Ferte Anth. 178. 

A. squamosus Ferte, 216. 

A. lugubris Ferte, 217. 

A. pallidus Say, Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 245 5 Ferte, 275. 

A. impressipennis Ferte, 300. 

A. texanus Ferte, 301. 

Tanauthrus Lee. 

This genus was founded by me in the 5th volume of the Annals of the Lyceum 
of Natural History, upon a very singular insect having the appearance of a 
Zuphium. More careful examination has convinced me that my Anthicus alu- 
taceus, described in the same place, must also be referred to this new genus; 
the mould on the specimens having prevented me at that time from seeing the 
generic characters. The following characters will separate this genus : 

Antennse in frontem insertae, sub-12-articulatae, articulo llmo elongate, quasi 
diviso, intermediis turbinatis. Tarsi articulis cylindricis, 4to minore non bilobato ; 
elvtra depressa, apice truncata, abdomine breviora ; corpus depressum, capite 


104 [June, 

magno, oculis parvis, palpis articulo ultimo triangular!, angusto, tibiis omnibus 
apice longius bicalcaratis. 

1. T. salinus, depressus rufo-testaceus, tenuiter cinereo-pubescens, subti- 
liter punctulatus, capite thoraceque nitidis, illo magno basi emarginato, anten- 
narum articulo ultimo praecedentes quatuor aequanie. Long. -21. 

Lee. An. Lye. 5, 156. 

This curious insect was found on the shore of a salt lake in the northern part 
of the great Colorado desert. It runs very actively and frequently takes flight, 
like Cicindela or Bembidium. 

Keddish brown, with very fine cinereous hair. Head flat, quadrate, shining, 
finely punctured, posterior angles rounded, occiput channeled, margin almost 
acute. Thorax narrower than the head, a little longer than wide, trapezoidal, 
slightly narrowed behind, base finely margined, slightly foveate in the middle ; 
disc flat, finely punctured ; elytra not wider than the head, parallel, truncate at 
base and tip, opaque, very finely and densely punctured, dusky towards the 
base. Legs long, moderately slender ; posterior tarsi nearly as long as the 
tibiae. The male has the anterior tarsi a little dilated. 

2. T. alutaceus, elongatus, fere depressus, niger, subtilissime alutaceus, 
brevissime pubescens, capite postice subtruncato, thoraceque punctulatis, elytris 
obsolete punctulatis, antennis testaceis articulo ultimo praecedentes duos 
aequante. Long. -1. 

Anthicus ahitaceiis Lee. An. Lye. 5, 155. 

Found at San Diego, California. A much smaller specimen, with the head 
more rounded behind, was found at the Gila. 

Elongate, almost depressed, black, opaque, scarcely pubescent. Head large, 
slightly convex, finely punctured, base truncate, with the margin not acute, 
posterior angles broadly rounded. Thorax narrower than the head, trapezoidal, 
narrowed behind, base margined ; finely punctured. Elytra scarcely wider than 
the head, truncate at base and tip, very finely rugous, and very obsoletely punc- 
tured. Posterior tarsi shorter than the tibiae. The last joint of the antennae is 
here only twice as long as the preceding, and the constriction is at its middle, 
so that it appears like two ordinary joints. It was not until I removed the 
mould very carefully, and counted the joints, that I became aware of the aflfinity 
with the first species. 

The Committee on the following by Dr. Woodhouse, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Description of a new species of Ectopistes. 
By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. 

Ectopistes Tnarginella, nobis. 

Form. Bill short and slender, wings long and pointed, second quill distinctly 
longest, its general form resembling E. Carolinensis, but much more delicate. 

Dimensions. From tip of bill to end of tail, total length of skin 9 3-lOths 
inches ; wing from flexure 5 4-lOths inches ; tarsus 7^-lOths; bill total length 
6-lOths, from gap 7-lOths; tail 4 inches. 

Color. Bill dark brown ; upper surface of the head brown, mottled with 
black and light brown ; head, front of neck, back, and upper tail coverts, of a 
lightish brown ; a brownish white band extends from each eye across the fore- 
head ; one reddish brown from the anterior part of the orbit to the back of the 
head; throat very light brown inclining to white: the feathers of the lower 
portion of the throat are black, with a light brown margin, giving the appear- 
ance of circular bands of black and white ; breast, belly, vent and under tail 
coverts light fawn ; sides lead color ; primaries dark brown ; the first, second 

1852.] 105 

and third quills have a white line extending along their ou^f r edge ; secondaries 
are rather lighter, and have a light brown margin, on their upper surface they 
are reddish brown ; tertiary feathers and wing coverts reddish brown, with a 
light margin, and on their outer edge an elongated black spot ; tail consists of 
fourteen feathers, the two central of which are dark brown ; the four lateral 
feathers are black near their extremity and white at tip ; and the six lateral 
have the black, but are light brown at tip ; tarsus and feet light red. 

Habitation. Cross Timbers. 

Observations. This specimen somewhat resembles the E. Carolinensis, but on 
examination proves to be totally different. I procured it in the cross timbers on 
the North Fork of the Canadian, on the 6th of September, 1850, whilst attached 
to the Creek boundary survey as surgeon and naturalist, under the command of 
Lieut. J. C. Woodruff, Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army. I saw several of 
them feeding on the ground, and was immediately struck with their size, being 
so much smaller than our common dove. I was unable, however, to procure 
but one specimen, and this on dissection proved to be a male. 

The Committee on Mr. Lea's communication entitled, " Description 
of a fossil Saurian of the New Red Sandstone of Pennsylvania, &c. ; '' 
and " On some new fossil Molluscs from the Carboniferous Slates of the 
Wilkesbarre Coal Formation," reported in favor of publication in the 

The Report of the Corresponding Secretary, for February, March and 
April, was read and adopted. 

Dr. Rand offered the following, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That Members of the State Medical Society, now in session 
in Philadelphia, be invited to visit the Museum of the Academy on the 
afternoons of this week, between the hours of 3 and 6 o'clock. 

On leave granted Mr. Lea made a few observations on a cast of the 
impressions of Sauropus primaevus Lea^ found in the Red Sandstone 
of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. 


Mr. Edward S. Buckley, and Mr. Thomas F. Seal, of Philadelphia, 
were elected Members of the Academy. 

June \st. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Librarian of the British Museum, dated 
London, 1st May, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of late numbers of 
the Proceedings. 

Also one from Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 
Survey, dated Washington, April 6th, 1852, accompanying the donation 
of Charts announced this evening. 

Also from the Rev. M. A. Curtis, dated Society Hill, (S. C.) May 
24th, 1852, accompanying the donation of plants from Syria, Egypt, 
&c., announced this evening. 

Mr. Lea read a paper entitled, *' Description of a new species of Es- 

106 [June, 

chara, from the Eqpene of Alabama," wliich being intended for publica- 
tion in the Proceedings, was referred to Dr. Rand, Mr. Charles E. Smith 
and Dr. Ruschenberger. 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper, intended for publication, describing 
a new species of Sciurus ; which was referred to a Committee consisting 
of Dr. Watson, Dr. Leidy and Major LeConte. 

Mr. Lea called attention to the stone slab containing supposed im- 
prints of human feet, deposited by him this evening. This slab is from 
the limestone formation immediately underlying the coal near Alton, 
Illinois. The impressions have evidently been sculptured, and bear the 
marks of some blunt instrument with which they have been executed. 
Mr. Lea observed that these are not the first instances of this kind, 
which have been noticed, and referred to a description of a similar slab 
published in Silliman's Journal several years since. 

Dr. Owen stated that the slab of limestone alluded to by Mr. Lea as found 
on the Mississippi near St. Louis, is the same which is now preserved in his 
(Dr. Owen's) collection, and the one on which two articles have appeared in 
Silliman's Journal ; one by Mr. Schoolcraft and one by himself. At the con- 
clusion of this latter article, entitled " Human footprints in solid limestone," it 
was given as his opinion that these feetraarks were carved on the rock by the 

Since that article appeared. Dr. Owen had obtained the most satisfactory cor- 
roboration of this inference in two large slabs of magnesian limestone, of lower 
Silurian date, obtained at Moccasin-track Prairie, in Missouri, which slabs con- 
tained a great many carvings of human feet, as well as those of animals, and 
rude imitations of the human figure, something like figures made in gingerbread. 
The footmarks bear indubitable tool marks, and some are deficient in the true 
number of toes, while, in others, the foot is distorted, with the little toe stand- 
ing out almost at right angles. 

These specimens, as well as that of Mr. Lea, show clearly that the aborigines 
of Missouri had the same propensity for carving the imprint of feet, as the 
Southern and Western aborigines of this continent had for representing the 
hand on the walls of the ancient edifices, and in other situations. 

Any one acquainted with Indians knows that there is no subject which they 
study more closely than all kinds of tracks : in fact their life, their maintenance 
and the whole security of the savage depends on an intimate and cunning know- 
ledge of podology. 

Dr. Owen intends giving, at some future time, a more detailed description of 
these slabs of magnesian limestone from Moccasin-track Prairie, which are, 
probably, the most interesting specimens of the kind ever yet discovered. 

Mr. Lea exhibited specimens of shells from the drift on the line of 
the Columbia Railroad, about three miles from Philadelphia. These 
are the first organic remains of this kind found in this vicinity, Mr. 
Lea believed them to have been unquestionably derived from the forma- 
tion No. 2 of the Pennsylvania Survey. Although much mutilated, 
they can be classified. 

Dr. Leidy called attention to a fossil tooth of Tapir presented by Dr. 
Hays. This is the only portion of the animal known. He proposed for 
it the name of Tapirus Haysii. 

1852.] 107 

June Sth. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Dr. LeConte presented for publication in the Journal, a paper entitled 
*' Synopsis of the species of Pterosticus Bon., and allied genera inhabit- 
ing temperate North America/' which was referred to a Committee con- 
sisting of Dr. Hallowell, Dr. Leidy and Mr. Kilvington. 

Ju7ie 15 th, 
Major John LeConte in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
dated Washington, June 9th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of late 
numbers of the Proceedings of the Academy. 

Dr. Charles M. Wetherill read a paper entitled " Chemical investi- 
gation of the Mexican Honey Ant," which being intended for publica- 
tion in the Proceedings, was referred to a Committee consisting of Dr. 
Leidy, Dr. Grcnth and Dr. LeConte. 

June 22d. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Geological Society of London, dated 1st 
May, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of the Journal and Proceedings. 

Also letters from the Trustees of New York State Library, dated 
Albany, June 15, 1852, and from the Corresponding Secretary of the 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, dated Boston, June 16, 1852, severally 
acknowledging the receipt of late numbers of the Proceedings. 

Also a letter from the Librarian of the American Academy, asking 
for certain numbers of the Proceedings, to complete the series of the 
same in that Institution. 

Dr. Genth read a paper '' On some Minerals which accompany Cold 
in California;" and a second paper entitled ''On Strontiano-CalcitCj a 
new mineral '/' both of which were referred to a Committee consisting of 
Dr. LeConte, Dr. Wetherill and Mr. Ashmead. 

Mr. Cassin asked the attention of the Academy to the collection of Birds 
presented by E. K. Kane, M.D., of the United States Navy, late Surgeon to 
Grinnell's Expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, and collected by him 
during the absence of the Expedition in the Arctic regions. 

Nearly all of the specimens are unusually valuable and interesting on account 
of their representing species in much more mature plumage than is commonly 
seen either in Museums or in recent specimens obtained so far south as Phila- 
delphia. This circumstance is of course readily accounted for, as all the 
species in the collection are only to be met with while in summer plumage in 
the remote regions visited by the Expedition, and their interesting character 
may be inferred from that fact. 

Mr. C. regarded the specimens of the Brant (Bernicla brenta, Pallas) and of 
the Ivory Gull (Larus eburneus, Phipps) as of especial interest. 

108 [June, 

June 2Qth. 

Vice*President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Owen^s paper on a new Mineral from Califor- 
nia, reported in favor of publication : 

Notice of a New Mineral from California. 
By D. D.Owen, M.D. 

Mr. Henry Pratten, one of my assistants in the geological surveys in the 
North West in 1848 and 1849, went to California in the spring of 1850, and 
returned last February. Being interested in mineralogy and geology, he made 
observations in these departments of science, both on his way out and during the 
time he remained there. 

The mineral in question he obtained at a locality known as the Wisconsin 
and Illinois claim, near Nevada City, at which place he resided most of the 
time he remained in California. 

At the time he collected this mineral it struck him as something remarkable 
and different from anything he had previously observed ; and he made at the 
time some experiments on its blowpipe reactions, without being able positively 
to decide what it might be. 

He then first submitted it to a distinguished mineralogist, who referred it to 
the species Karpholite. 

In comparing its blowpipe reactions with that mineral, Mr. Pratten doubted 
the correctness of the conclusion that it belonged to the species Karpholite, and 
so did Dr. Norwood, who also examined its blowpipe reactions ; and they came 
to the conclusion that its indications before the blowpipe resembled more those 
of Molybdic acid. 

When I returned home last March, Mr. Pratten submitted it to me and I made 
a qualitative examination of the mineral in the humid way, and ascertained, 
from the reactions of the solution of the mineral with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
iodide of potassium, and ferro-cyanide of potassium, that the principal consti- 
tuents were molybdenum and iron. 

I found, moreover, that it was easily acted on by liquid ammonia, the molyb- 
denum being dissolved, while oxide of iron was set free in brownish red flocks. 

These chemical reactions proved that though the mineral resembles Karpho- 
lite in the yellow color of its fibrous, acicular, tufted crystals, it is quite 
different in its chemical constitution. 

I made, also, an approximate quantitative analysis on a centigramme of the 
mineral, which was all that could be spared at that time, by solution in liquid 
ammonia ; collecting the precipitated iron on a filter, washing and weighing it 
after ignition. The molybdenum was then separated by sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The solution freed from molybdenum was evaporated with addition of hydro- 
chloric acid to free the solution of HS ; after filtration it was evaporated to 
dryness and ignited, and the small percentage of alkali and magnesia weighed 
together; the magnesia, after being separated by peroxide of mercury, was 
Weighed by itself. 

The result of the analysis gave : 

H=Water 15 

Mo (?) Molybdic acid(?) . . 40 compound of molybdenum and oxygen 
Fe Peroxide of iron . . .35 

Alkali 9 

Mg Magnesia .... 2 

That the molybdenum exists in this mineral as molybdic acid is altogether 
probable from the fact of liquid amiBinia acting on it so readily. 



The constituents of Karpholite, by two analyses one by Stromeyer and one 
by Steinman, as recorded in Dana's Mineralogy, are : 

Si Silica 

Al Alumina . 

Mn Oxide of Manganese 
Fe " Iron 


By Steinman. 


. 37-53 


. 26-47 


. 18.33 


. Fe 6-27 

H Water 



HF Hydrofluoric acid . . 1-47 

Karpholite is therefore essentially a hydrated silicate of alumina and manga- 
nese, and entirely different in its composition from the mineral in question. 

Before the blowpipe this mineral fuses readily, and a sublimate is formed, 
which, if the mineral is supported on its quartz matrix, forms a bluish ring on 
the quartz ; and a brilliant yellow color is imparted to the flame. With mic. 
salt, in the interior flame, it forms a green bead. 

In its easy fusibility and in the production of this curious bluish ring, con- 
densed on the quartz around the fragment exposed to the blowpipe flame, this 
mineral is readily distinguished by the blowpipe from Karpholite, which fuses 
with difficulty, and forms no such ring. 

In the works on mineralogy, there is a meagre notice given of an ore of molyb- 
denum, under the name of molybdic ochre or oxide of molybdenum, which occurs 
in powdery incrustations of various shades of yellow, and is in fact molybdic acid, 

being composed of molybdenum 63-66, and oxygen 33-39 (Mo.); but as this 
mineral contains no iron, is produced from the decomposition of the sulphuret of 
molybdenum, and has never been found in the fine delicate tufted acicular crys- 
talline form, it is probably not the same as this California mineral. 

I have not yet had a sufficient supply of the ore to ascertain the proportion of 
oxygen united with the molybdenum in this mineral, but I am led to believe 
that it exists in the state of molybdic acid, from the fact of ammonia acting on 
it so readily. I think, moreover, that the molybdic acid is combined with the 
iron, for the pure rich yellow color of the mineral forbids the idea of the iron 
being only mechanically mixed ; and besides the iron is very nearly in the pro- 
portion to form a subsalt : hence I infer that this mineral must be a submolybdate 
of iron. 


The Committee to which was referred the following by Mr. Lea, 
reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Description of a new species of Eschara^from the Eocene of Alabama. 

By Isaac Lea. 

Many years since I received from the late Judge Tait of Claiborne, a large 
number of fossils from the Eocene 
beds of that district, and among 
the sand was found a fragment of 
this interesting genus. I did not 
then characterise it, in the hope of 
getting a more perfect specimen. 
I have not, however, seen any 
other but this fragment. 

There have been a number of spe- 
cies described by Mr. Lonsdale, in 
the Journal of the Geological Socie- 
ty, vol. i., from the Tertiary of the 
IT. S. These were taken by SirC. 
Lyell to London, on his return from 
one of his tours to this country. 
The species which I propose to 
characterise, differs in its form 



very strikingly from the figures 
and descriptions of Mr. Lonsdale. 
In Michelin's Iconographie, plates 
78 and 79, there is a species figured 
from Claiborne, which resembles 
this, but is not the same. In the 
cuts annexed fig. 1 represents a 
highly magnified view of the ex- 
ternal surface, with its foramina 
and numerous indented points. 
Fig. 2 represents the dorsal sur- 
face; and fig. 3 represents the 
size of the specimen, with its na- 
tural appearance. 

Eschar a Claihornevsis. Folia- 
ceous ; cells ovate, constricted 
_ near the middle, boundary slightly 

raised, thickened and smooth, mouth rounded at both ends and larger at the 
upper one ; a small round foramen at the lower end of each larger foramen ; 
surface between the foramina with numerous irregular pits ; dorsal separation 
of opposed layers perfect, vesicle rather large, oblong, with the angles rounded. 

The Committee on a paper by Dr. Woodhouse, describing a new 
species of Sciurus, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of a New Species of Sciurtis, 
By S. W. WooDHousE, M. D. 

SciuRDs DORSALis, nobis. 

Description. Ears large and broad, tufted with long black gray hairs. General 
color above dark gray, with the exception of the dorsal line and a band extend- 
ing along the external base or hind part of the ear, which is of a rich ferruginous 
brown color; beneath white, with the exception of the perineum, which is 
gray ; cheeks grayish white ; tail very large and broad, gray above, with a broad 
white margin, and white beneath. 

Fur long, compact and soft; claws long, very strong and much curved, of a 
black color, with the exception of their points which are light and almost trans- 
parent; whiskers very long and black ; iris dark brown. 

Dimensions of Dried SJcin% 

Length from nose to root of tail, about 

From heel to point of longest nail, 

Height of ears externally, .... 

" ' to end of hair, . 

Breadth of ear, ....... 

From ear to point of nose, about 

Tail vertebrre, about ..... 

" to end of fur, about ..... 

Remarls. This beautiful squirrel I procured whilst attached to the expedition 
under the command of Capt. L. Sitgreaves, Topographical Engineer U. S. Army, 
exploring the Zuni and the Great and Little Colorado rivers of the West, in the 
month of October, 1851, in the San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico, where I 
found it quite abundant, after leaving which, I did not see it again. On the receipt 
of my New Mexican collections (which contain some fine specimens, with their 
crania,) I will give a fuller description. 





. . 1 





1 7-lOths. 



1852.] Ill 

The Committee on tlie following communication from Dr. C. M. 
Wetherill, reported in favor of publication : 

Cheimcal Investigation of the Meodcaii Honey A7it. 
By Charles M. WETHERirx, Ph. D. 

Several of these curious insects, described in a late number of the Proceedings, 
were handed to me some time since by Dr. Leidy, with the request that I would 
make a chemical examination of them. I was fearful at the time, from the 
scarcity of material, and from the endosmosis and exosmosis that had apparently 
taken place, (as the ants had been preserved for some time in alcohol,) that I 
could not arrive at satisfactory conclusions. The difficulties were not, however, 
as great as anticipat^^d. The following are the results of my experiments. 

The ants were filled with a varying quantity of the honey; in some the 
abdomen was distended, in others quite flaccid. The liquid also varied; 
in some being of light amber color, and in others deeper in hue. Six of 
the average sized insects weighed 2.6o3.3 grammes, their bodies weighed 
0.288 gr. The honey, consequently, of the six ants weighed 2.3653 grammes, 
and the average quantity of honey in a single ant 0.3942 gr. Since the average 
wei^^ht of a single ant is 0.04S, it follows that the honey which an average one of 
these ants contains is 8.2 times greater than the weight of its body. The density 
of the ants, when filled with honey, and that of their bodies, was ascertained by 
weighing in alcohol of density 0.8309, and reducing to water as unity. 

The following are the data : 

2.6533 grammes of the ants, with their honey, weighed in alcohol 0.9310 ; and 
of the bodies without the honey 0.288 weighed 0.061 in alcohol. 

From which the density is calculated; for the ants filled with honey at 1.28, 
and for the bodies alone 1.05. 

The syrup extracted from the ant had an agreeable sweet taste, the odor very 
much resembling that of the syrup of squills. It reacted slightly acid to blue 
litmus paper. When evaporated by the heat of steam, it dried to a gummy mass, 
which did not exhibit traces of crystallization after standing for a couple of weeks. 
It was very hygroscopic, becoming quickly soft from the absorption of water 
from the atmosphere. 

The sugar dried, as stated, by steam heat, dissolved without residue in ordi- 
nary alcohol, leaving a residue in nearly absolute alcohol. This residue dis- 
solved in ordinary alcohol completely. The alcoholic solutions were all set 
aside, for several days, for crystallization, with negative results. These alco- 
holic solutions had exactly the snriell of the perfumed bay rum. I call attention 
to these peculiar odors, as perhaps capable, with additional evidence, of throwing 
some light upon the origin of the honey. 

When exposed for some time in vacuo over sulphuric acid, the syrup dries up 
to a transparent gum-like mass, but without any signs of crystallization during 
the process. 2.1065 of the syrup, after standing thus in vacuo for about two 
weeks, weighed 1.4425, equal to a per centage of 68.478, sugar in the syrup. 
When thus dried it had the rich sugar smell of candy made by heating sugar and 
butter together. 

Some of the honey was set aside for crystallization as removed from the insect. 
After many days it was examined, but no traces of crystallization could be 
observed, either with the naked eye or with the microscope. Some of the honey 
was examined alone, under the microscope with high powers; no crystals were 
observed, but here aqd there fragments of organic tissue. Examined by polarized 
light, some of these stood out in bright relief against the dark ground of the field, 
and were at first mistaken for fragments of crystals, until a capillary like tube 
was observed, which resembled these fragments, and which changed its color by 
the rotation of the polarization's plane. 

No change could be observed after touching the drop under the microscope with 
a drop of solution or tincture of iodine- 


112 [June, 

A drop of the honey, in a watch glass, blackened when exposed to a steam heat 
with dilate sulphuric acid. 

When heated with the blue solution obtained by adding tartaric acid or solu- 
tion of potassa to sulphate of copper, a red precipitate of the suboxide of copper 

Chloride of bariunn, ferrocyanitle of potassium, and sulphate of copper, added 
to an aqueous solution of the honey, gave no precipitates, either in the cold or 
by heat. 

Nitrate of silver gave in the cold a whitish precipitate, which changed to dark 
brown by heating. 

A portion of ihe honey heated on platinum foil blackened, gave out fumes, and 
the odor of burnt sugar, leaving a porous coke, which burned off and left an al- 
most imperceptible ash. 

A portion of the substance which had been left in vacuo for two weeks was 
taken for analysis by combustion with oxide of copper and chlorate of potassa. 

As the honey thus dried was not perfectly hard, but of a sticky nature, it was 
necessary to introduce it into the combustion tube upon a piece of glass. 0.497 
of honey gave 0.306 of water,' and 0.684 of carbonic acid, corresponding to a per 
centage of C = 37.525 and H = 6.841 by loss = 55.634. This corresponds, as 
nearly as could be expected, under the circumstances of the analysis, with the 
formula of crystallized grape sugar C12 Hi4 Ou as may be seen by the following 
comparison : 

Bj Calculation. 

By Analj-sis. 

Anal. Starch Sugar by 

De Saussure. 






. 7.071 







100.000 100.000 100.00 

The following analysis may be compared with my results : 1. Diabetic sugar 
by Peligot. 2. Sugar of grape, by De Saussure. 3. Cane sugar, by Liebig. 
4. Sugar of honey, by Prout. 

I. II. III. IV. 

C. 36. 7 36.71 42.30 36.36 

H 7.3 6.78 6.45 C ( ^^ . 

O 56.0 56.51 51.50 H J ^"^'^^ 

100.0 100.00 100.00 100.00 

It results, I think, from these experiments that the honey contained in the 
Mexican ant is a nearly pure solution of the sugar, so called, of fruits whifth is in 
a state of hydration, isomeric with grape sugar, Ci2 Hi4 On, and differing from 
grape sugar in not crystallizing. The phenomena of circular polarization differ 
in these two named sugars ; but the want of sufficient material rendered such 
comparison impossible. The honey of bees is a mixture of these two kinds of 
sugar ; and as it is obtained from the nectar of flowers cotitaining cane sugar, the 
transformation into fruit and grape sugars must take place in their bodies.* As 
the ant honey yields, among its reactions, one of cane sugar, viz: that of black- 
ening when heated with dilute sulphuric acid, it is possible that it may contain 
an admixture of cane sugar, which would account for the imperfect correspond- 
ence of the analysis with the per centage calculated from the formula. It renders 
also the supposition plausible, that these ants obtain their honey from the same 
source as the bee. 

With regard to the acidity of the honey, want of material prevented any expe- 
riments. Can it be formic acid, or is it acetic from the oxidation of the alcohol 
in which the ants were preserved / 

*Loewig-Chem. der Org. Verbindungen. 

1852.] 113 

A portion of the alcohol (reacting acid like the honey) neutralized by caustic 
potassa, then distilled with sulphuric acid, gave an aqueous acid liquid, which, on 
addition of nitrate of silver, gave a whitish precipitate, becoming black on boil- 
ing, rendering the supposition of formic acid probable. 

The Committee on the two papers by Dr. Genth, entitled respectively 
^^On some Minerals which accompany Gold in California,^^ and ^' On 
Strontiano-Calcite, a new Mineral/' reported in favor of publication in 
the Proceedings. 

On some Minerals, wJdch accompany Gold in California. 
By Dr. F. A. Genth. 

A few days ago I had an opportunity of examining a lot of Gold from the north 
fork of the American River, 30 miles from Sacramento City. 

The gold was in very fine scales and but a few larger pieces among them. 
The following minerals have been found mixed with it, viz. : 

1. Hyacintli in almost microscopic crystals, of different lengths. The longer 
ones exhibit the form of the primitive square octahedron combined with the 
second square prism ; the shorter ones have besides, a second octahedron, a 
double eight-sided pyramid and the first prism ; one of the crystals I found having 
a basal plane besides. They are colorless or show a smoky tinge; only a few 
less perfect crystals have a grayish-brown color. Lustre perfectly adamantine. 

2. Chromic Iron in rounded grains, which sometimes show faces of the regular 
octahedron. Color between jet-black and iron-black. Lustre submetallic. 
Streak brown. Not magnetic. Before the blowpipe with borax it gives in both 
flames emerald-green beads. The powder was decomposed by bisulphate of 
potash, and the presence of sesqui-oxide of iron and chromium likewise ascer- 
tained in the moist way. 

3. Ilmenite occurs in iron-black grains, which show sometimes distinctly a 
basal cleavage. Lustre submetallic. Streak brownish, and iron-black. Before 
the blowpipe it gives a blood-red bead, which, when saturated, can be easily 
enameled. The powder is easily decomposed by bisulphate of potash; the fused 
mass dissolves completely in diluted hydrochloric acid, and this solution, when 
evaporated, lets fall a white powder, which gives with borax and microcosmic 
salt the characteristic reactions of titanic acid. The solution in hydrochloric 
acid contains nothing but sesqui-oxide of iron. 

[Both Chromic Iron and Ilmenite seem to have been confounded with magnetic 

4. Platimim. A few steel-colored rounded grains were observed, and of 

5. Iriclosmi7ie, a few lead-colored scales. The quantity of both Platinum and 
Iridosmine was too small for further examination. 

I will mention here, that I have examined some white grains and scales from 
Stanislaus in California, which were presented to me by Prof. John Frazer, 
whose brother had them collected. 

The few scales of gold mixed with them were extracted by diluted aqua regia. 
I then treated them with concentrated aqua regia as long as it acted upon. 

The solution contained almost pure bichloride of platinum with but a trace of 
iridium ; neither rhodium nor palladium could be detected in it. 

The residue consists of six-sided scales of a color between lead- and tin-white. 
On heating them upon platinum foil, they give out a strong odor of osmium ; they 
are therefore the combination Ir Os4 (or Ir OS3) known under the name of Sis- 
sershite. Being heated thus, most of the scales become iridescent and assume, 
like steel, yellow, orange and blue eolors. I do not know that this reaction has 
been observed. In. order to ascertain whether every kind of iridosmine gives it, 

114 [June, 

or whether it is peculiar to that from California, I treated some from the Oural 
Mountains in the same manner, and found that most, but not all of the lead- 
colored scales are oxydized and assume yellow, orange and blue colors. This 
reaction seems therefore to be an important one to distinguish Sisserskite from 
Newjanskite. It is very likely, too, that we find in nature but two combinations 
of Iridium and Osmium, Ir Os and Ir O34 and that Ir O33 is Ir Os-i mixed with 
some Ir Os, as it is very difficult to distinguish their color. 

On Strontiano-ccdcite^ a New Mineral. 
By Dr. F. A. Genth. 

Primitive form an obtuse rhombohedron (as it seems to show cleavage parallel 
to the planes of a rhombohedron, similar to that of calcite) ; the secondary forms 
which I observed were the second acute rhombohedron (analogous to that of 
calcite of 65 50') and its corresponding scalene-dodecahedron. (Crystals micros- 
copic and not very distinct ; in globular masses formed by an aggregate of rhom- 
bohedrons, every globule terminating in the above-mentioned acute rhombohe- 
dron. Fracture uneven. H. =^ 3.5. Sp. gr. == ? 

Colorless and transparent at the points of the aggregations, which are white 
and translucent. The colorless crystals have a vitreous, the white ones a some- 
what pearly lustre. 

When heated before the blowpipe it gives out a brilliant light, imparts to the 
flame a slight crimson color, and is rendered caustic. Easily soluble in acids 
with disengagement of carbonic acid. The solution gives a white precipitate 
with sulphate of lime, but not with sulphate of strontia; it therefore contains 
strontia. After, (in another quantity of the solution,) strontia was precipitated 
with sulphate of potash, the addition of oxalate of ammonia produced a precipi- 
tate of oxalate of lime. 

The quantities I had at my disposal were too small to admit of a quantitative 
analysis, but I presume from the quantities, precipitated with sulphate of potash 
and oxalate of ammonia, that lime and strontia are contained in Strontiano-calcite 
in about equal proportions. 

The specimen was presented to me by William Wagner, Esq., who collected 
it in the neighborhood of Girgenti in Sicily, where it, according to his statement, 
is of rare occurrence and associated with celestine and sulphur. 

In the chemico-mineralogical system it is to be placed between Dufrenoy's 
Dreelite and Plumbocalcite. 

Of the carbonates which have isomorphous bases, of carbonate of lime only, 
two forms, rhombohedron and rhombic prism, have been observed; of carbonate 
of lead, strontia and baryta, only the rhombic form is known; but when in com- 
bination with carbonate of lime, they all likewise crystallize in the rhombohe- 
drical form, thus forming Plumbo-calcite, Strontiano-calcite and Dreelite. It is 
very likely, that we one of these days will meet with rhombohedrical forms of 
the pure carbonates of lead, strontia and baryta. 

The Committee on a paper by Messrs. Audubon and Bacbman, read 
this evening by special permission, describing a new species of North 
American Fox, reported in favor of publication : 

Descri2)tio7i of a new North American Fox. Genjcs Yidpes^ Cuv. 
By Audubon and Bachman. 

VuLPES Utah. 

V. c(7?"/?orc ,j?-;-wc//o?T, pilis velleris longioribus nee non gracilioribus quam in 
V. fulvo, Cauda magna cylindracea. 

Specijic characters. Larger than Vulpes fulvis ; fur longer aad finer than in 
that species; taillarge and cylindrical. 
















led beneath, horn 


From point of nose to root of tail, 
Tail, (vertebra",) 

" (to end of hair.) ..... 
Circumference of tail, (broadest part,) 
From shoulder to fore-feet, . '. . 
From rump to hind-feet, .... 

Height of ears, (posteriorly,) .... 
From point of nose to eye, .... 
Longest hairs on the brush, .... 
" on the body, . . . . 

Description. Claws slightly arched, compressed, channel 
color ; hair, of two kinds, first, a coarse and long hair covering the fur beneath it; 
second, a dense and very soft fine fUr, composed of hairs that are straight, but 
crimped and j^vavy, as in the silver gra}' fox. Fur plumbeous at the rqots, 
gradually becoming dai-k brown towards the tips in those parts of the body which 
are dark colored on the surface ; in those parts which are white, the fur is white 
from the roots, and on no part of the animal does it present any annulations. 

The long hairs are dark-brown from the roots, yellowish-white near the mid- 
dle of their length, and are tipped with black. 

On the under surface the hairs are principally white their whole extent, with 
a few black ones intermixed; the fur on the tail is rather less fme and more 
woolly than on the body. 

Feet covered with, soft hair reaching beyond the toes ; on the forehead the hair 
is rather coarse and short, with fine fur beneath. From this intermixture of 
hairs the animal is greyish-white on the hea<l, dark-brown on the neck, grayish- 
brown on the dorsal line and on the sides ; the throat, under surface of the bod}', 
insides of legs, and feet are black. 

The tail is irregularly banded with dark brown and dull white, the tip white 
for about three inches. 

Another Specimen. Nose, both surfaces of the legs, and behind the ears, dark 
reddish-brown; whiskers black; under side of neck, and aline on the belly, liver 
brown. Fur on the back very fine, and dark ashy-gray from the roots: the 
longer hairs on the back are black at the roots, and are broadly tipped with white ; 
fur on the sides, cinereous at the roots, and yellowish-white from thence to the 

There is a reddish tinge on the neck, extending to the shoulders ; sides of the 
face grizzly-brown ; the hair on the tail is irregularly clouded with brown and 
dull white, and is lightest on the under surface. 

This animal was first noticed, by Lewis and Clarke, as the large red fox of the 
plains, (vol. 2, p. 168,) and was referred to by us in the first volume of the 
Quadrupeds of North America, p. 54, where we described it from a hunter's skin. 

Having obtained a beautiful specimen from Captain Rhett, of the United States 
Army, we now propose for it the name of Vnlpes TJtaJi, as it is, so far as our 
information extends, chiefly found in the Utah territory, although it probably 
ranges considerably north of the Great Salt Lake. 

The habits of this beautiful fox are similar to those of the E.ed Fox, and it 
runs into many varieties of color. 

Captain Rhett informed us that he killed the specimen, kindly presented to us 
by him, near Fort Larimee. 

Several specimens of Vidpes Utah have been received at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, and it will probably sooa be well known. 

116 [June, 

The Committee to wliicli was referred a paper by Dr. Le Conte, 
entitled " Synopsis of the species of Pterostichus/' reported in favor of 
publication in the Journal. 


Mr. Joseph Lea and Dr. William H. Tingley, both of Philadelphia, 
W(3re elected llembers of the Academy, 

1852.] 117 

July 6A, 1852. 
Dr. Elwyn in the Chair. 

A paper was presented from Professor S. F. Baird and Mr. Charles 
Girard, intended for publication in the Proceedings, entitled " Charac- 
teristics of some new Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution/' which was referred to Dr. Hallowell, Dr. Le Conte, and Dr. 

Dr. Wetherill read a paper intended for publication in the Proceed- 
ings, entitled ^' Further examination of the Phoenixville Molybdate of 
Lead.'' Referred to Mr. Ashmead, Mr. Vaux, and Dr. Rand. 

Dr. Wetherill read a second paper, entitled ^' Chemical examination 
of the food of the Queen Bee." Referred to Dr. Bridges, Dr. Rand, 
and Mr. Vaux. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the American Philosophical 
Society, dated June 21st, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of No. 2, 
Vol. 6, and index and title page Vol. 5, of the Proceedings. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to a fragment of a fossil ox head, 
found by Dr. Samuel Brown in a creek 'emptying into the Ohio river, and now 
deposited in the cabinet of the Academy by the American Philosophical Society. 
Notwithstanding its larger size and its locality, Cuvier considered it the same as 
the Bos priscus. Harlan named it Bos latifrons. It belongs to a species of 
Bison, and is, with very little doubt, distinct from the Bison priscus, and should 
be called Bison latifrons. 

Another fragment exhibited belonged to a smaller animal. The horn core is 
relatively more conoidal and curved than in Bison latifrons. The specimen was 
found at Big-bone-lick, Kentucky, and probably indicates a distinct species, for 
which the name Bison antiquus was proposed. 

Dr. L. further stated he had been studying the extinct Edentata of North 
America, and had come to the conclusion, that there were probably four species 
of Megalonyx, M. Jeffersonii, Harlan, M. laqueatus, Harlan, ?M. potens, Leidyy 
and M. dissimilis, Leidy ; one species of Mylodon, the M. Harlani, Owen ; and 
one species of Megatherium, which is probably distinct from that of South 
America, and might be called with propriety M. mirabile, Leidy. The jaw 
figured by Prof. Owen, in the Voyage of the Beagle, Foss. Mam. pi. xxix, Dr.L. 
observed, he was satisfied did not belong to the Megalonyx Jeffersonii, as sup- 
posed by Mr. Owen, but to a new genus and species, for which the name 
Gnathopsis Oweni was proposed. 

July \Zth. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Professor J. P. Kirtland, dated East Rockport, 
Ohio, June 26th, 1822, accompanying the donations announced at a late 
meeting of the Academy. 

Also a letter from Dr. Johannes Gistl, dated Munich, April 21st, 
1852, accompanying his donations to the Library announced this 


118 [July, 

Dr. Genth read a paper describing a new mineral, Rhodophyllite, which 
was referred to Mr. Vaux, Dr. Wetherill, and Dr. Bridges. 

Dr. Owen, in presenting to the Society a specimen of Fusulina Lime- 
stone, and Tutenmergel, made the following remarks: 

The specimen of Fusulina cylindrica is from the carboniferous limestone on the 
west side of the Missouri river, below Fort Kearney. One bed ^of limestone 
there is a complete agglutinated mass of this interesting little foraminiferous 
shell, which is almost the form and size of a grain of wheat, so that those unac- 
quainted with the fossil take it to be " petrified wheat. ''^ 

Previous to its discovery on the Missouri river, during the geological survey 
made by me in 1849, it had been found, I believe, only in isolated specimens in 
a siliceous stratum towards the base of the coal measures of Ohio. In Europe it 
has only been found in Russia. Both in this country and Europe it appears to be 
confined to the carboniferous rocks. 

The specimen of Tutenmergel is from Keeth's Rapid, on the Des Moines river, 
Iowa, where it occurs in great perfection in ver}' perfect cones with a fine 
crimped surface, and possessing internally the structure of Arragonite. The Tu- 
tenmergel of this locality proves to my. mind that its form cannot be due to 
simple shrinkage of the strata, as believed by most persons, but is a crystalliza- 
tion, with simultaneous infiltration of calcareous waters a stalactitic formation, 
not in the atmosphere, but within the substance of its argillaceous matrix. 

The bed at Keeth's Rapid is only four or five inches thick ; but it occurs in 
much thicker beds nine inches or more lower down near Amsterdam and else- 
where on the Des Moines, but not in as pure a form, and almost of a black 
color, while the Keeth bed is almost as colorless as calc spar. 

July 2^th, 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Professor Lepsius, dated Berlin, June 20th, 1852, accompany- 
ing his donation to the Library announced this evening. 

From Dr. Samuel Webber, of Charlestown, New Hampshire, accom- 
panying specimens of the fins and tail of a Fish, in the substance of 
which were numerous hard granules. The letter also enclosed the fol- 
lowing communication on the subject : 

" In the town of Unity, about twelve miles from the place of my residence, is 
a small body of water known by the name of Cold Fond, It abounds with fish 
of the kind usually found in such waters, viz., roach, bream, perch and pickerel. 
They are plump, firm, and well flavored, but almost uneatable in consequence of 
a peculiarity which I have never observed nor heard of in these kinds of fish in 
other localities. This peculiarity is that through the bodies of these fish are scat- 
tered numerous small blackish grains of a globular form, and of about the size of 
mustard seed, quite hard, and which annoy the teeth so much in the act of masti- 
cation, as to take away all comfort of eating. Sometimes these little bodies are 
single, sometimes clustered together more or less. They pervade even the fins 
and tail, as may be seen by some specimens that I forward in company with this 
brief sketch. 01 the nature and cause of this unusual condition of the fish, or of 
the substance of these little pellet?, nothing is known. It has been conjectured 
that the water of the pond is more or less impregnated, in parts at least consider- 
ably, by some mineral spring, and that the particles of some mineral held in 
solution by it, are taken into the circulation of the fish, and by some process of 
decomposition are deposited in small tubercular aggregations in the various parts 
of the body." 


1852.] 119 

July 21 til , 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee to which was referred Dr. Wetherill's paper on the 
Phocnixville Moljbdate of Lead, reported in favor of publication in the 

Further Examiiiatioii, oj the P hccnixville Molybdale of head. 

By Charles M. Wetherill, Ph. D. 

In the Proceedings for the 30th March of this year, is a description of a red 
variety of Molybdate of Lead, examined qualitatively by me, and in which it is 
stated that I could not detect chromium either by the moist way, or before the 
blow pipe. In the July number of Silliman's Journal, page 105, among the min- 
eralogical notices by Mr. W. T. Blake, he observes that the specimens from the 
Wheatley mine, which he mistook for chromate of lead, have been found to be the 
molybdate containing chromic acid. I find also in Dana's Mineralogy, under the 
head of this mineral, the observation that " a red variety contains a few per cent, 
of chromic acid." In my former analysis I looked particularly for this acid 
without finding it. Supposing that Mr. Blake had been more fortunate than my- 
self, I repeated the examination on larger quantities of mineral, and with great 
care, but have no reason to change what was before written. About one deci- 
gramme of the pulverized molybdate was dissolved in boiling concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid. No chlorine could be detected, as would have been the case were 
chromic acid present. After boiling for some time to reduce the hypothetical 
acid to sesquioxide of chromium, enough water was added to dissolve the formed 
chloride of lead, and then sulphuric acid in excess. The solution was yellow, and 
when drops of the liquid had reached the hot sides of the capsule the blue molybde- 
num compound was formed, which gave with the yellow solution a green tinge to 
those parts. The lead being thus separated in combination with sulphuric acid, 
to the filtrate was added hydrosulphuret of ammonium, which kept in solution 
the sulphnret of molybdenum thus formed, and precipitated sulphuret of iron, which 
should contain sesquioxide of chromium, if chromic acid were in the mineral. 
This sulphuret of iron was removed from the solution, oxidized by nitric acid, 
precipitated hot by ammonia, then washed, and the ashes of the filter fused with 
nitre and carbonate of soda. The result was the slightest shade greenish, as if 
from the presence of minute traces of manganese, but not in the least yellow, nor 
did it give a yellow solution with water, nor did the solution, neutralized exactly 
by ammonia and nitric acid, give, as would be the case with chromic acid, the 
purple red precipitate of the chromate of silver on addition of the nitrate. The 
reactions of chromium are so decided that the presence of this metal could hardly 
escape the notice of one looking for it. I have not yet been able to obtain a suf- 
ficient quantity of the mineral for a quantitative examination. This compound 
may possibly be an acid molybdate, analogous to many chromates which when 
neutral are yellow, and red when acid. 

The Committee on the following paper by Dr. Wetherill, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Chemical Examination of the Food of the Quee7i Bee. 

By Charles M. Wetherill, Ph. D. 

A specimen was given to me by Dr. Leidy, from Mr. Langstroth, of the food 
of the ^|Ueen bee. It was an oblong mass, consisting of two differently colored 
layers, the inner one horn-like and transparent, the outer whitish and more 
opaque. Under the microscope, with high powers, it appears amorphous. It was 

120 [July, 

heavier than water, of the consistenc}' of wax, hut sticky and elastic. It contains 
Wax, which is in larger quantity in the white than in the inner layer. Heated on 
the platinum foil a portion of the body melts and flows to another part of the 
platinum, where by further heating it diffuses the odor of wax. The residue does 
not melt, but swells up by greater heat, with a smell of burned leather, and leaves 
a porous coke, burning off with great difficulty, and with a slight ash. The sub- 
stance in warm water is softened and partly dissolves, leaving white insoluble 
flakes; the filtrate gives a precipitate on boiling, which precipitate does not melt 
by heat, nor is it soluble in alcohol or ether. The original substance does not 
dissolve in alcohol or ether, but in the latter menstruum is covered on the sur- 
face with a white coating. In warm dilutfe hydrochloric acid it is slightly attacked, 
but not completely dissolved. Tested for nitrogen by Lassaigne's method, by 
fusion with sodium and obtaining the precipitate of Prussian blue, it indicated the 
presence of considerable quantities of that element. As the body appears to be 
composed of at least three substances, and the quantity at my disposal weighed 
but three decigrammes, I was unable to subject it to an ultimate analysis. 

From its reactions it appears to contain, besides wax, albumen and protein 
compounds. It is truly a bread containing albuminous compounds, which 
would probably prove, on analysis, similar to the gluten of wheat, for the nourish- 
ment of the plastic organs of the body. The examination of this substance was 
interesting in connection with the Mexican ant honey. The latter contains 
no nitrogen, and would therefore seem incapable alone of affording nourishment 
to the young insect, as supposed by some, and which young, in the case of bees, 
are fed by pollen. Perhaps the accumulation of honey in the ant is the result of 
a disease like diabetes ; though it would seem improbable that it should be a dis- 
ease so widely diffused. These ants do not, I suppose, make wax or an analogous 
substance, which is the use of the tioney of the bee. 

The examination of compounds occurring in the lower animals, which are also 
the result of the decomposition of amylaceous and albuminous substances, and a 
comparison of these compounds with the animal's food, has been much neglected 
by chemists. Yet it would seem that the study of certain decompositions deemed 
physiologically important, could be more readily carried out upon those lower 
orders whose organs are less complex. The food of animals is in general very 
similar, as well in the percentage proportion of its constituents as in the rational 
formulae of its elements. It consists, as is well known, of nitrogenized com- 
pounds for formation, and amylaceous ones for respiration. The amylaceous 
compounds, in particular, have been well studied in all their transformations out 
of the body, and to a certain extent as occurring in man and in a few animals. 
The three principal radicals of this class, amyl, ethyl, and formyl, and their 
compounds and derivatives, are well known. It is therefore significant, and sug- 
gestive of further research, when we find the three acids of their alcohol radicals 
in the animal, as valerianic in the oil of Delphinus globiceps, acetic in man, &c., 
and formic in the ant ; these acids and other products of decomposition of the 
three radicals being besides found in other animals and in plants, and some in a 
diseased state of plant or animal. If it be desirable to study that mysterious 
force, the vital, how can it be done but by its effects, for which nature must be 
cross-examined in her every form. This is the more important, as we find vitality 
to determine the resolution of the same food into different products in different 
animals, as may be required for their existence. We have a beautiful example 
of this in the case of the bee. One of the simplest transformations of an organic 
compound is that of cane to grape sugar ; it requires merely the absorption of two 
equivalents of water by the former. Grape sugar appears by the phenomena of 
fermentation to be more readily decomposable than cane sugar ; and we accord- 
ingly find this change taking place in the body of the bee in the formation of its 
honey, which is to be worked up again into wax. When cane sugar is given to 
bees for the formation of wax, wax is indeed formed, but apparently with more 
difficulty, and does not detach itself readily as in vsax from honey. This excre- 
ment of honey compared with food is probably the simplest occurring in animal 

18520 '. ' 121 

The relation of food to respiration and nourishment in man and kindred ani- 
mals has been well set forth by Liebig in his Animal Chemistry. According to 
this author, an equivalent of starch is changed into fat by losing one equivalent 
of carbonic acid, and seven equivalents of oxygen. Now, since wax bears a great 
analogy to the fats, it may be supposed to be derived from honey in a similar manner. 
Wax composed of cerine and myricine has a composition of C34H34O2 ; anhydrous 
grape sugar C12H12O12, or three equivalents C36H36O36, two equivalents carbonic 
acid, two of water, and twenty-eight oxygen ; three equivalents of grape sugar 
would yield one of wax. That wax is produced from honey is shown by Grund- 
laeh, (Natural History of Bees,) as quoted by Liebig. The air in the hive during 
the formation of wax should contain an excess of oxygen, which has not been 
shown by analysis, that 1 am aware of. 

Grundlach supposes that honey is alone necessary to the support of bees with- 
out nitrogenized substances like pollen, and instances the fact that bees often 
starve in April when their honey is consumed, and when they can obtain pollen 
from the fields, but no honey. But this, perhaps, only proves that much honey is 
necessary to their existence, owing no doubt to the large expenditure in the for- 
mation of wax, and which is not voluntary but continually going on. For the 
same author has observed that bees shut up and fed without a queen, will not 
build up honey comb, although the wax laminae will continue to be secreted from 
their bodies. If there is any analogy between bees and the vertebrata, that 
nitrogenized compounds are as necessary to the formation of the plastic organs as 
the non-nitrogenized are to the respiration, (and it would seem thus probable from 
the fact that the queen bee, the fruit of whose labor requires much nitrogen, 
lives on highly nitrogenized food,) it seems as incredible that bees should be sup- 
ported entirely by honey, as that man should be by starch only. 

A careful examination of the relation between food and its transformation in 
the bodies of such animals, would no doubt throw great light upon mooted points 
in physiology ; and the many differences in the nature of the products, which 
could no doubt be reconciled with the laws of chemistry, would in themselves 
afford one of the strongest proofs in favor of the theories with which they 
might agree. 

The Committee on Dr. Genth's paper, describing a new Mineral, re- 
ported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

On RhodophylUte, a New Mineral. 
Ey Dr. F. a. Genth. 

Primitive form most probably hexagonal ; sometimes small six-sided laminas. 
Cleavage basal, eminent. Usually in masses consisting of foliated scales. 

H = 2-5. Sp. gr. (at 77*^ F.) = 2-617. 

Color of fine scales between greyish and silver-white and peach-blossom red ; 
masses of the latter color. Streak reddish white. Lustre pearly. Subtrans- 
parent ; subtranslucent. Scales flexible, but not elastic. The powder greasy 
to the touch. 

Yields water in the matrass. Heated before the blowpipe, it becomes silver- 
white, with a greyish-green tint ; small scales are rounded at the edges, and 
become brownish from the oxidation of the iron ; dissolves in borax and micro- 
cosmic salt, and gives in both flames emerald green beads ; by the latter reagent 
a skeleton of silicic acid is separated; with soda in the oxidizing flame it forms 
a yellow mass. Hydrochloric acid apparently does not act upon it ; sulphuric 
acid acts slowly upon the fine powder, but the mineral previously heated to red- 
ness is almost completely decomposed by it, with separation of silicic acid as 
a jelly. 



Composition : 3 (RO, Si O3) + 2 (R2 O3, SiOa) + 9 (MgO, HO.) According 
to analysis it contains : 

Silicic acid 

. = 33-41 . . 32-98 contains 



Sesquioxide of chi 

romium i 6-85 




. 5. = 18-15 . . 11-11 



Oxide of iron . 

:\ 1-43 



Oxide of nickel 



= 35-86 . . 35.22 






I = 0-28 . . 0-28 



Potash . 

= 0-10 . . 0-10 



Water . 

. = 12-79 . . 13-12 



100-59 101-09 

Found near Texas in Lancaster county, associated with chromic iron, gymnite, 
nickel-gymnite and other minerals. 

Considering sesquioxide of chromium and alumina as isomorphous bases, and 
in the same manner oxide of iron and the small quantities of alkalies isomor- 
phous with magnesia, the oxygen ratio of 

RO : 

R2 O3 

: SiOs : HO is 

14 53 : 


: 17-12 : 11-66, 

= 1-99 : 


: 2-34 : 1-6, which is very near 

= 1 -. 



: s : 3, and gives the equivalents 

in the following proportion : 

RO . 


: SiOs : HO 

12 : 


: 5 : 9, or the formula 

3 (RO, SiOs) + 2 (R2O3, Si03) 4. 9(MgO, HO). 

In the chemico-mineralogical system, this mineral is to be placed among 
the Silicates of bases RO -\- R'i Os -{- Hydrates, and it has some relation 
to Chlorite and Ripidolite. Besides, most of its physical and chemical proper- 
ties seem to be identical with Fiedler's Rhodochrom, a mineral from Tino in 
Greece and some localities in the Oural Mountains, which by G. Rose is consi- 
dered a serpentine, containing a large quantity of chromium ; but the latter has 
a greenish-black color, and dissolves in hydrochloric acid. As no quantitative 
analysis of it has been published, further examinations have to prove what rela- 
tions exist between these minerals. I at least consider it useless to speak about 
identity, if it cannot be proved by analysis. 

Another mineral, much resembling Rhodophyllite, but of a different composi- 
tion, is Kammererite. 

In the following I will give a brief report of the data of the analysis, and the 
modes which were adopted in separating the different ingredients. 

I. 2-0490 grammes of the mineral gave: 

Water .... 
Silicic acid 

Sesquioxide of chromium 
Alumina .... 
Sesquioxide of iron . 
Oxide of nickel 
Pyrophosphate of magnesia 
Lime .... 

Tl. 1-7 lOG grammes gave : 

Chloride of lithium, sodium and potassium 0-0138 grammes. 
Plaliiuim . . . . . . 0-0036 

. 0-6759 


. 0-1103 


. 0-2277 


. 0.0327 




. 2-0084 




1852.] 123 

III. 2'4806 grammes gave: 

Silicic acid . . . . . . 0-8288 grammes. 

Sesquioxide of iron i 

chromium V . . . 0-4502 '< 

Alumina \ 

Pyrophosphate of magnesia . . . 2-3499 " 


Magnesia 0-0451 

IV. 2.6148 grammes gave : 

Water 0-3344 grammes. 

In analysis No. I. the fine powder was fused in a platinum crucible with car- 
bonate of soda and nitrate of potash ; the fused mass was decomposed by hydro- 
chloric acid, and evaporated to dryness ; the dry mass moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid, heated and filtered. The silicic acid, thus separated, containing 
still a small quantity of chromium, etc., was fused a second time by carbonate of 
soda, and treated as above; the solution containing the small quantity of chro- 
mium was added to the other part. The acid liquid containing in solution the 
sesquioxides of chromium and iron, alumina and magnesia, was very nearly 
neutralized by carbonate of soda, and precipitated by carbonate of baryta. The 
mixture was often stirred, and after two days filtered. The weaker bases were 
completely precipitated, and did not contain a trace of magnesia. The precipi- 
tate of alumina, the sesquioxides of iron and chromium, and the excess of car- 
bonate of baryta, were treated with sulphuric acid and the soluble sulphates 
filtered from the insoluble sulphate of baryta. The filtrate was precipitated by 
ammonia and boiled, to prevent the dissolution of sesquioxide of chromium. This 
precipitate, after having been filtered and dried, was finely powdered, and fused 
with carbonate of soda and nitrate of potash, in order to oxidize the sesquioxide 
of chromium into chromic acid. From the solution in water alumina was preci- 
pitated by carbonate of ammonia. The filtrate was then acidulated with hydro- 
chloric acid, the chromic acid reduced by alcohol, and the sesquioxide of chro- 
mium precipitated from the boiling solution by ammonia. 

After baryta had been separated by sulphuric acid from the filtrate of the weak 
bases, magnesia was precipitated from the ammoniacal solution by phosphate of 
ammonia, with the requisite precautions. In analysis No. III. I decomposed 
the finely powdered mineral (previously heated to redness) by evaporation with 
sulphuric acid. The silicic acid not having a white color, was fused with car- 
bonate of soda and nitrate of potash as above, and the solution containing 
alumina, sesquioxides of chromium and iron, and magnesia added to the other 
parts. The sesquioxides were separated from magnesia by carbonate of baryta. 

The solution containing the magnesia, from which baryta was separated by 
sulphuric acid, and to which an excess of chloride of ammonium had been added, 
gave with ammonia a white gelatinous precipitate, which was insoluble in caustic 
potash, but it gave the other reactions of magnesia. In analyzing this mineral 
1 tried at first to separate magnesia from the sesquioxides by chloride of ammo- 
nium and ammonia, but although I had ounces of ammoniacal salts in solution, 
only half of the magnesia (17 per cent.) remained in solution. I dissolved and 
precipitated thus three times, but at last I had to give it up, and separated the 
balance which was remaining with the weak bases by carbonate of baryta. I 
never before had such difficulties in separating alumina from magnesia, and H. 
Rose, in his newest edition, is still in favor of this method, and separated the 
small quantity of magnesia, which always falls down With the alumina, by dis- 
solving the latter in caustic potash. I shall make further experiments with the 
magnesia separated from Rhodophyllite, and intend to make communication of 
my results to the Academy, if I find them interesting enough. 

For the estimation of the alkalies, the mineral, previously heated to redness, 
was decomposed by sulphuric acid, the soluble sulphates were boiled with car- 
bonate of baryta, and the carbonates of the alkalies with traces of magnesia 
extracted by water. The solution v/as evaporated to dryness, dissolved and 
filtered from som.e magnesia which remained ; but the last trace of it was sepa= 
rated by oxide of mercury after the carbonates were converted into chlorides. 

124 [August, 

The chlorides were weighed together, dissolved in water, and on the addition 
of bichloride of platinum evaporated to dryness, and the rennaining double salt 
of bichloride of platinum and potassium extracted by alcohol. This salt was 
heated to redness (as its quantity was very small,) and the platinum separated 
by water from the chloride of potassium. From the quantity of platinum, that 
of potash and chloride of potassium was calculated, and the latter subtracted 
from the whole amount of alkali-metals. The difference is the weight of 
chloride of sodium and lithium, but their quantity is too small for a correct 
analysis. From reactions it was supposed that the mineral contained about 
equal proportions of those. Fluorine and phosphoric or boracic acid could not 
be detected. 


Mr. James L. Claghorn, of Philadelphia, Mr. George M. Keim, of 
Reading, Pennsylvania, and Dr. G. Bischoff, of the same place, were 
elected Members ; and 

Dr. Henry G. Dalton, of Demerara, was elected a Correspondent 

August Sd, 
Vice-President Bridges in the chair. 

A communication from Prof. S. F. Baird was read, stating that the 
Vulpes Utah, of Audnbon and Bachman, described in the last No. of the 
Proceedings (for May and June) is identical with the F. macrourusy 
Baird, described in Capt. Stansbury's Report of the Exploration of Utah. 
As this Report was published early in June, the writer claims priority 
of date for the latter name. 

Dr. LeConte read a paper intended for publication in the Proceedings, 
entitled " Remarks on the Coccinellidae of the United States," which 
was referred to Dr. Watson, Dr. Hallowell and Mr. Kilvington. 

Dr. LeConte reud a second communication, also intended for publi- 
cation, entitled '^ Description of a new species of Trombidium." Referred 
to the same Committee. 

August 10 til. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Dr. J. P. Heister, for Dr. Bischoff of Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania, dated August 5th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt 
of the notice of election of the latter as a member of the Academy. 

A circular was received from Mr. Francis S. Holmes, Curator of the 
Museum of Natural History in the College of Charleston, dated July 
1852, giving an account of the establishment of the Museum, and re- 
questing the transmission of duplicate specimens in exchange, and the 
publications of the Academy ; and also offering to present a specimen of 
a recent Crinoid from the coast of South Carolina. 

The communication was referred, on motion, to the Curators. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Linnean Society of Lon- 
don, dated June 23d, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of the last No. 



of the Journal, of late Nos. of the Proceedings, and of previous Nos. 
of the same, deficient in the series of that Society. 

August 24:th. 
Prof. Haldeman in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Lieut. W. S. Boyd, U. S. Marine Corps, dated Valparaiso, 
June 27th, 1852, referring to a collection of shells now offered for sale 
by Mr. Weld, Purser U. S. N. 

From Prof. Ehrlich, dated Linez, April 3, 1 852, presenting the works 
announced this evening. 

From M. Laporte, Sr., dated Bordeaux, May 4, 1852, in reference 
to an exchange of foreign insects for those of this country. 

August 31s^. 
Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

The Committee on the following paper by Prof. Baird and Mr. Chas. 
Girard, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Characteristics of some New Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian 


By Spencer F. Baird and Charles Girard. 


Containing the species of the Saurian order, collected by John H. Clark, under 
Col. J. D. Graham, head of the Scientific Corps U. S. and Mexican Boundary 
Conamission, and a few others from the same or adjoining territories, obtained 
from other sources, and mentioned under their special headings. 

Holbrookia texana, B. and G. Cophosaurus texanusy Trosch. Arch, fiir 
Naturg. for 1850, (published in 1852,) 389. Tab. VI. 

This species, easily distinguished from H. maculatay attains a larger size and 
is provided with a more elongated tail. The body above and the lower surface 
of the head are grayish, maculated with small yellowish white subcircular dots ; 
on the upper surface of the tail and hind legs there are transverse bands of black. 
On the posterior half of the abdomen there are two black crescents, the convexity 
of which is posterior, and extending from near the back to the belly, without 
coming into contact either above or below. The space between the crescents, 
as well as an anterior and posterior area, are yellowish white on the back and 
blue on the belly. The breast, the medial line of the belly, the inferior surface 
of thighs and tail, are unicolor, of a uniform yellowish white; the tail underneath 
presents seven or more large subquadrangular or subcircular black patches. In 
the female, the abdominal crescents are represented by two lateral spots. 

Localities. Along the Rio San Pedro, a tributary of the Rio Grande del Norte. 

Holbrookia affinis, B. and G. This species comes nearest to H. texana^ 
from which however it can be readily distinguished by its more slender form and 
its proportionally larger dorsal scales and superciliary plates. The coloration 
differs but little from the former in the female, to which sex the only specimen 
in our possession belongs. The back however is darker, scattered with black 
spots, of which two dorsal rows may be followed from the occiput to the base of 
the tail, where they meet and constitute a crescent or an angle, the convexity of 


126 [August, 

which is directed backwards. The tail underneath is provided with black patches 
similar to those in H. texana. 

Locality. Found with the preceding species. 

HoLBRooKiA PROPiNQUA, B. and G. This species, very closely allied to H. 
mactilata, is most readily distinguished by a more slender form of body and a 
more elongated tail. Another character is found in the possession of a more 
depressed and protruding snout. On the sides of the abdomen there are some- 
times two, but generally three, black patches, whilst in H. maculata these con- 
ditions are reversed. 

Localities, Between Indianola and San Antonio (Texas.) We possess one 
individual of the same species, collected by R. H. Kern, Esq., in a more south- 
westerly locality. 

HoLBRooKiA MACULATA, G. Specimens of this species were obtained on the 
boundary line between San Antonio (Texas) and El Paso del Norte, thus extend- 
ing greatly its geographical range. 

Crotaphytus Gambelii, B. and G. Of the size, shape and general appear- 
ance of G. Wislizenii, from which however it can be readily distinguished by 
the larger scales both on the back and belly. The head is likewise more ovoidal ; 
at any rate the plates which cover its surface are larger, especially on the occipi- 
tal region. The scales on the sides of the head are larger than in C. Wislizenii, 
especially those of the temporal region. The general distribution of color is 
the same as in C Wislizenii; the only difference consists in the absence of the 
small yellowish white dots spread all over the body of the latter species. The 
transverse yellowish markings appear also to be more conspicuous. 

Locality. Not precisely known; collected by the late Dr. Wm. Gambel 
during his last visit to California. Specimens also in the Academy of Natural 

CROTAPHYTUS DORSALis, B. and G. A small and very characteristic species. 
The snout is short, truncated or rather rounded, giving to the head a much greater 
resemblance to that of C. collaris than to that of either O. Wislizenii or C. 
Gambelii. The scales are proportionally larger than in any of the known species 
of the genus. Along the dorsal line, a row of still larger and carinated scales, 
constitutes another very distinctive mark between this species and the others, its 
congeners. The tail seems rather compressed and is one and a half times the length 
of the body. The ground color nbove is bluish brown with crowded yellowish- 
white subcircular spots. The tail is alternately serai-annulated with bluish- 
brown and yellowish-white. The lower part of the body is unicolor, except 
under the head, where there are several narrow and oblique bluish streaks. 
Locality. Desert of Colorado, California. Collected by Dr. John L. LeConte. 
This species, according to the notes of Dr. LeConte, in running, carries its 
body very high above the ground, with the tail frequently elevated over the back, 
somewhat like a squirrel. It runs with very great swiftness, over the sand, 
making for its hole whenever pursued. 

Uta ornata, B. and G. This species maybe distinguished from U. Stanshn- 
riana, of which it has the general appearance, by a dorsal space covered with 
five or six rows of scales larger than those on the sides of the body. Along the 
middle of the sides there exists one row of small scutollac imitating the lateral 
line in lishes. The ground color is reddish-brown with transversely elongated 
black patches all along the upper part of the body and tail. The belly is uni- 
color in the female, whilst it is blue in the male. 

Localities. On the Rio San Pedro (Texas) and province of Sonora. Speci- 
mens of the same species were collected by Dr. John L. LeConte at San Diego 
(Cal.) and San Francisco (Cal.) 

ScELOPORUs PoiNSEXTii, B. and G. Sc. torqnatus var. B. Wiegm.? This 
species, although more intimately related to Sc. torqnatus than to any other of 
the same genus, is nevertheless easily distinguishable from the latter by the form 
and structure of the scales on the middle region of the back, which are subcircu- 

1852.] 127 

lar, very thin, without carinae and finely denticulated posteriorly. On the sides, 
the upper part of the legs and on the tail, the scales taper posteriorly into a sharp 
point. The plates on the upper surface of the head are rather small and irregu- 
lar in shape, except the occipital, which is larger than in any other allied species. 
The general color is olivaceous, reddish on the back and sides, with transverse 
dorsal black bands, much broaSer and more distinct on the tail. There is also a 
black collar convex backwards, embracing the region of the neck above and 
terminating in advance of the origin of the fore legs. 

At the request of Col. J. D. Graham, we have dedicated this species to the 
memory of the late Hon. Joel R, Poinsett, whose name is associated with the 
progress of science and the useful arts throughout his public career, especially 
while Secretary of War of the United States. 

Localities. Rio San Pedro of the Rio Grande del Norte, and the province of 

ScELopoRus Clarkii, B. and G. Allied to bothSc. torquatus^n^Sc. spinosus, 
it resembles the former in the presence of an imperfect black collar, which is 
more distinct in the young. This, however, is never seen to form a complete 
crescent on the neck, but is gradually diminishing in width from its origin in 
advance of the fore legs towards the upper part of the body. From Sc. spinosus 
it differs by having proportionally much larger scales on the temporal region, and 
all the scales terminated by a much less developed posterior point. The body is 
uniform yellowish green, excepting the band of black on the sides of the head. 
The male has a bluish abdomen, indistinctly black along the middle region. The 
lower surface of the head is blue, on the middle region surrounded with black. 

Dedicated to John H. Clark, to whose skill as a collector, and untiring zeal for 
science, the world is indebted for the splendid zoological collections sent and 
brought home by Col. Graham from the survey of the Mexican boundary. 

Locality. Province of Sonora. 

ScELOPORus Thayerii, B. and G. This species has the general appearance of 
Se. scalaris and Sc. graciosus. It differs from both by a very readily apprecia- 
ble character, which consists in the possession of much larger scales on the upper 
region of the body. The color is yellowish green above, with two longitudinal 
bands of brown or black, and two yellow ones, on each side. Sometimes, instead 
of bands, a series of small patches of the same color is observed, the black 
patches also form transverse and undulating narrow bands. The belly is uniform 
yellow underneath, the male has on each side an elongated patch of blue, with a 
narrow band of black along the abdominal margin. Under the throat there is a 
medial black patch, limiting on each side another blue spot. 

At the request of Col. Graham likewise, we have dedicated this species to Col. 
Sylvanus Thayer, of the U. S. Engineer corps, and the founder of the present 
system of instruction at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, as a tribute 
to the high scientific attainments and valuable services in his profession as an 

Localities. Indianola, on the Gulf of Mexico, San Antonio, (Texas,) El Paso 
del Norte, and as far westward as the province of Sonora. 

ScELOPORus DisPAR, B. and G. No species of the genus Sceloporus will be 
more easily recognizable than the present one, on account of the great disparity 
which exists between the scales on the upper part of the body and those on the 
tail, the latter being twice as large and more strongly carinate-d. The scales on 
the abdomen are likewise a little larger than those on the back. The color in the 
only specimen which we have hitherto seen of this species is uniform blackish 
green, but as it has been collected for a long time, the color may have changed 
considerably. The head is reddish brown. The abdomen in the male is blue 
from the fore to the hind legs, leaving a medial narrow space of the color of the 
throat and thighs, and along which a narrow black band separates it from the 

Locality. Vera Cruz. Sent by Dr. Burroughs to the Academy of Natural 
Scinces of Philadelphia, where the specimen described is preserved. 

128 [August, 

Genus Cnemidophorus. 

A. With eight rows of abdominal scales. 

Cnemidophorus marmoratus, B. and G. This species is so closely allied to 
Cn. tigris figured in Stansbury's Report on the great Salt Lake, that, at first 
sight, it is difficult to perceive the differences. These consist in the proportional 
size of the scales, which are smaller on the back and larger on the tail and belly, 
in Cn. marmorams than in Cn. tigris. The head is broader on the vertex in Cn, 
marmoratus than in Cn. tigris. Differences in the shape of the cephalic plates 
are likew^ise obvious when the two species are compared. The hind legs are 
more developed in Cn. marmoratus than in Cn. tigris, the scales which cover 
their under surface are larger and extend over a greater area. The ground color 
is yellowish green, marbled with black, except on the head and posterior part of 
the tail. 

Locality. Between San Antonio (Texas) and El Paso del Norte. 

Cnemidophorus Grahamii, B. and G. This is a large and beautiful species, 
strongly suggestive of Cn. tigris, from vihich. it differs by a much smaller and 
narrower head, and by some differences in the proportional size of the cephalic 
plates. The scales on the upper region of the body are still more minute than in 
Cn. marmoratus. Those on the margin of the subgular fold are much larger than 
in either Cn. tigris and Cn. marm,oratiis. The head is olivaceous ; the ground 
color of the body reddish-green, with seven or eight longitudinal series of sub- 
quadrangular black dots, constituting sometimes continuous bands. This species 
is dedicated to the accomplished officer to whom the U. S. and Mexican boundary 
survey was, for a short time, entrusted. His name has long been associated 
with the progress of science in the United States, from the date of the first ex- 
pedition of Major Long, to the present time, and we take great pleasure in ten- 
dering this especial mark of respect. 

Locality. Found with the preceding species. 

CNEMmoPHORUS GULARis, B. and G. Allied to Cn. sexlineatuSf of which it 
has the general appearance. The body, however, is shorter, the fore and hind 
legs are more developed, and the scales on the upper region of the body smaller 
than in the latter species. Another very striking difference is to be found on the 
subgular fold, where the marginal scales are considerably larger than in Cn. 

Localities. From Indianola, (Texas,) and the valley of the Rio San Pedro, a 
tributary of the Rio Grande del Norte. 

Cnemidophorus perplexus, B. and G. This species has the general appear- 
ance of C71. Grahamii, having like the latter a proportionally small and narrow 
head, which distinguishes at once these from both Cn. tigris and Cn. marmoratus. 
From Cn. Grahamii it differs by the absence of large scales on the margin of the 
subgular fold. The scales on the upper part of the body are nearly the same, 
but those on the belly are larger in Cn. 'perplexus than in Cn. Grahaviii. The 
ground color is yellowish green, with seven yellowish stripes extending from the 
occiput to the origin of the tail. 

Localities. Valley of the Rio San Pedro of the Rio Grande del Norte. Speci- 
mens were also collected by Gen. Churchill, on the Rio Grande west of San 
Antonio, (Texas,) and by Dr. William Gambel on his last journey to California. 

Cnemidophorus gracilis, B. and G. This species comes nearer to Cn. per- 
plexus than 10 any other of the same genus, but the head is still narrower, the 
body, tail, and legs slender, and proportionally more elongated. The scales on 
the lower surface of the head and throat are much smaller than in Cn. perplexus. 
The color is bluish black above, with four yellowish white narrow stripes extend- 
ing from the occiput to the origin of the tail. 

Locality. Desert of Colorado; collected by Dr. John L. Le Conte. 

1852.] 129 

B, With ten rows of abdominal scales. 

Cnemidophorus PRAESiGNis, B. and G. Ten longitudinal rows of abdominal 
scales, quadrangular, broader than long. Two subguttural folds, the surface of 
the posterior one covered with scales of medium size. A transverse band of 
similar scales extends from one ear opening to the other. Nostrils between the 
suture of two plates. Scales on the upper part of the body proportionally small; 
on the tail, elongated, narrow and keeled. The middle region of the back is 
greenish brown, exhibiting an indistinct medial streak with irregular quadrangles 
of the same color on each side, separated by a narrow band of deep black. The 
sides are black, provided with two narrow stripes of yellowish white on each and 
extending along the tail. Between these stripes, and specially along the abdomen, 
irregular dots of the color of the stripes are seen scattered. The hind legs and 
tail are variegated with black and bluish spots. 

Locality. From Chagres, collected by Prof. C. B. Adams. Said' to be also 
common at Panama. 

Plestiodon obsoletuMj B.and G. Total length about nine inches. Body and 
limbs rather short and stout ; tail longer than the body, conical, and rapidly 
tapering away. Parieto-occipital and vertical the largest of all the cephalic 
plates; rostral, labials, and temporal ones considerably developed. General color 
greenish white; uniform below ; the scales on the back and sides are thinly mar- 
ginated with black. 

Locality. Valley of the Rio San Pedro of the Rio Grande del Norte. 

Elgaria nobilis, B. and G. This is the most beautiful species of the 
genus. The body and tail are slender and elongated ; the limbs slender and 
rather short. The ventral shields are twelve rowed ; fourteen longitudinal rows 
of scales on the back, obscurely keeled. The ground color is olivaceous ; the 
upper surface of the head, the belly and lower surface of the tail, are dotted with 
black. From the occiput to the origin of the tail, there are nine or ten trans- 
verse blackish brown bands on the back, covering two or three rows of scale?, 
margined posteriorly with white. The intermediate spaces between these brown 
bands are of the same width as the bands themselves. Upwards of twenty brown 
half-rings are observed on the tail, the width of which is a little less than the 
intermediate spaces. 

Locality. Fort Webster, Copper mines of the Gila, (Santa Rita del Cobre,) 
New Mexico. 

The Committee to which was referred Dr. Le Conte's remarks on the 
Coccinellidse of the United States, and also on his description of a new 
species of Trombidium, reported in favor of publication. 

Remarks upon the Coccinellid^ of the United States. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

It is not my intention on this occasion to present a synopsis or catalogue of the 
native species belonging to the present group. The very elaborate and carefully 
written work of Mulsant* renders such a labor entirely superfluous. I propose 
now merely to present some views on the classification of the genera of this 
family, and to add descriptions of the new species which have recently been 

On account of the difficulty of distinguishing the species of Scymnus, I have 
made new descriptions of all the species observed ; the Corylophi, with but a 
single exception, are new, and I have, therefore, by adding a new description of 
that species, completed a monograph of that division of the present family. 

Species des Coleopteres Trimeres Securipalpes. Lyon, 1S50. 



Although the labors of Mulsant have served to establish many natural groups 
among the species of this difficult tribe, I can by no means agree with him re- 
garding the generic value of such groups. However constant may be the char- 
acters used by him, yet they are entirely too unimportant to be used for sepa- 
rating species, otherwise closely allied. A genus to be natural must differ from 
its neighbors by some decided modification of structure, accompanied with a re- 
cojjnizable difference in external form : and although it maybe convenient to give 
names to subordinate groups, yet they canl n no case be admitted as ger>era. 

For this reason, I find it impossible to adopt Mulsant's numerous genera, and 
therefore present the following table as showing the relations between such of 
our native genera, as appear to be really separated by trenchant and recognizable 


Antennae articulo l^o crasso, Qndo brevi rotundato : tarsi semper dilatati, 
articulo 3io minuto recepto : palpi maxillares securiformes ; alarum margo 

A. Mandibulae simplices vel, bifidae. 

1. Antennae longiusculae basi liberce. 

a. Metasterno non diviso, epimeris maiusculis : 

(corpus oblongum.) 

Ungues simplices, tenues 

Uftgues dentati . . . . . . , . 

b. Metasterno diviso, epimeris rainoribus : (cor- 

pus praecipue rotundatum, ungues semper 
Antennae clava lata truncata ..... 
Antennae clava lata apice rotundata .... 
Antennae clava elongata : (corpus rotundatum glabrum) 
Antennae clava elongata, apice emarginata : (corpus 
oblongum pubescens) 

2. Antennae breves, basi obtectae. 

Labrum occultum . , 

Labrum conspicuum 

3. Antennae brevissimae, basi liberae. ' 

a. Prosternum antice non lobatum. 
Corpus glabrum, pedes antici dentati . . . 
Corpus glabrum, pedes mutici, ungues dentati . . 
Corpus glabrum, pedes mutici, ungues simplices 
Corpus pubescens, ungues dentati .... 

b. Prosternum antice lobatum, os obtegens 

B. Mandibulae multidentalas ..... 

Anisosticta Chevr- 
HippoDAMiA Chevr. 


Myzia Muls. 


Chilocokus Leach. 
ExocHOMus Redt. 

Brachiacantha Chev. 
Hyperaspis Chevr. 
OxYNYCHus Lee. 

ffiNEIS Muls. 

Epijlachna Chevr, 

Anisosticta Chevr. 

1, A. seriata Lee. Cocc. seriata Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 177. 

NcBmia liiigiosa Muls. 31. 

The genus Nacmia does not seem sufficiently distinct. 

HippoDAMiA Chevr. 

This genus may be divided into two groups : 

at. Ungues omnes acute dentati. {Ilippodamia and Adonia Muls.) 

/8. Ungues omnes obtuse dentati. (Meg-ilia Muls.) 

The following species, except (5), belong to division (.) 

1. H. convergens Guurin : Muls. Cocc. modesta Mels. Proc. Ac. Nat, 
Sc. 3, 178. 

1852.] 131 

2. H. Mulsanti, nigra, thorace subconvexo, antrorsum angnstato, subtilis- 
sime punctulato, margine lateral! et apicali albo, elytris rufo-flavis, fascia sub 
basali, macula magna obliqua pone mediam, alteraque versus apicem nigris. 
Long. -22. 

One specimen, Pic River, Lake Superior. Very similar to H. 5-signata 
(Muls.) but differs by its convex and less punctured thorax being narrowed in 
I'ront, and margined with white on the sides and apex. The large posterior spot 
of the elytra is more oblique, and is a little narrower at its external part : the 
epimera are white. 

In the only specimen of H. 5-signata in my collection, the thorax, besides the 
large white blotches at the anterior angles, has two small white dorsal spots, and 
one at the middle of the apex. 

3. H. a m b i g u a , nigra, thorace punctulato, margine laterali et antico, macu- 
lisque dorsalibus duabus plus minusve albis, elytris valde punctulatis rufis, ad 
baain albidis, sutura basi nigra. Lorij. '2 27. 

California and Oregon. Very similar to H. convergens, but easily distinguished 
by the stronirly punctulate elytra : the elytra are usually without spots, sometimes 
there is a single black dot on each at the anterior fifth near the sutnre. The 
thorax varies as follows : 

at. Lateral and apical margin narrow, white ; dorsal spots small, distinct. 

^. Lateral margin white, dilated at the anterior angles ; dorsal spots none. 

4. H. p u n c t u 1 a t a, nigra, thorace valde punctulato, maculis duabus dorsa- 
libus, alteris ad angulos anticos, margineque apicali medio prolongato albis, 
elytris punctulatis, rufis basi pallidis, sutura antice nigra. Long '27. 

Several specimens, San Francisco, California. Very similai^ to the preceding, 
but the thorax is more strongly punctured and more convex ; the white of the 
sides extends only half way to the base, and the apical white margin, even 
W'hen not entire, is prolonged a little in the middle ; the dorsal spots are some- 
times wanting ; the posterior angles are sometimes marked with a small white 

This species and the preceding have been confounded w^ith unspotted varieties 
of H. convergens, from which their strongly punctulate elytra at once distin- 
guish them. 

5i H. maculata Lee; Cocc mamlata De Geer; C. \Q-mac2data'F^hr.\ 
C. oblonga Oliv. ; Megilla maculata Muls. 28. This species is common in the 
southern part of California. One specimen from New York is more strongly- 
punctured on the elytra than any other I have seen, but I can find no other 

CocciNELLA Linne. 

Our species fall into three natural divisions according to the form of the en- 
closed spaces of the first abdominal segment, behind the coxae. I have latinised 
Mulsant's "plaques abdominales " into " scuta abdominis;" Redtenbacher's 
" Schenkellinie " is more appropriate, but is not so easily translated, 
a. Scuta abdominis margine arcuato, {Adalia Mnls.) 
/. Scuta abdominis margine angulato, {Harvionia and Coccinella Muls.) 
y. Scuta abdominis margine externo obliterato, {Daidis Muls.) 

1. C. venusta Mels.Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3,178 (1S47.) 
Harmonia notulata Muls. 83 (1850.) 

2. C. pi c ta Randall, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 2, 51. 
C. concinnata Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 178. 
Harmonia contexta Muls. 87. 

HarTno7iia picta Muls. 1017. 

3. C. lacustris, hemispherica, nigra, dense punctulata, thorace macula 
alba utrinque ad angulos anticos, elytris rufo-flavis, macula scutellari obcordata, 
duabusque utrinque transversis nigris, lateribus pone humeros late sulcatis, 
epimeris mesothoracis albis. Long '27. ^ 

Lake Superior, several specimens. This species very closely resembles C. 

132 [August, 

montlcola (Muls. 115), but the elytra have the lateral margin from the humeri 
to the middle broadly sulcate, while in C. monticola the same part is scarcely 
perceptibly copcave ; the black transverse spois of the elytra are also larger. 
Otherwise there is no special difference. 

Myzia Muls. 

This genus differs from Coccinella by its long and slender antennae ; I have 
included in it also Mulsant's genus Anatis, as I can find no difference worthy 
of note. The following is new : 

1. M. Rathvoni, late ovata, ntrinque fortius angustata, thorace lateribus 
rectis, maculis duabus baseos lateribusque late albis, his puncto nigro notatis, 
elytris piceo-rufis, lateribus usque ad medium explanatis. Long. -4. 

I take great pleasure in dedicating 'this fine species to Mr. S. S. Rathvon, of 
Lancaster, Pa., to whom science is indebted for many valuable additions to our 
entomological fauna. It was found at Sacramento, California, by Mr. Childs. 
Broadly oval, very convex, strongly narrowed before and behind, so as to be al- 
most angulated at the middle, on the sides. Head black, with an obscure rufous 
spot each side. Thorax twice as wide as long, strongly narrowed in front, 
sides nearly straight, broadly margined ; black, with two basal spots and a very 
broad lateral margin white ; the sides have a marginal black spot near the pos- 
terior angles. Elytra piceo-rufous, with some very indistinct black dots, of 
which the posterior series consisting as in M. 15-punctata of 6 spots is most 
distinct ; the lateral margin from the base to the point of greatest breadth is 
strongly flattened and concave, and is blackish towards the middle. Beneath 

This is evidently a very dark colored specimen, and it is probable that on 
further exploration varieties will be found similar to the light colored and ocel- 
late specimens of M. 15-punctata. 


1. C. lepida, elongato-oblonga, flava, subtiliter albo-pubescente, capita 
pectoreque nigris, elytris disperse punctatis, basi, lateribus ad medium, macula- 
que communi pone medium nigerrimis. Long. 'll. 

One specimen, Vermont. Prof. C. B. Adams. Oblong elongate, convex, 
bright yellow, covered with fine short white hair. Head black, finely and not 
densely punctured, clypeus, mouth and antennae yellow. Thorax finely punc- 
tured, rounded on the sides, base rounded, posterior angles subobtuse, not 
rounded. Elytra tolerably coarsely punctured, base and sides as far as the 
middle black ; black portion broader at the scutellum and at the middle of the side ; 
disc with a common rounded black spot at the second third ; beneath yellow ; 
breast entirely black ; prosternum black posteriorly. 

The anterior coxae in this genus are much smaller than in any other of the 
present tribe, and are almost round. 

ExocHOMus Redt. 

1. E. G u e xi, hemisphericus, thorace nigro lateribus antice rufis, basi sub- 
angulato immarginato, elytris obsolete punctulatis, rufis macula magna sub- 
apicali nigra. Long. '12. 

Louisiana. 1 have dedicated this species to my estimable friend Mr. J. A. 
Guex, to whom I owe my specimens of this and many other interesting species. 
Size and form of E. marginipennis (Muls.) (E. prcetextatus Mels. Pr. Ac. 3, 178 ; 
Cocc. marginipenyiis Lee. An. Lye. 1, 173.) Head black in the female, yellow 
in the male. Thorax very obsoletely punctulate, black; sides broadly rufous 
in the male, rufous only at the anterior angles in the female ; base very much 
rounded, somewhat angulated, not margined. Elytra very finely and obsoletely 
punctulate, rufous with a large black spot near the apex and a little nearer to 
the suture than the side. Beneath piceous j sides and feet yellow. 

BiiAciiiACANTHA Chevr. 
1. B. albifrons. Coccinella alhifrons Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc 4, 94; 
Muls. 1019. 

1852.] 133 

Missouri Territory and Louisiana. In the male the anterior part of the tho- 
rax is white, a little prolonged in three places, so that the outline of the black 
part is four-lobed. 

2. B. 10-pu st ulat a. Hyperaspis \Q-pnstnlaia Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 
179. This is commonly considered as the small variety of B. ursina, but it 
differs essentially in having the elytra much more strongly punctured. 

3. B. b a s a 1 i s Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 179 ; B. covfnsa Muls. 537. 

4. B. quadripunctata Mels. ibid. 3, 178 ; B. diversa Muls. 538. 

Hyperaspis Chevr. 

1. H. militaris, ovalis, convexa, subtiliter punctulata, capite thoraceque 
nigris, hoc lateribus albis, elytris flavis, sutura maculaque humerali nigris ; pe- 
dibus abdominisque lateribus testaceis. Long. -1. 

One specimen, Columbia, S. Carolina. Rounded, slightly oval, very convex 
and very finely punctulate. Head black, mouth and organs testaceous. Thorax 
with the base much rounded, and very finely margined; black, sides vi^hitish 
yellow. Elytra pale yellow with abroad sutural vitta and an oblong spot on the 
humeral callus black. Beneath piceous black ; feet, sides and apex of the 
abdomen testaceous. 

2. H. V i 1 1 i g e r a, ovalis, modice convexa, thorace nigro lateribus flavis, ely- 
tris rugose punctulatis, albicantibus sutura vittaque lata postice adnexa nigris, 
pedibus testaceis. Long. '08. 

Missouri Territory. Oval, somewhat oblong, moderately convex. Head 
sparsely and obsoletely punctulate, testaceous in the male, black with yellow 
mouth in the female. Thorax obsoletely punctulate, rounded and finely mar- 
gined at the base ; in the male yellow with a large basal black spot, anteriorly 
lobed and extending beyond the middle ; in the female black with narrow yel- 
low sides. Elytra finely punctulate and wrinkled; whitish, with a broad black 
vitta commencing near the base, and extending nearly to the apex, where it 
curves inwards and joins the suture, which is also black ; margin behind the 
middle and at the apex black. Beneath piceous, margin of the abdomen and 
feet obscure testaceous. 

3. H. ar c u a t a, ovalis, modice convexa, nigra, capite thoraceque lateribus 
maculaque apicali 3-dentata albis, elytris subtiliter punctatis, basi marginenue 
usque ad medium tenuiter albis, pedibus testaceis. Long. .07. 

One male found at the mouth of the Gila, California. Oval, slightly oblong, 
moderately convex. Head obsoletely punctured, base rounded, scarcely mar- 
gined, black ; sides yellowish white ; apex with a transverse yellow spot, pos- 
teriorly 3-dentate, at the sides almost reaching the yellow margin. Elytra dis- 
tinctly punctured, black, with a narrow arcuated white line extending from 
near the scutellum, along the base of the outer margin as far as the middle. 
Beneath piceous, feet dark testaceous. 

4. H. a n n e X a, rotundato-ovalis, convexa, nigra, thorace lateribus albis, 
elytris obsolete punctulatis, vitta suturali lata, alteraque postice abbreviata, ad 
basin extensa, margineque tenui nigris. Long. '10. 

One pair. San Francisco. Rounded oval, less convex than H. militaris. 
Head scarcely punctulate, in the male yellow, in the female black. Thorax 
scarcely punctulate, black, lateral margin yellow. Elytra very indistinctly 
punctulate, yellow, M'ith a sutural vitta broader in front, and another very broad 
vitta commencing at the base and extending to within one-seventh of the apex 
deep black ; outer margin and apex with a very narrow black line. Beneath 
blackish piceous, tarsi paler; anterior legs, tibiae and tarsi of the male tes- 

In the female the black vittae are much broader, so that the elytra appear 
black, with a narrow marginal vitta and another suboblique discoidal one united 
osteriorl^; to the marginal vitta. 

5. H. quadrivittata, rotundato-ovalis, modice convexa, nigra, valde 


134 [August, 

punctulata, thorace lateribus flavis, elytris margine externo et apicali, vittaque 
obliqua utrinque abbreviata flavis. Long. -lO. 

One specimen found near Long's Peak. Similar to the female of the preced- 
ing, but is strongly punctulate, and the discoidal yellow vitta does not unite 
with the marginal one. The organs of the mouth and the feet are piceous. 

6. H. consimilis, hemispherica, punctulata, nigra, thorace margin^ 
laterali pallido, elytris gutta subbasali, vitta abbreviata postica, margineque 
externo subundulato flavis, tibiis anticis testaceis. Long. -10. 

One specimen (female,) Lake Superior. Very similar to H. disconotata 
(Muls.) but the anterior spot does not reach the base, the posterior spot is vitti- 
form, extending from the middle to within one seventh of the apex ; the outer 
margin is much narrower and but slightly undulated, posteriorly it separates 
from the margin, leaving the apex black. The feet are black, the anterior tibise 
and extremity of the middle tibiae yellow. 

7. H. el eg an s Muls. 658; Cocc. tindnlata\\ Say Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. 4, 92. 
Coccinella lugubris (Randall Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 2, 52), is probably a 

variety of this species ; the types of Randall's species are, however, long ago 

8. H. fimbriolata Mels. Proc. Ac, Nat. Sc. 3, 180 ; II, rufomarginata 
Muls. 661. 

9. H. iu c u n d a, hemispherica, obsolete punctulata, capite thoraceque rufis, 
hoc basi medio nigro, lateribus flavis, elytris nigris maculis utrinque duabus 
margineque externo postice abbreviato flavis, corpore pedibusque rufis. 
Long. '12. 

One specimen, Illinois, Mr. Willcox. Almost hemispherical, finely and 
almost obsoletely punctulate. Head yellowish rufous, thorax rufous, sides 
broadly yellow, base rounded very finely margined, black as far as the yellow 
of the sides. Elytra black, with a large round yellow spot before the middle 
and another slightly reniform one towards the apex ; lateral margin yellow, 
from the base for two-thirds the length, a little expanded behind. Pygidium 
rufous. Body beneath and feet rufous. 

10. H. t ae n i a t a, nigra, hemispherica,nitidissima, subtiliter punctulata,elytris 
margine laterali antice, maculaque magna triangulari ad marginem extensa ru- 
bris. Long. '10. 

One specimen, San Diego, California. Almost hemispherical, black, finely 
but not densely punctulate, very shining. Head and thorax entirely black, punc- 
tures of the latter very distinct. Elytra with a large triangular blotch at the 
middle, extending two-thirds the breadth of the elytra, to the margin, where it 
is expanded so as to reach the base ; the posterior outline is a little emarginate 
towards its inner part, which is near about the centre of the elytron. Body be- 
neath entirely black. 

11. H. pratensis, subhemispherica, nigra, valde punctulata, thorace 
lateribus late albis, elytris utrinque trimaculatis, maculis duabus anticis trans- 
versim positis, tertia subapicali rufo-flavis, pedibus flavis. Long '15. 

One specimen, Missouri Territory. The maculation of this species is very 
similar to that of some varieties of Brachiacantha dentipes. Almost hemisphe- 
rical black, very distinctly punctulate; mouth yellow; thorax with a large 
yellowish white spot occupying the whole of the side; base less rounded than 
usual, subtruncate at the middle. Elytra with a large orange colored spot be- 
fore the middle, closer to the suture than to the side ; another smaller marginal 
one opposite the posterior part of the discoidal spot, and a third towards the 
apex, equidistant between the sides and suture. Beneath shining black, legs 

12. H. s ig n ata Muls. 683 ; Core, signnta Oliv. Ent. 92, 7, 107. 
H. hucopsis Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 179 (specimen masculinum.) 

1852.] 135 

13. H. bigeminata Lee. ; Cocc, ligeminata Rand. Bost. Journ. 2, 32. 

H. Guexl Muls. 687. 

I have compared my specimens with Randall's type, the only one remaining 
in his collection at the time I examined it. My specimens agree perfectly with 
JVulsant's description of H. Guexi. 

(Eneis Muls. 

1. (E. puncticollis, breviter, ovata, glabra, nigra nitida, thorace parce 
punctato, lateribus subrotundatis, elytris impunctatis. Long. -07. 

Southern States. Broadly oval, convex, shining black. Head sparsely punc- 
tured black, with yellow palpi. Thorax very short, marked with a few distinct 
punctures, base rounded, finely margined, sides rounded, posterior angles 
slightly rounded. Feet black. 

2. CE. pu s il 1 a, breviter ovata, glabra, nigra, nitida, capite thoraceque la- 
teribus flavis, hoc parce punctulato, elytris impunctatis, pedibus flavis. 
Long. '06. 

Georgia, and Missouri Territory. Very similar to the preceding, but besides 
the differences in color the thorax is less distinctly punctured, and the posterior 
angles are more rounded. A specimen from New York has the head and tho- 
rax entirely black, but the feet are yellow. It is probably the female of this 


The species found in the United States may be arranged in groups, as follows. 

A. Abdominis laminae extus omnino obliteratse. 

a. Elytra maculis discoidalibus notata .... Sp. 1 5. 

b. Elytra macula apicali notata Sp. 6 7. 

B. Abdominis laminae integrae vel vix imperfectae 

1. Abdominis laminae extus interruptae . Sp. 8 9. 

2. Abd. lam. integrae. 

c. Elytra testacea ....... Sp. 10 13. 

d. Elytra nigra, apice testacea Sp. 14 21. 

e. Elytra nigra immaculata Sp. 22 27. 

A. a. 

1. S. am ab i 1 is , ovalis, minus convexus, ater nitidus, punctatus, subtiliter 
pubescens, capite, thoracis lateribus, elytrorum macula obliqua, fascia postica, 
apice, pedibusque laete flavis. Long. '07. 

New Orleans, one specimen, Mr. Guex. Oval, less convex than usual, shining, 
finely and densely punctured, and very finely pubescent. Head and organs of the 
mouth yellow. Thorax narrowed in front, base slightly sinuous, finely margined, 
black, sides with a yellow margin, which is wider in front. Elytra forming a 
very distinct angle with the sides of the thorax, black, with a large transverse 
spot, a posterior band and the apex yellow ; the spot is oblique and extends from 
just below the humerus to the middle of the elytra, ending near the suture ; the 
band is placed at the second third of the elytra, is sinuate on each side, and at the 
sides and suture is confluent with the yellow apical margin, so that on each side 
a transverse black spot is included. Under surface black, venter testaceous at 
the sides and apex ; feet yellow. 

2. S. ornatus, ellipticus, convexus, ater, opacus, breviter pubescens, sub- 
tiliter punctulatns, elytris maculis magnis utrinqueduabusauruntiacis. Long. "09. 

Lee. Agassiz' Lake Superior, 239. 

One specimen, found on the North shore of Lake Superior. Elliptical, mode- 
rately convex, black without lustre, finely punctulate, and covered with short 
gray hair. Thorax narrowed in front, slightly rounded on the sides, base not 
sinuate, distinctly margined in the middle. Elytra with a large oblique orange 
colored spot before the middle, and another rounded, somewhat transverse one 
behind the middle extending nearly to the sides and to the suture. Under sur- 

136 [August, 

face black, tibiae and tarsi very obscurely rufo-piceous. Abdominal plates shorter 
than the first segment of the abdomen. 

S. (D io m u s) m yr m id o n Muls. 954, seems to be allied to this species, 
but the yellow feet, testaceous apex of the elytra, and shorter abdominal plates, 
at once distinguish it. 

3. S. guttulatus, rotundatus, convexus, niger nitidus, punctulatus, pubes- 
cens, elytris gutta parva utrinque ad medium, alterisque duabus pone medium 
rufis. Long. '08. 

Two specimen?, San Francisco, California. Slightly oval rounded, and 'con- 
vex, black, finely punctulate, tolerably densely pubescent. Thorax som what 
narrowed in front, very slightly rounded on the sides, not margined at the base, 
which is scarcely sinuate. Elytra more distinctly punctured than the thorax, 
marked with a small round red spot at the middle about the internal third of the 
breadth, and two others placed transversely about two sevenths from the apex, 
of which the exterior is the larger and slightly oblique. Under surface entirely 
black. Abdominal plates a little shorter than the first joint of the abdomen. 

4. S. f la V if TO n s. rotundatus, convexus, niger, punctatus, breviter pubes- 
cens, elytris macula utrinque pone medium, ore tibiis tarsisque flavis. Long. '08. 

Melsheimer, Pr. Acad. Nat. Sc. 3, 181. 

New York and Pennsylvania, rare. Rounded, convex, black shining, distinctly 
punctured, covered with fine gray hair; mouth and its organs yellow. Thorax 
narrowed in front, scarcely rounded on the sides, finely margined at the base, 
which is truncate in front of the scutellum, and obliquely sinuous each side. 
Elytra with a large round yellow spot at the posterior third, and equidistant from 
the side and suture. Body beneath entirely black, tibiae and tarsi yellow. Ab- 
dominal plates shorter than the first segment; their posterior margin is parallel 
with the margin of the segment, and reaches the side as in the preceding 

5. S. bioculatus, rotundato-ovalis convexus, niger punctatus, cinereo- 
pubescens, elytrorum gutta pone medium, tibiis tarsisque flavis. Long. '07. 

Muls. 960. 

Georgia, rare. This species exactly resembles the last, but it is smaller and 
more oval, the elytra being a little narrowed behind, and not so regularly rounded 
on the sides, as in S. flavifrons. The punctures of the elytra are somewhat 
larger. In one specimen the head is testaceous, in the other it is black, but both 
are females. 

A. b. 

6. S. term ina tu s , subrotundatus, convexus, niger nitidus, punctatus, sub- 
tiliter pubescens, capite, thoracis abdominisque lateribus pedibusque testaceis, 
elytris apice late flavis. Long. "075. 

Say, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 1, 203: Muls. 952. 

Pennsylvania, Georgia. Rounded, slightly oval, convex, black and shining, 
covered with very fine gray hair. Head testaceous; thorax finely and closely 
punctured, narrowed in front, but litte rounded on the sides, base rounded, finely 
margined, scarcely at all sinuous, sides narrowly margined with testaceous. 
Elytra more coarsely punctured, apex with a large yellow spot occupying about 
one-fifth of the length, and having its anterior boundary slightly convex. Beneath 
black, abdomen testaceous, black at base ; feet yellowish; the abdominal plates 
extend to the posterior margin of the segment. 

Varies with the sides of the thorax widely testaceous, and the apex narrowly 
margined with the same color. 

Allied to this species is S. x a n t h a s p i s Muls. 952, from Florida, which is 
afterwards (p. 1101) coHsidered as a variety of S. oc hroderu s; its yellow 
thorax will at once distinguish it. 

7. S. f em o r a I i s , subrotundatus, convexus, niger nitidus, punctatus subtiliter 
pubescpns, capite thoracis lateribus, elytrorum apice lata testaceis, tibiis tarsis- 
que piceis. Long. '075. 

One specimen, New York. Very similar to the last. The thorax is a little 

1852.] 137 

narrower, the kteral testaceous margin is very narrow ; the body beneath and 
the thighs are entirely black, the tibiae and tarsi piceous. The abdominal plates 
are as in the last, but seem to reach the posterior margin of the segment near the 

B. 1. 

8. S. americanus, breviter ovatus, ater, minus dense punctatus, pubescens, 
capite, thoracis lateribus, abdomine, pedibus, elytrorura apice brevi testaceis. 
LonS' '12. 

Muls. ge-"). 

New York and Pennsylvania. A large species with short ovate black body. 
Above distinctly, not densely punctured, covered with coarse gray hair. Head 
testaceous. Thorax usually black, with testaceous sides, sometimes entirely 
testaceous, narrowed in front, and rounded on the sides; base margined, slightly 
truncate at the scutellum, scarcely sinuous each side. Elytra with a distinct 
testaceous apical margin. Beneath black, coarsely punctured, apex and sides of 
the abdomen testaceous, feet yellow. The abdominal plates reach nearly to the 
extremity; their margin then suddenly turns upwards and becomes obsolete. 

9. S. nebulosus, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, confertim punctatus, subtus 
niger, supra testaceus, griseo-pubescens, thorace medio obscuro, elytris irregu- 
lariter parce piceo-notatisj pedibus flavo-testaceis. Long. '09. 

One specimen, found at the Colorado River, California. Body rounded oval, 
convex, coarsely and somewhat densely punctured, above testaceous, densely 
pubescent. Thorax but little narrowed in front, base truncate at the scutellum, 
and finely margined, oblique, but not sinuous on each side ; the disc is darker each 
side of the medial line. Elytra forming a distinct angle with the sides of the 
thorax, irregularly mottled with small piceous dots. Body beneath black, 
coarsely punctured, anus testaceous. Abdominal plates reach nearly to the apex 
of the segment, their margin then turns upwards, but does not reach the base. 
Feet yellowish testaceous. 

B. 2 c. 

10. S. p a 1 1 e n s, rotundato-ovalis convexus, subtus niger supra testaceus, 
pubescens, elytris subtilissime punctulatis, pedibus flavo-testaceis. Long. -OS. 

San Francisco, on Spiraea. Rounded, slightly oval, convex, above yellow tes- 
taceous, finely densely pubescent, thorax not visibly punctured, rounded on the 
sides, base very finely margined, slightly rounded. Elytra very finely punctu- 
late, and very slightly rugous. Body beneath black, finely densely punctulate, 
abdomen posteriorly margined with testaceous ; abdominal plates entire, shorter 
than the first segment, laterally not extending to the parapleurae : their margin 
is smooth and shining. Feet yellow. 

11. S. d eb ills, rotundato-ovalis, testaceus, pubescens, elytris minus dense 
punctulatis, pedibus flavo-testa,ceis. Long. '05. 

One specimen, San Jose, California. Rounded, slightly oval, convex, above 
yellow testaceous, finely densely pubescent. Thorax very finely punctulate, 
rounded on the sides, margined at the base, which is slightly rounded. Elytra 
finely and distinctly punctured. Body beneath darker, finely punctulate, tip of 
the abdomen and feet pale yellow testaceous. (Abdominal plates not examined.) 

12. S. c i n c t u s, rotundato-ovalis, modice convexus, punctatus, longius pubes- 
cens, niger, capite, pedibus, thorace elytrisque testaceis, illo macula basali, his 
vitta suturali postice angustata nigra. Long. -09. 

One specimen, New Orleans, Mr. Guex. Seems to resemble S. Loewii and 
floralis Muls., but differs from the first by its entirely yellow feet, and from the 
second by its black abdomen. Rounded, slightly oval, moderately convex, 
finely pubescent. Head yellow, densely punctured. Thorax narrowed in front, 
rounded on the sides, base margined, truncate at the scutellum, obliquely 
sinuous each side ; punctured, more densely at the sides, yellow, with a large 
black spot, occupying two-thirds of the base and extending nearly to the ante- 

1 38 [August, 

rior margin. Elytra tolerably densely, and more coarsely punctured than the 
thorax, yellow, with a large common sutural black vitta, which fits to the spot 
on the thorax, and is gradually narrowed behind, reaching nearly to the tip. 
Body beneath black, densely and not finely punctured : abdominal plates scarcely 
shorter tLan the first segment, reaching laterally to the parapleurae. Feet yel- 
low, thighs a little obscure. 

13. S. s u t u r a 1 i s, rotundato-ovalis, modice convexus, subtilius punctatus, 
pubescens, niger, capite thorace elytrisque obscure testaceis, illo macula 
maxima basali, his vitta suturali lateribusque infuscatis, tibiis tarsisque tes- 
taceis. Long. '08. 

One specimen, Colorado River, California. Closely allied to the last, but is 
less coarsely punctured. Head testaceous, very finely punctured. Thorax nar- 
rowed in front, but little rounded on the sides, margined at the base, which is 
truncate at the scutellum, and very slightly sinuate each side : finely not densely 
punctured, testaceous, with a very large black spot occupying nearly all the 
base, and extending almost to the apex. Elytra a little more coarsely punctured 
than the ,thorax, testaceous, with a common black sutural vitta broad at the 
base, and gradually narrowed behind, reaching nearly to the apex, sides from 
the middle to near the apex blackish : epipleurae testaceous. Body beneath 
black, densely punctured ; abdominal plates shorter than the first segment, 
hardly extending as far as the parapleurae. Feet piceous, tibiae and tarsi 

B. 2 d. 

14. S. fraternus, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, niger, pubescens, capite, 
thoracis lateribus, pedibusque testaceis, elytris valde punctatis, apice late rufis. 
Long. '09. 

Middle States. Rounded, a little oval, convex, black shining, covered with 
fine gray hair. Head and thorax finely punctulate, yellow, the latter with a 
large basal black spot ; sides rounded, base margined, truncate at the scutellum, 
and oblique each side. Elytra densely punctured, with a transverse testaceous 
margin at the apex, which covers about one-fifth of the surface. Body beneath 
black, densely punctured, abdominal plates shorter than the segment, smooth at 
the margin, extending as far as the parapleurae. Feet testaceous, margin of the 
abdomen rufous. 

15. S. h ae m or rh o us, rotundato-ovalis, convexus niger, pubescens, capite 
thoracis macula laterali, pedibusque testaceis, elytris grosse punctatis, apice 
late rufis. Long. '09. 

This species is very similar to the last, but the punctures of the elytra are 
larger and less dense. I have only a single specimen from New York. 

Rounded, slightly oval, convex, black shining, finely pubescent. Head testa- 
ceous, finely punctulate. Thorax black, with a yellow lateral spot reaching 
from the anterior margin nearly to the base, which is truncate at the scutellum, 
and oblique each side, marginal line distinct, sides rounded. Elytra forming a 
distinct angle with the sides of the thorax, coarsely and not densely punctured, 
with a broad testaceous apical margin covering about one-fifth of the surface. 
Body beneath as in the last, but the sides of the venter are scarcely testaceous. 
Feet testaceous. 

The apical spot is not sufficiently large to permit this species to be referred 
to S. BrulleiMuls. 934. 

16. S. c hat c has, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, niger punctatus, pubescens, 
capite thoraceque testaceis, hoc macula basali nigra, elytris margine apicali, 
ano pedibusque rufo-testaceis. Long. '09. 

Muls. 986. 

Atlantic States and Missouri Territory. Broad oval, convex, black, shining 
and moderately pubescent. Head and thorax finely punctulate, yellow, the 
latter with a small basal black spot reaching nearly to the middle ; very much 
narrowed in front on the sides, base obtuse at the scutellum, oblique each side, 
marginal line distinct. Elytra somewhat plumbeous, densely but not deeply 

1852.J 139 

fmnctured, apical margin testaceous. Beneath black, densely punctured, two 
ast segments of the abdomen and feet yellow : the abdominal plates are nearly 
as long as the segment, smooth, except at base, and extend to the parapleurse. 

17. S. c a u d a 1 i s, breviter ovalis, convexus, niger, pubescens, capite thorace- 
que punctulatis, rufis, hoc medio nfgro, elytris grossius punctatis, margine api- 
cali, ano, pedibusque rufo-testaceis. Long. -08 09. 

Lee. Agassiz' Lake Superior, 238. 

IScymnus {Pullus) creperus Muls. Coce. 985. 

Georgia and Rocky Mountains. Very similar to the last species, differs only 
in the punctures of the elytra being larger and less dense, and the spot on the 
thorax less defined, reaching nearly to the apex. The abdominal plates are as 
in the last, smooth, except at base. I do not feel certain that this is really 
Mulsant's species; it agrees better with his S. fa s t i g i a tu s, (936) but the 
abdominal plates are distinctly shorter than the segment. 

18. S. c o n sobri n us, breviter ovalis, convexus, niger densius pubescens, 
capite thoraceque subtilius parce punctulatis flavis, hoc medio nigro, elytris sat 
dense punctatis, margine apicali, ano, pedibusque rufo-testaceis. Long. 'OS. 

Scym7i7ts ca?cdalisll^ec. 1. c. 238. 

One naale specimen, Lake Superior. Broadly oval, convex, black, covered 
with dense gray hair; head and thorax finely and sparsely punctulate, yellow, 
the latter with a large ill-defined black spot, occupying half the base, and ex- 
tending nearly to the apex, sides rounded, base margined, obtuse in the middle, 
oblique each side. Elytra tolerably densely, not deeply punctured, apical mar- 
gin testaceous. Beneath black, densely punctured, abdominal plates almost 
reaching the posterior margin of the segment, densely punctured, smooth only at 
the inner margin, tip of the abdomen testaceous. Feet yellow. 

This may be S. fastigiatus, Muls., but as he does not mention the sculp- 
ture of the thorax, or abdominal plates, I cannot be certain of its identity. I 
erroneously considered this as the male of the preceding species. 

19. S. pun ct ic o 1 1 is, breviter ovalis, conVexus, niger, pubesCens, capite 
thoraceque dense subtiliter punctatis, hoc macula laterali testacea, elytris dense 
punctatis, margine apicali, ano, tibiis tarsisque testaceis. Long. '09. 

One female, Upper Mississippi. Broadly oVal, convex, black, covered with 
gray hair. Head finely punctured, mouth testaceous. Thorax black, with a 
small yellow spot at the anterior angles, finely and densely punctured, margined 
at the base, which is obtuse in the middle and obliquely sinuate each side. 
Elytra densely punctured, with a narrow testaceous apical margin. Beneath 
black, densely punctured, abdominal plates extending almost to the posterior 
margin of the segment, punctured, smooth towards the inner margin. Sides and 
tip of the abdomen, tibis and tarsi ferruginous ; femora piceous. 

20. S, c e r vi c alis, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, breviter dense pubescens, 
niger, capite thoraceque rufis vix subtiliter punctulatis, elytris confertim punc- 
tatis, apice angustissima, ano, pedibusque rufis. Long. '085. 

Muls. Cocc. 984. 

Common in the Southern States. Rounded, oval, convex, covered with short 
gray hair. Head very sparsely and finely punctulate, rufous. Thorax rufous, 
scarcely punctulate, base margined, obliquely subsinuate each side, obtuse in 
the middle. Elytra shining black, tolerably densely punctured, extreme apical 
margin testaceous. Beneath black, coarsely punctured, last joint of the abdo- 
men rufo-piceous : abdominal plates a little shorter than the segment, smooth, 
punctured at base. Feet rufous. 

21. S. s c er, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, breviter pubescens, niger, capite 
thoraceque parce punctulatis, rufis, hoc macula basali nigra, elytris minus dense 
punctatis, apice angustissima, abdominis apice, pedibusque flavis. Long. '07. 

Georgia, one specimen. Very similar to S. cervicalis, but smaller, and less 
densely punctured on the elytra. Rounded oval, convex, covered A\ith short 
gray hair. Head and thorax very sparsely and finely punctured, rufous, the lat- 
ter with a large black spot occupying more than half the base and reaching 
nearly to the apex; base margined, obtuse in the middle, oblique and scarcely 
sinuated each side. Elytra distinctly punctured, black, shining, with the ex- 

140 [August, 

treme apical margin testaceous. Beneath black, coarsely punctured, last three 
joints of the abdomen yellow ; abdominal plates shorter than the segment, 
smooth, punctured only at their base. Feet yellow. 

B 2 e. 

22. S. marginicollis, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, longius pubescens, 
niger, capite thoraceque subtilius punctulatis rufis, hoc macula basali nigra, 
elytris sat dense punctatis, femoribus anticis rufis. Long '095. 

Mannerheim, Bull. Mosc. 1843, 313. Muls. Cocc. 1053. 

San Francisco and San Diego, California. Rounded oval, convex, covered 
with longer gray hair than usual. Head and thorax finely and sparsely punctu- 
late, rufous ; the latter with a basal black spot, small in the male, large in the 
female, base very finely margined, scarcely sinuate. Elytra not deeply but 
tolerably densely punctured, entirely black. Body beneath black, densely 
punctured, abdominal plates a little shorter than the segment, smooth at their 
margin. Feet black, anterior thighs rufous. 

23. S. tenebrosus, subhemisphericus, niger, pubescens, thorace sub- 
tilius punctulato, elytris minus dense punctulatis, pedibus testaceis. Long. 

Muls. Cocc. 989. 

Southern States, not common. Almost hemispherical, black shining, covered 
with fine pubescence. Head finely punctured, testaceous in the male, black in 
the female ; mouth testaceous. Thorax sparsely and finely punctulate, base 
margined, obtusely truncate at the middle, obliquely subsinuate each side. 
Elytra distinctly, but not densely punctured. Beneath black, coarsely punc- 
tured ; abdominal plates a little shorter than the segment, posteriorly smooth. 
Feet testaceous. 

24. S. lacustris, breviter ovalis, convexus, niger, pubescens, elytris sat 
dense punctatis, pedibus testaceis basi nigris. Long. '09. 

Le Conte, Agassiz' Lake Superior, 239 ; Muls. Cocc. 989, 

Var. <S. nigrivestis Muls. Cocc. 990. 

North shore of Lake Superior. Very similar to the preceding, but easily dis- 
tinguished by the color of the feet. Oval, almost hemispherical, shining black, 
fiinely pubescent. Head finely punctured, mouth testaceous. Thorax sparsely 
and finely punctured, base margined, truncate in the middle, oblique each side. 
Elytra moderately densely punctured. Body beneath black, densely punctured, 
more finely upon the abdomen ; abdominal plates scarcely shorter than the 
segment, smooth, punctured at base. Feet testaceous, femora black for two- 
thirds the length. The apex of the abdomen of the male is more deeply 
impressed than usual. Varies with the feet entirely black. 

25. S. abbreviatus, breviter ovalis, convexus, niger pubescens, elytris 
confertim punctatis, pedibus rufo-piceis, abdominis laminis brevibus. Long. 

One female. Eagle Harbor, Lake Superior. Oval, almost hemispherical, 
black, densely pubescent. Head finely and densely punctured. Thorax sparsely 
punctured on the disc, densely at the sides, base finely margined obtusely 
rounded in the middle. Elytra densely and coarsely punctured. Body beneath 
densely punctured ; abdominal plates three-fifths as long as the segment, mar- 
gin smooth. Feet entirely dark rufous. 

26. S. nanus, rotundato-ovalis, convexus, nigro-piceus, parce pubescens, 
thorace parce punctulato, elytris parce minus subtiliter punctatis, pedibus rufis. 
Long. 'Oe. 

Two specimens, Missouri territory. Oval rounded, convex, blackish piceous, 
sparsely covered with fine pubescence. Head finely punctulate, mouth rufous. 
Thorax finely and sparsely punctulate, anterior angles rufous ; base margined, 
obtuse in the middle. Elytra distinctly, but not densely punctured. Body 
beneath punctured, abdominal plates not shorter than the segment, smooth at 

1852.] 141 

their margin, scarcely extending to the parapleurae. Feet rufous. Anus of the 
male broadly emarginate. 

27. S. punctum, rotundato-ovalis convexus niger, parce pubescens, 
thorace lateribus confertim punctatis, elytris subtiliter parce punctatis, pedibus 
testaceis, femoribus posterioribus piceis. Long. -05. 

Two specimens, North shore of Lake Superior. On account of its size and 
form it resembles the preceding, but the coarsely punctured thorax distinguishes 
it. Rounded oval, convex, shining black, covered with line and sparse pubes- 
cence. Head obsoletely punctulate, antennae yellow. Thorax finely and 
sparsely punctured at the middle, coarsely and densely at the sides, base 
margined, obtuse in the middle, subsinuate each side. Elytra finely and 
sparsely punctured. Body beneath coarsely punctured, abdominal plates smooth, 
punctured at base, considerably shorter than the segment, not extending late- 
rally to the parapleurae. Feet testaceous-yellow, four posterior thighs piceous. 

The following species I have not seen : 
S. ochroderus Muls. var. xanthaspis, Muls. 952. 
S. myrmidon Muls. 954. 
S. icteratus Muls. 969. 
S. Brullei Muls. 954. 
S. fastigiatus Muls. 986. 
S. punctatus Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. 3, 180. 

S. collaris Mels. ibid., is probably one of the species in B 2 d, but 
the description is not sufficiently definite to permit its determination. 

Div. 2. Corylophi, 

This division contains very small species, most of which are remarkable for 
having the thorax produced in front above the head, as in Cassida, or Cossy- 
phus. They differ in their habits from the genuine Coccinellae, most of them 
being found in putrid vegetable matter. At times they are found flying about 
at twilight in great numbers. 

Redtenbacher has founded upon these insects his family Clypeastres, con- 
sidering the narrowness of the second tarsal joint and the hood-like form of the 
thorax as sufficiently important to separate them. The mandibles are usually 
crenate internally, but ace aiding to Erichson there is a gradual transition from 
that form to the simple mandibles of many Coccinellae. The hood-like form of 
the thorax can also be of but little importance, since in the genus Orthoperus, 
which evidently belongs with Corylophus, this anterior prolongation is wanting. 
We have thus left only two characters, the narrow tarsi, and the ciliated wings, 
which however useful for systematic division, seem to be rather slight charac- 
ters for the establishment of a natural family. In the genus Rypobius the tarsi 
are also considerably dilatod. For these reasons I have followed Erichson in 
uniting these genera with the Coccinellidae, establishing however a special 
group under that family for their reception. Clambus must be absolutely 
excluded from the Coccinellidae, since the peculiar laminated structure of its 
posterior coxa is entirelv without analogy in this tribe, and is found only in the 
singular genus Sphaerius, placed by Erichson among the Trichopterygia. 

I have but one new generus to add to this group. Those found in the United 
States are thus related . 

1. Caput liberum. 
Antennae 9-articulatae, tarsi dilatati, . . . Rypobius Lee. 

Antennae 9-articulatae, tarsi angusti, .... Orthoperus Steph. 

1. Caput obtectum, tarsi angusti. 
Antennae 9-articulatae, corpus rotundatum, glabrum, . Corylophus Leach. 
Antennae 10-articulatae, elytra truncata, . . . . Sericoderus Steph. 
Antennae ll-articulatae, corpus ellipticum, pubescens, . Sacium Lee. 


142 [August, 

Rypobius Lee. 

Caput thorace non obtectum, clypeo prolongate ; antennae longiusculae, inter 
oculos insertae, 9-articulatae, articulo l^o magno conico, 2"do oblongo sesqui 
breviore et angustiore, 3 at 4 parvis tenuissimis ; 5to iterum elongato, crassiore 
conico, 6to minuto, ultimis tribus interne dilatatis latitudine non brevioribus, 
clavam oblongam formantibus ; tarsi 4-articulati, articulo Qndo dilatato, lobato, 
3o recepto, unguiculari elongato, unguibus simplicibus. 

This genus agrees closely in characters with the next, but differs by ita 
broad tarsi, which are similar to those of the genuine Coccinellidae. The thorax 
is rounded in front, extending slightly over the head, but not concealing it. The 
posterior angles are rectangular, not produced ; the elytra are subtruncate at 
the apex. The body is elliptical, a little narrowed behind, moderately convex and 
glabrous. The prosternum is very narrow and acute, the mesosternum extremely 
small and rounded in front ; the tibiae are a little dilated towards the extremity. 

1. R. marinus, nigro-piceus, nitidus, subtilissime alutaceus, thoracis 
angulis posticis, epipleuris, tibiis tarsisque rufescentibus. Long. -04. 

Two specimens found at Coney Island under a dead Limulus Polyphemus. 
Shining piceous black, very finely rugous, moderately convex. Antennae testa- 
ceous at base. Thorax twice as wide as long, almost semicircular, very slightly 
sinuous at the apex, finely margined on the sides, base straight, posterior angles 
subrectangular, somewhat rufous. Scutellum distinct. Elytra one-half longer 
than wide, a little narrowed behind, conjointly broadly rounded at the apex, 
very indistinctly punctulate; epipleurae rufo-piceous ; feet piceous, tibiae and 
tarsi paler. 

MiCRosPHiERA Redt. 

Caput liberum. Antennae breviusculae, 9-articulataB, inter oculos insertae, 
articulo 1 magno, conico, 2ndo vix breviore at sesqui tenuiore, 3io et 4to 
minutis, 5^^ conico crassiore et longiore, 6to iterum minuto, tribus ultimis intus 
dilatatis crassitie subbrevioribus ; tarsi non dilatati, articulo 2ntio paulo breviore, 
310 fere obsoleto, unguiculari elongato, unguibus integris. 

I have a little hesitation in referring the species here described to Redten- 
bacher's Microsphcera, as the mandibles are not entire, as described by him, but 
armed with three very minute teeth. The palpi agree in form, but the third 
joint of the tarsi is not cordiform, and indeed is scarcely visible. Redtenbacher's 
insect is pubescent, while ours is glabrous, and this character is one of great 
constancy in this family. The genus Orthoperus (Stephens) also agrees nearly 
with our insect, but is described as having the club of the antennae two jointed ; 
the inaccuracy of the English authors in the description of minute species is 
however so well known, that no great stress should be laid upon that character, 
especially as according to all analogy it must be impossible in this tribe for a 
genus to have but two joints in the antennal club. Pithephilus (Heer) is con- 
sidered by Erichson as identical with Microsphcera (Redt.), although it is 
described as having pentamerous tarsi. This mistake might readily occur, as 
the joints are very closely united. There can be no doubt about the proper 
place of the genus in this tribe, as the wings are strongly ciliated just as in 

1. M. glabra, nigro-picea, ovata, nitida, elytris obsoletissime punctu- 
latis. Long. -OQ. 

Middle and Southern States ; on leaves. Ovate, a little narrowed behind, 
moderately convex, entirely piceous black, shining. Head deflexed, thorax 
more than twice as wide as long, narrowed in front, emarginate at apex, 
scarcely margined on the sides ; base obsoletely sinuate, posterior angles rec- 
tangular. Scutellum minute. Elytra narrowed a little posteriorly, rounded at the 
apex, and a little shorter than the abdomen, very sparsely and obsoletely punc- 
tured ; feet slender, black. 

-6t>RSiowM;& Leaeh. 

Caput thorace obtectum. Antennae 9-articulatae, articulis duobus primis 
elongatis crassis, 3'o et 4^0 minutis, 5* elongate, conico, 6^0 minuto, tribus 
ultimis magnis, crassitie vix brevioribus ; tarsi liliformes, articulo 3io non 
recepto, unguiculari longo, unguibus simplicibus. Corpus rotundatum convexum 

1. C. inarginicollis, rotundatus, niger nitidus, thorace basi obtuse 
producto, lateribus et apice testaceo-marginato, elytris punctulatis, pedibus 
flavis. Long. '03. 

Middle and Southern States, on leaves. Body rounded, convex, shining black. 
Thorax semicircular, margin testaceous, base obtusely angulated in the middle, 
posterior angles obtuse. Elytra strongly punctulate, a little rounded at the 
apex. Legs yellow testaceous. 

2. C. truncatus, rotundatus, piceus, thorace testaceo basi truncate, 
elytris subrugosis vix punctulatis, pedibus flavis. Long. -03. 

New York, under stones. Form and size of the preceding. Thorax testaceous, 
sometimes darker on the disk ; posterior margin almost straight, posterior 
angles acute a little produced. Elytra scarcely punctured, finely wrinkled. 
Feet testaceous. 

Sericoderus Steph. 
Gryphinus Redt. 

Caput thorace obtectum minutum. Antennae lO-articulatae, articulis 1 et 2 
crassis, clava 3-articulata. Tarsi filiformes, articulo 3io minuto, non recepto, 
unguiculari longo. Corpus ovatum convexum, pubescens, thoracis angulis 
posticis productis, elytris postice angustatis apice truncatis. 

The English genus Sericoderus is described as having the antennal club three 
jointed, but Corylophus too has the same structure, according to British autho- 
rity. (Vide Westwood's Modern Classif. Insects.) Comparing other characters, 
such as the form of the thorax and elytra, and above all the figure in Shuckard's 
Illustrations of British Coleoptera, I find no reason why Redtenbacher's genus 
should be retained ; however, we owe to him the first good description of the 
genus. (Fauna Austr. 573.) 

1. S. flavidus, flavo-testaceus, flavo-pubescens, thorace macula antica 
obscura notato, basi late sinuato, elytris subtilissime punctulatis. Long. -OS. 

New York and Lake Superior. Ovate, one-half longer than wide, uniformly 
yellowish testaceous, densely pubescent. Thorax semi-circular, margined, 
with a fuscous spot at the apex ; base broadly rounded in the middle, sinuate 
each side, posterior angles moderately produced. Elytra very finely and 
densely punctulate, very slightly narrowed to the apex, which is broadly trun- 
cate. Pectus dusky. 

2. S. obscurus, rufo-piceus, flavo-pubescens, thorace lateribus rufis, 
basi utrinque subangulato, elytris subtiliter punctulatis, apice pedibusque flavis. 
Long. -025. 

One specimen, New York. Smaller than the preceding and a little narrower. 
The thorax is more broadly rounded in the middle, and the posterior angles are 
more produced, forming with the middle of the base a distinct angle. The 
elytra are a little more narrowed behind, and seem more distinctly punctured, 
the truncated margin is yellowish. Beneath dusky, feet and tip of the abdomen 

3. S. sub til is, flavo-testaceus, flavo-pubescens, thorace macula antica 
obscura notato, angulis posticis valde productis, elytris punctulatis. Long. '02. 

Illinois, Mr. Willcox. Smaller and more convex than S. flavidus, with the 
thorax not so transverse, and the posterior angles much more produced. The 
elytra are more narrowed posteriorly and more distinctly punctured. The pectus 
is scarcely darker than the abdomen. 

144 [August, 

Sacium Lee. 

Antenna W-articulataf clavatce, clava elongata^ 5-artteulata, articulo 2ndo 
minore ; thorax caput obtegens ; tarsi angusti ; corpus dlipticumj subtiliter 
pubescens . 

This genus is precisely equivalent to Clypeaster, as limited by Redtenbacher, 
(Faun. Austr. ^12.) The name Clypeaster can, however, never be retained for it, 
as a genus of Echini has long before been know^n under the same name. I have 
therefore felt myself compelled to propose a new name, which however I will 
apply only to our native species, leaving to any European Entomologist, who 
desires it, the task of transferring the species found in his country. I do this the 
more willingly, as I have no desire to attach my name to species, which I would 
not recognise if they were placed before me. 

1. S. lugubre, elongato-ellipticum, nigrum, subtiliter parce pubescens, 
thorace antice utrinque testaceo, elytris minus dense punctatis. Long, 'OS. 

Two specimens ; north shore of Lake Superior. Elongate elliptical, slightly 
convex, shining black. Thorax semi-elliptical, a little longer than wide, broadly 
margined, except at the apex ; finely, not densely punctulate, and finely 
pubescent, marked with a small testaceous diaphanous spot each side of the 
apex; base very slightly sinuated. Elytra a little wider than the thorax, 
broadly rounded behind, and a little shorter than the abdomen, distinctly and 
not densely punctured, and sparsely pubescent : disc slightly impressed at the 
middle of the suture, which is a little elevated behind. 

2. S. obscurum, elongato-ellipticum, dense subtiliter pubescens, atrum, 
thorace antice utrinque testaceo, elytris dense subtiliter punctatis. Long. -08. 

North shore of Lake Superior, two specimens. This is very similar to S. 
lugubre, but the elytra are much more finely punctured. The feet are piceous. 

3. S. amabile, elongato-ellipticum, thorace testaceo medio nigro, elytris 
subtiliter punctulatis piceis, macula basali, altera ad medium apiceque testaceis, 
pedibus flavis. Long. '07 "06. 

Junction of the Colorado and Gila rivers. Similar in form to the preceding, 
clothed with fine prostrate hair. Head yellow. Thorax semi-elliptical, a little 
longer than wide, sinuate at base, moderately margined on the sides, testaceous 
with a black vitta reaching from the apex almost to the base. Elytra scarcely 
wider than the thorax, broadly subtruncate at the apex, finely punctulate, black, 
with a spot at the base, another transverse one just i ehind the middle and the 
apex testaceous ; suture not elevated. Beneath black, feet yellow. 

4. S, fasciatum, ellipticum, subtiliter pubescens, thorace testaceo, medio 
nigro, elytris subtiliter punctatis nigris, fascia pone medium, apiceque flavis, 
sterno pedibusque flavo-testaceis. Long. '06. ^ 

Clypeaster fasriatiis Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. 5, 259. 

Middle States, rare. Elliptical, a little broader than the preceding species, 
finely pubescent. Head yellow. Thorax semicircular, testaceous, dusky in the 
middle, sides finely margined, base subsinuate. IClytra finely, not densely 
punctured, shining black, with a fascia behind the middle, posterior lateral mar- 
gin and the apex yellow, apex almost truncate; pygidium piceous. Beneath 
dark piceous, metasternum and first joint of the abdomen diagonally testaceous; 
raesosternum, prosternum and feet yellow-testaceous. 

5. S. lepidum, ellipticum, nigro-piceum, subtiliter pubescens, thorace 
medio nigro, antice utrinque testaceo, elytris densius punctulatis, fascia angusta 
pone medium, apiceque testaceis, pedibus obscure rufis. Long. '05. 

One specimen, Habersham county, Georgia. Very similar to the preceding, 
but the thorax is much darker, being testaceous only each side of the apex. The 
elytra are more finely and densely punctulate, the testaceous fascia is dark 
colored and loss distinct; the under surface of the body is uniform black, and 
the feet are not yellow, but dark rufous. 

6. S. 1 u n a t u m , latius ellipticum, pubescens, nigro-piceum, thorace medio 
nigro, margine testaceo, elytris subtilissime punctulatis, macula utrinque pone 
medium lunata, margineque postico flavis ; pedibus piceis. Long. '04. 

1852.] 145 

One specimen, Missouri Territory. Much smaller and broader than S. fascia- 
turn, piceous black, finely pubescent, thorax black in the middle, margin testa- 
ceous and diaphanous at the sides and apex ; base sinuated. Elytra not wider 
than the thorax, finely not very densely punctulate, marked with a yellow lunate 
spot behind the middle ; apex broadly rounded, margined with yellow, which 
extends a short distance along the sides. Body beneath black, feet dark 

7. S. decolor, ellipticum, rufo-piceum, subtiliter pubescens, thorace 
pallidiore medio obscuro, elytris subtiliter punctulatis, pedibus flavis. Long. '03. 

Two specimens, San Jose, California. Elliptical, rufo-piceous, finely pubes- 
cent. Thorax paler, diaphanous at the sides, dark in the middle, almost semi- 
circular, slightly sinuate at the base. Elytra very finely punctulate, rounded at 
the apex. Body beneath piceous, abdomen paler ; feet yellowish. 

8. S. m i s e 1 1 u m , latius ellipticum. rufo-piceum, valde punctulatum, 
brevissime pubescens, thorace valde marginato, medio obscuro, pedibus testaceis. 
Long. '03. 

Two specimens. New York. Broader than most of the preceding species, very 
slightly clothed with extremely short hair, entirely rufo-piceous, and strongly 
punctulate. Thorax semicircular, strongly margined, paler than the elytra, 
diaphanous at the sides, darker in the middle, base finely margined, scarcely 
sinuate. Elytra broadly rounded at the apex; body beneath rufo-piceous, feet 

9. S. scitulum, late ellipticum, nigrum, subtilissime pubescens, tho- 
race flavo, puncto antico obscuro, elytris subtiliter punctulatis, fascia postica 
lata, margine apicali pedibusque flavis. Long. "025. 

Colorado River, California. Smaller than the others, and more broadly oval, 
very finely pubescent. Thorax yellow, semicircular, with a dark spot near the 
anterior margin. Elytra black, very finely punctulate, with a broad testaceous 
fascia behind the middle, scarcely reaching the sides, apex rounded, narrowly 
margined with yellow. Body beneath black ; abdomen testaceous, feet yellow. 

Description of a New Species o/ Trombiditjm. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

T. magnificum, ovatum, postice angustatum et obtusum, densissime 
miniato-velutinum, pedibus subaequalibus, rostro conico, apice obtuso. Long. 
32, lat. -23. 

Texas, Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. This fine species is remarkable for its great 
size, being equal toT. tinctorium. It belongs however to a different 
division of the genus, the eyes being placed immediately above the first pair of 
legs. The rostrum is conical, and obtuse at the apex. The palpi are conical, 
more than three times as long as the rostrum, thick at the base ; the terminal 
hook is longer than the penultimate joint, and is glabrous only at the apex ; the 
inferior appendage is a little longer than the hook, and very pilose, it appears 
rounded at the extremity. The feet are two-thirds the length of the body, the 
first and fourth pairs a little longer than the intermediate ones. 

The body is soft, somewhat trapezoidal, narrowed and obtusely rounded 
behind, less rounded in front, with the sides slightly sinuous in the middle. The 
color is dark cinereous, above and beneath covered with very fine fur which is 
of a bright vermillion color, becoming gray at the base of the legs. In the best 
preserved specimens, the upper surface is irregularly impressed, resembling the 
convolutions of the brain. 

146 [August, 


Mr. G. W. Fahnestock, E. Brown Sequard, M. D., and Henry J. 

Biddle, Esq., all of Philadelphia, were elected Memhers^ and 

Mr. Dexter Marsh, of Greenfield, Mass., Commander William F. 
Lynch, U. S. N., and Dr. Wm. F. Daniel, of London, were elected 
Correspondents of the Academy. 

1852.] 147 

Septemher 7th, 1852. 

Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 
Letters were read 

From the Secretary of the Trustees of the New York State Library, 
dated Albany^ September 14th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of the 
Proceedings of the Academy, Vol. 6, No. 3. 

From the Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, dated 
August 20th, 1852, also acknowledging the receipt of a late number of 
the Proceedings. 

Dr. Le Conte read a paper, intended for publication in the Proceed- 
ings, entitled "Description of a new species of Sciurus," which was re- 
ferred to Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Leidy, and Dr. Camac. 

Dr. Le Conte presented a second paper, also intended for the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled "Catalogue of the Melyrides of the United States, 
with descriptions of new species.^' Referred to the same Committee. 

Mr. Cassin announced to the Society the return of Adolphus L. Heermann, 
M. D., a member of this Society, after a residence of nearly three years in various 
parts of California. Dr. H. visited that country for the express purpose of in- 
vestigating its ornithology, and making collections in that, and in other depart- 
ments of natural history, which he has done with great judgment and unrivalled 
zeal, and has brought home the most extensive and valuable collection of birds 
ever made in that country, with many other interesting objects. 

Dr. Genth made some remarks on two series of very interesting salts, dis- 
covered by him about five years ago. They have conjugate bases, containing 
cobalt and ammonia. The salts of one of the bases have red colors of different 
shades between carmine and cherry-red ; those of the other base are orange- 
colored. The red salts are very easily decomposed. The two bases and about 
fifty different salts have been made, most of them in beautiful crystals. Dr. 
Genth stated that (as his time is very limited) Dr. Wolcott Gibbs, of New 
York, who has already prepared some of these salts, independently of his own 
experiments, has promised him, at his request, to join his labor in completing 
this investigation, after which both chemists intend to publish their results 
under their joint names. 

September 14ith. 

Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Mr. G. "W. Fahnestock, dated Philadelphia, September 8th, 
1852, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election as a Member. 

From Dr. Gr. G. Bischoff, dated Reading, Pa., June 11th, 1852, ac- 
companying his donation announced this evening. 

Mr. Ashmead called the attention of the members to the collection of marine 
Algae presented by him this evening. He said it was remarked by Harvey in the 
" Nereis Boreali-Americana," that after passing New York, the almost unbroken 
line of sand is nearly destitute of Algse. " I have not," he adds, " received any 
collection of sea plants made between Long Branch and Wilmington." 

However barren of Algae may be the shifting sands along the coast of New 
Jersey, the floating spores have been carried into the inlets, and found a lodg- 


148 ' [September, 

ment in the shallow bays, on the steep banks of the deeper thoroughfares, and 
in the second from the Great Egg Harber river to Cape Island. Algae occur in great 
abundance, parasitical on the common eel grass (Zostera marina,) which is eo 
extensively dispersed in the bays, and on the bars in the vicinity of Beesley's 
Point, and which grows with such luxuriance as seriously to obstructthe passage 
of boats when the tide is out. I found Algae growing on the oyster beds, on 
sand bars, mud flats, also on shells, sods, and such submerged substances 
as afforded a resting place. 

The submerged portions of the ship Rhine, which went ashore last winter at 
Corson's Inlet, are already literally covered with marine vegetation. 

From the want of a standard collection in the Academy, I am unable at pre- 
sent, with my limited knowledge of the science, to determine satisfactorily 
many of the species. Among the specimens on the table will be found : 

Fucus vesiculosus, Linn. Very common. 

Ectocarpus littoralis, Lyng. 

Ceramium rubrum, Ag. 1 '^- rj l 

^ ,. , A y parasitic on Zostera marina. 

C. diaphanum, Ag. J ^ 

Callithamnion polyspermum, Ag. 

Nemaleon ? 

Laurencia tenuissima, Grev. 

Polysiphonia, several species. 

Bryopsis plumosa, Ag. 

Lyngbia ? 

Ulva latissima, Linn. 

Rhabdonia Baileyi, Harvey. 

Ulva compressa. 

September 21s^. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Dr. Leidy presented a paper from Prof. S. F. Baird and Charles 
Grirard, intended for publication in the Proceedings, on the ^^ Charac- 
teristics of some new Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution/' which was referred to Dr. Hallowell, Dr. Le Conte, and Dr. 

Dr. Le Conte presented a paper, intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled *' Synopsis of the Scydmsenidse of the United States. '^ 
Beferred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. Fisher, and Dr. Zantzinger. 

Dr. Le Conte presented a second paper, also intended for publication, 
entitled ' An attempt at a Synopsis of the genus Geomys Baf.," which 
was referred to Dr. Wilson, Mr. Cassin, and Dr. Woodhouse. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the Society to a fragment of a jaw 
containing two teeth of Tapirus Haysii. This species had been charac- 
terized by him at a previous meeting, from a single tooth presented by 
Dr. Hays to the Academy, and which at that time was the only portion 
known. The present specimen is from the Post Pleiocene, near Natchez, 
Miss., and was sent to Dr. Leidy by Mr. Wailes. 

September 2%tli. 

Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

The Committee to which had been referred the following papers by 
Dr. J. L.Le Conte, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

1852.] 149 

Description of a New Species of SciURUS. 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

SciuRus Heermaxni Lee. 

Supra e nigro alboque intermixtis griseus, subtus albus, auribus magnis 
breviter pilosis, naso nigro, cauda disticha, albo-marginata, corpore non 

From tip of nose to root of tail, - - - 12*5 inches. 
Head, -_.---_ 3.2 

Length of ear, ------ -9 

Breadth of ear, ------ '7 

Fore foot to end of longest claw, - - - 2-1 

Hind foot to end of longest claw, - - - 3-2 

Tail to end of vertebrse, - - - - 9-8 

Tail to end of hair, ----- 13. 

California, from Dr. Heermann. Body above entirely of a light grey color, 
produced by an intermixture of black and white points ; the hairs individually 
are long and not fine ; they are gray at base, soon becoming black, and have a 
pure white band about the middle ; intermixed with them are a few longer pure 
black hairs. On the upper surface of the feet the hair is shorter, and the black 
part comparatively smaller. A small spot towards the tip of the nose, and an 
indistinct line above the eyes are black. The whiskers are shorter than the 
head and entirely black. The ears are large, subtriangular, rounded at the tip, 
and covered both within and without with short gray hair, which does not in 
anyway form a fringe at the margin. Beneath the body is pure white, except 
the perineum, which is gray. Tail long and distichous, with long hairs which 
are black, with a gray base and white tip ; in those towards the edge the black 
color is less developed, and some are even whitish with three black bands, of 
which the outermost is very distinct. The tail thus appears gray, becoming 
black externally, with a broad white margin ; beneath it is a little lighter in 

This species is one of a multitude of interesting objects procured by Dr. A, 
L. Heermann during a three years' residence in California. I beg him to accept 
the dedication of it as a slight token of my appreciation of this active exertion 
in studying the habits of animals, and collecting specimens in the less frequented 
portions of our territory. 

At first sight S. Heermanni bears a strong resemblance to several gray 
squirrels found in the Atlantic States, more especially to S. cinereus, but 
the much larger size of the ears, the deeper gray color of the upper surface of 
the feet, and the absence of any brown color about the head, at once distinguish 
it from all its neighbors. 

Synopsis of the Scydm^nid^ of the United States. 

By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

Since the publication of the extremely classical monograph of Scydmaenus by 
Dr. Schaum,* and his corrections to the same,j the number of species found in 
America has been greatly increased. A journey by Dr. Schaum to this country 
has contributed largely to this result, and to him I am indebted for a fine series 
of the species found by him, mostly in Louisiana. To M. Em. Wapler, late of 
New Orleans, I must also express my acknowledgements for a beautiful series of 
Scydmaeni, as well as other minute Coleoptera of Louisiana. The other species 

* Analecta Entomologiea. 

} Germar's Zeitschrift fur Entomologie, vol. 5. 

l^O [September^ 

described below have mostly been procured in my travels in the Southern States ; 
a few are from California, but the distribution of this genus in the western and 
northern parts of the continent appears to be very limited. The new Cephennium 
is an interesting addition to our fauna. The new genus Brathinus must, I think, 
be considered as the American representative of Mastigus of the old world. 
Eutheia is not yet discovered on this continent, nor have we any form which 
corresponds to it. Our three genera may be easily distinguished follows: 

A. Palpi maxillaries articulo ultimo minutissimo. 
Palpi labiales articulo primo elongate, mandibulae 

apice emarginatae (thorax amplus) . . Cephennium Miill. 
Palpi labiales articulo primo brevissimo, mandibu- 
lae acuminatae (thorax parvus) . . . Scydm^nus Latr. 

B. Palpi maxillares filiformes, articulo ultimo longiore Bra.thinus Lee. 

Cephennium Miiller. 

Megaloderus Steph. Tyttosoma Wesmael. 

1. C. corporosum, piceum flavo-pubescens, thorace angulis posticis subex- 
planatis, elytris vix punctulatis basi foveatis, striolaque externa notatis,pedibus 
antennisque testaceis, his articulis tribus ultimis maioribus. Long. -035. 

New York, under stones in April very rare. Blackish piceous, sparsely clothed 
with fine yellow hair. Head small, smooth ; antennae testaceous, half as long as 
the body, 9th joint one half thicker than the 8th, rounded, a little transverse, 10th 
still larger, subtransverse, 11th longer than the 10th and obtuse. Thorax very 
transverse, sides parallel behind the middle, much rounded anteriorly, posterior 
angles rectangular, a little flattened. Elytra scarcely narrower than the thorax, 
convex, finely and sparsely punctulate, base impressed with a deep stria near the 
humerus, extending one-third the length of the elytra, and a large fovea half way 
between the stria and scutellum. Anus and feet bright testaceous, thighs not 

ScYDM^NUs Latr. 

I have adapted Schaum's division of the genus to our native species without 
alteration, as it appears scarcely susceptible of any improvement ; for convenience 
I have divided the group (B) differently, as several European forms in it are want- 
ing in this country. 

1. Palpi maxillares articulo 4to subulate. 

A. Collum thoraci immersum, thorax cordatus, antennae sensim incrassatae ; 
mesosternum parum carinatum. Sp. 1 6. 

B. Collum thoraci non immersum ; thorax subquadratus, antennae extus subito, 
vel subsubito incrassatae. 

a. Antennae articulis quatuor incrassatia. 

a. Thorax trapezoideus, cum elytris angulum non formans. Sp. 7 14. 

,g. Thorax antrorsum subangustatus, cum elytris angulum formans. 

Sp. 1520. 

b. Antennae articulis tribus incrassatis. Sp. 21 15. 

c. Antennae feminae gradatim incrassatae, maris irregulares. Sp. 26. 
2. (C.) Palpi maxillares articulo 4to obtuse, conice, indistincto. Sp. 27. 


1. S. subpenctatufl, piceus, parce pubescens, vertice bifoveato, thorace 
ante basin transversim impresso, lateribus foveato, celeopteris rufo-piceis, ob- 
longo-ovalibus, parce punctulatis, pedibus rufo-piceis. Long. -065. 

1852.] 151 

Lake Superior and St, Mary's River. Shining piceous, smooth, more elongate 
than usual. Head flattened, vertex bifoveate, front a little retuse ; palpi testa- 
ceous ; thorax longer than wide, slightly campanulate, not narrowed behind, 
tbveate each side near the base, and slightly transversely impressed at the middle 
of the base. Elytra elongate oval, nearly twice as wide as the thorax in their 
widest part, convex, sparsely and finely punctured with a fine hair proceeding 
from each puncture ; base each side bifoveate. Legs slender, thighs rufo-piceous, 
tibiae and tarsi testaceous. 

2. S. m a r i ae , rufo-piceus, parce pubescens, vertice bifoveato, thorace campa- 
nulato ante basin obsolete impresso, lateribus foveato, coleopteris ovaiibus obso- 
lete parce punctulatis. Long. '065. 

One specimen, St. Mary's River, Michigan. This species is very similar to 
the preceding, but the thorax is more rounded on the sides anteriorly, and dis- 
tinctly narrowed behind ; the basal impression is hardly visible, the lateral foveae 
are less deep ; the elytra are wider and much less distinctly punctured ; the base 
is marked as in the preceding with four punctures, causing the humeri and suture 
to appear elevated. 

3. S. cribrarius, rufus, nitidus, flavo-pilosus, thorace basi subtiliter 4- 
punctato, elytris elongato-ovalibus, grosse punctatis. Long. -04. 

Habersham County, Georgia. This species very much resembles the next, but 
the color is paler, the form a little less slender, and the punctures of the elytra 
more numerous and less large ; as in it the anterior thighs are much incrassated, 
the others are slender. The thorax is narrowed behind, not sinuate on the sides, 
and the basal punctures are very small. 

4. S. perforatus, nigro-piceus, pilosus, thorace basi 4-punctato et trans- 
versim impresso, coleopteris elongato-ovatis, minus dense variolosis, antennis 
pedibusque fiavis. Long. -04. 

Schaum, Analecta Entomologica, 9. 

New York and Massachusetts, rare. The thorax is slightly sinuate on the 

5. S. sparsus, rufo-piceus, pilosus, thorace postice angustato, basi 4-punc- 
tato, et transversim subimpresso, coleopteris elongato-ovatis, parce punctatis, 
basi utrinque bifoveatis. Leng. '04. 

San Jose, California. Form and size of S. perforatus, but the thorax is not 
sinuate on the sides, and the elytra are foveate at base : the punctures are small 
and much less dense than in S. cribrarius. 

6. S. angustus, valde elongatus, piceus, subtiliter pubescens, thorace elon- 
gato. ovato, elytris minus convexis, sutura ad basin, humerisque elevatis, antennis 
extrorsum magis incrassatis. Long. -03 

San Jose, California. A small species very remarkable by its narrow form. 
3y the shape of its thorax, which is neither cordate nor quadrate, but oval and 
narrowed posteriorly, it seems to ngite Schaum's groups 1 and 2 (Germ. Zeitschr. 
5, 465). The antennae and feet are ferruginous, or rufo-piceous ; the former are 
more thickened externally than in the preceding species, and are not longer than 
the head and thorax : the thighs are somewhat dilated. 

B. a St. 

7. S. S c h a u m i i , fusiformis, pilosus, rufo-piceus, thorace antrorsum angus- 
tato, basi non impresso, elytris basi subfoveolatis, pedibusque rufis, femoribus 
valde clavatis. Long. -08. 

Louisiana, Dr. Schaum. One of the largest of our species, and easily distin- 
guished by its rufous elytra and unimpressed thorax. Body fusdform, wider pos- 
teriorly, rufo-piceous, shining. Head densely covered with erect reddish hair ; 
antennas as long as the head and thorax, rufous, joints 3 6 small, equal, 7th a 
little longer and thicker; 8 10 about one half longer and thicker than the 7th, 
globose ; 11th oval, subacute: penultimate joint of the maxillary palpi regularly 
obconical, the last very small. Thorax longer than wide, densely pilose, narrowed 

152 [September, 

ia front, sides straight, base slightly rounded, not impressed. Elytra at the middle 
about one-fourth wider than the thorax, impunctured, rufous, not very densely 
covered with long hairs, humerus elevated, suture anteriorly depressed, base 
with a very small fovea inside of the humeral impression. Beneath piceous, anus 
testaceous. Feet entirely rufous, thighs very clavate. 

8. S. flavitarsis, latius fusiformis, pilosus, piceus, thorace antrorsum an- 
gus'tato, basi non impresso, elytris basi vix impressis, femoribus valde clavatis, 
tibiarum apice tarsisque flavis. Long. -08. 

One specimen, New York. Wider than the preceding, which it very much 
resembles ; the antennae are dark rufous, they are formed as in S. Schaumii, but 
the Yth joint is not perceptibly larger than the 6th. The elytra at the middle 
are fully one-third wider than the thorax; the humerus is elevated and the base 
is depressed from the humerus to the suture, but not foveate. The feet are pice- 
ous, the thighs are very clavate, the extreme tip of the tibioe, and the whole of 
the tarsi are pale yellow. The last joint of the maxillary palpi is much larger 
than in S. Schaumii. 

9. S. fossiger, latius fusiformis, pilosus, piceus, thorace antrorsum valde 
angustato, basi non impresso, coleopteris basi 4-foveatis, femoribus valde clavatis, 
tarsis flavis. Long. -08. 

One specimen, Cambridge, Mass. Very similar to S, flavitarsis : the thorax is 
much more narrowed in front, so that the apex is scarcely half as wide as the 
base : the elytra at the middle are one-third wider than the thorax, the humeri 
are elevated and the suture depressed, there are two basal foveae, of which the 
inner is the smaller. The antennae are precisely as in S. flavitarsis ; the palpi 
are yellowish, with the last joint distinct. 

10. S. capillosulus, latius fusiformis, pilosus, rufo-piceus, thorace antror- 
sum angustato, basi subtiliter transversim impresso, coleopteris basi subfoveola- 
tis, pedibus rufis, femoribus valde clavatis. Long. '08. 

Georgia, Pennsylvania and New York. Sometimes in the nest of a small fus- 
cous ant with rufous legs. This species is very similar to S. Schaumii, but is 
wider, and is known at once by the impressed line at the base of the thorax. 
The antennas and palpi are precisely as in S. Schaumii: the humeri are more 
elevated, the suture is a little elevated at base, and marked with a fine impressed 
line, which curves around the base reaching the humeral fovea, the elytra at the 
middle are fully one-third wider than the thorax. 

11. S. basal is, fusiformis, pilosus, rufas, thorace antrorsum angustato, basi, 
subtiliter transversim impresso, coleopteris basi foveolatis, antennarum articulis 
intermediis rotundatis, femoribus valde clavatis. Long. -06. 

Georgia and Louisiana. Very similar to the preceding, but smaller. The 
antennae are as long as the head and thorax, the joints 3 7 are rounded, not 
longer than wide : the three next are larger and also rounded ; the last longer, 
oval and subacute : on the elytra, the suture is a little elevated anteriorly and 
marked with a slight stria ; the base is slightly bifoveate, and the humeri are 

12. S. hirtellus, latius fusiformis, breviter pilosus, rufas, thorace antror- 
sum angustato, basi non striato, elytris obsolete punctulatis, basi vix foveatis. 
antennis breviusculis articulis intermediis rotundatis, femoribus valde clavatis. 
Long. -05. 

Georgia. This species is smaller than S. basalis, and the antennas are shorter 
and less slender. The unimpressed thorax, shorter pubescence and scarcely 
foveate elytra will readily distinguish it from the other species in which the 
thorax and elytra form a regular outline, without any re-entering angle. One 
specimen has the Blh joint of the antennas intermediate in size between the 7th 
and 9th, so that the club appears only three-jointed. I am unable to perceive 
any other difference, and in the absence of other specimens, leave it under the 
present species. 

1852.] 153 

13. S. a n a 1 i s , fusiformis pilosus, thorace antrorsum angustato, baai non striate 
elytris vix obsolete punctulatis, basi uaifoveatis, aatenais longiusculis articulis 
intermediis subrotundatis, ano pedibusque flavis, femoribus clavatis. Long. 

Louisiana, Schaum and Wapler. This species is very similar to the preceding, 
but is narrower, being of the form of S. basalis, with which it agrees also in the 
antenna?, but differs in size, and in having no impression at the base of the thorax. 
The feet are testaceous, the thighs are darker : the tip of the abdomen beneath is 

14. S. brevicornis, piceus, subfusiformis, dense sordide pubescens, thorace 
antrorsum angustato, elytris basi vix foveatis, antennis breviusculis, articulis 
intermediis subrotundatis, femoribus valde clavatis. Long. -055 

Say, Long's Exped. to St. Peter's River, 2,273 : Schaum, An. Ent. 19.* 
New York and Pennsylvania, in the nests of a small black ant. This species 
is more obtusely rounded behind than the preceding species of this division. The 
pubescence is more prostrate, and very dense. The antennae are not longer than 
the head and thorax : the four last joints form a club larger in proportion than in 
the other species, and as long as the other joints collectively. The thorax is 
less narrowed in front than in the preceding species, and is a little rounded on 
the sides : there is no impression at the base : the elytra are slightly foveate 
inside of the humerus. 

B. a i3. 

15. S. r a s u s , testaceus, glaber, thorace longiusculo, lateribus subrotundato, 
basi utrinque foveato, transversim impresso, elytris convexis basi foveatis. Long. 

Pennsylvania, Haldeman; found with a small fuscous ant. This species is of 
a bright testaceous color, and entirely glabrous. The head is convex and rounded. 
The antennae are longer than the head and thorax, the joints 3 7 are cylindrical, 
the four last are globular and about twice as thick as those which precede them. 
The thorax is a little wider than the head, longer than wide, slightly narrowed 
in front, very slightly rounded on the sides, flattened on the disc, and deeply 
foveate near the basal angles : the foveas are connected by a transverse impres- 
sion. The elytra are twice as wide as the thorax, regularly oval and convex, 
forming a slight angle with the thorax; the base is broadly foveate inside of the 
humerus. The anterior thighs are strongly clavate. 

16. S. obscurellus, piceus breviter pubescens, thorace longiusculo, antice 
subangustato, elytris basi viximpressis, antennis articulis rotundatis, pedibusque 
rufescentibus. Long. -045 

One specimen, Liberty County, Georgia. A small species, easily distinguished 
by its piceous color and elongate thorax. Head convex, smooth, strongly pilose 
at the posterior angles : antennae a little longer than the head and thorax, the 
joints iifter the 2d globular, the four last about one-third thicker than those which 
precede, the last beiag larger and obtuse. Thorax pilose, not wider than the 
head, nearly one-half longer than wide, very slightly narrowed in front, apex trun- 
cate, sides straight. Elytra one-half wider than the thorax, and forming an almost 
indistinct angle with it, obliquely narrowed behind the middle, slightly pubescent : 
base scarcely foveate. Feet rufous, thighs clavate. 

18. S. cl avatu s ,rufo-piceus,tenuiter pubescens, thorace longiusculo, antice 
angustato, basi tenuiter impresso, elytris dorso depressis, basi unifoveatis, an- 
tennis fortius clavatis articulis suptransversis. Long. '045. 

One specimen. Liberty County, Georgia. Elongate rufo-piceus ; head convex, 
very strongly pilose, each side posteriorly so as to appear truncate at base : an- 
tennae as long as the head and thorax, joints 3 6 rounded, short, closely united : 

* Schaum erroneously cites the Journal of the Academy of Natural of Sciencs 
for the descriptions of this species, and S. clavipes. 

154 [September, 

7tb very little larger, globular : 810, one-half wider, rounded, somewhat trans- 
verse, 11th nearly twice as long as the 10th, and obtuse. Thorax not wider than 
the head, longer than wide, narrowed in front, very slightly narrowed on the 
sides, finely pubescent, disc a little flattened, finely impressed transversely near 
the base. Elytra scarcely one-third wider than the thorax, and forming with it 
a very obtuse but distinct angle : elongate oval, disc flattened, finely pubescent, 
very obsoletely punctulate, base with a fovea inside of the humerus. Legs tes- 
taceous, anterior thighs strongly, posterior moderately incrassated. 

18. S. el a vi pes, piceus, capite glabro, thorace dense piloso, longiusculo, 
antrorsum angustato et rotundato, basi transversim impresso, elytris rufescen- 
tibus parce pilosis, basi foveatis, antennis articulis elongatis, femoribusclavatis. 
Long. -05 06. 

Say, Long's Exped. to St. Peter's River, 2,272 : Schaum, Anal. Entom. 18. 

Lake Superior, Georgia, Louisiana. A darker variety is S. pilosicollis of my 
catalogue of Lake Superior Coleoptera in Agassiz' Lake Superior. The head is 
smaller in this than in the preceding species, oval, and glabrous; the elongate 
slender antennae will also easily distinguish it ; their four last joints are nearly 
one half thicker than those which precede, and are also longer than wide. The 
female has broader elytra than the male, and somewhat shorter antennae. 

19. S. consobrinus, nigro-piceus, capite glabro, thorace longiusculo, 
piloso antrorsum angustato etrotundato, basi transversim impresso, elytris parce 
pilosis basi foveatis, antennis articulis penultimis rotundatis, femoribus clavatis. 
Long. -05. 

One specimen, New York. In form this species is precisely similar to the 
preceding, but the difference in the antennae seems sufficient to separate it. These 
organs are here somewhat longer than the head and thorax ; the joints 3 6 are 
equal, closely connected, and not longer than wide ; the seventh is a little larger 
and slightly conical ; 8th, 9th and 10th are rounded, not longer than wide ; the 
llth one half longer and subacute. 

20. S. b i c olo r , elongatus, piceus, capite glabro, thorace piloso elongate* 
subcampanulato, basi transversim impresso, elytris parce piloso, non foveatis. 
palpis pedibus antennisque testaceis, his articulis rotundatis, penultimus subtrans- 
versis. Long. -06. 

One specimen, Georgia, with Formica pensylvanica. More narrow than S. 
clavipes, piceous, very shining. Head elliptical, smooth, glabrous ; antennae a 
little longer than the head and thorax, testaceous, joints 3 6 equal rounded ; 7th 
one third larger, globular ; 8 10 one half wider than the 7th, rounded, slightly 
transverse, llth not transverse, obtuse. Thorax covered with erect hair; one 
half longer than wide, sides posteriorly straight, anteriorly much rounded; base 
strongly impressed and subfoveate. Elytra twice as long as wide, nearly twice 
as wide as the thorax, regularly narrowed each way from the middle, smooth, 
not foveate at the base, with a few fine long hairs, especially towards the margin. 
Feet yellow testaceous, thighs strongly clavate. 

B b. 

21. S. s alin ator, nigro-piceus, thorace piloso, longiusculo, lateribus antice 
rotundatis, basi 4-foveato, elytris cum thorace angulum formantibus, glabris, 
antennis articulis elongatis, tribus ultimis maioribus. Long. -06. 

Cambridge, Mass., in salt marshes. Very similar in form to S. clavipes, but 
at once known by the antenuai having only three enlarged joints. Entirely black- 
ish piceous; head oval, smooth, glabrous ; antennte half as long as the body. 
Blender, joints 3 7 equal, a little longer than wide ; 8th one half longer and a 
little thicker, somewhat conical ; 9th and 10th equal, a little longer, and nearly 
twice as thick as the 8th ; llth subacute. Thorax covered with erect black hair, 
a little wider than the head, longer than wide, narrowed in front, convex, slightly 
rounded on the sides anteriorly ; base with four punctures. Elytra one half wider 
than the thorax, and forming a very obtuse angle with it ; entirely glabrous, 
slightly foveate at base. Thighs moderately clavate. 

1852.] 155 

22. S. f a t u u s, nigro-piceus, parce pubescens, thorace trapezoideo, antrorsum 
augustato, basi transversim impresso, elytris cum thorace angulum formantibus, 
coavexis, basi valde foveatis, pedibus antennisque testaceis, his articulis tribus 
ultimis abrupte maioribus. Long. '03. 

One specimen, New York. I am unable to discover the acicular joint of the 
maxillary palpi in this species, but it is so similar to the other species of this 
division, that I am convinced that it properly belongs here and not in divi- 
sion (C.) 

Blackish brown, finely and sparsely pubescent. Head rounded ; palpi and base 
of antennse testaceous ; joints of the latter 3 8 rounded, subequal ; 9th and 10th 
nearly twice as wide, transverse, 11th obtuse. Thorax not longer than wide, 
narrowed in front, slightly rounded on the sides, transversely impressed at the 
base. Elytra one half wider than the thorax, and forming with it a very obtuse 
angle, oval convex, deeply foveate at base, sparsely pubescent. Feet yellowish 
testaceous, thighs clavate. 

23. S. m i s e 1 1 u s , testaceous, minus convexus, pubescens, thorax quadrato, 
lateribus antice rotundatis, basi medio transversim impresso, elytris basi im- 
pressis, antennis brevibus, articulis tribus ultimis rotundatis multa maioribus. 
Long. -025. 

Two specimens, from the upper part of Georgia, under pine bark. This species 
seems very similar to the European S. nanus (Schaum, Germ. Zeitschr. 5,471), 
but diners in color. Entirely pale rufo-testaceous, shining, finely pubescent. 
Head slightly transverse, rounded. Antennae as long as the head and thorax, 
joints 3 8 equal, small, rounded; 9 11 twice as wide as the preceding, round- 
ed, scarcely transverse. Thorax wider than the head, quadrate, rounded on the 
sides anteriorly, disc flattened, with a small transverse impression at the middle 
of the base, formed by the confluence of two punctures. Elytra flattened on the 
disc, wider than the thorax, ovate, very slightly punctulate, impressed at the 
base. Thighs a little thickened. 

24. S. gravidus, piceus, pubescens, thorace antrorsum angustalo, basi 
transversim impresso, elytris brevioribus rufescentibus, ovatis, basi foveatis, 
antennis gracilibus, articulis tribus ultimis rotundatis abrupte maioribus. 
Long. '04. 

Louisiana, Schaum, one specimen. Broader than the neighboring species, 
piceous pubescent. Head rounded; antennse a little longer than the head and 
thorax, slender, joints 3 8 equal, not elongated, 9 and 10 more than twice as 
thick, globular, 11th a little longer, obtuse. Thorax wider than the head, trape- 
zoidal, narrowed anteriorly, sides almost straight, base with a strong transverse 
impression. Elytra somewhat rufous, ovate, twice as wide as the base of the 
thorax and forming with it a very indistinct angle ; moderately convex, base 
strongly foveate ; thighs slightly clavate, tarsi testaceous. 

25. S. fulvuSj fusiformis, testaceo-rufus, pubescens, thorace longiusculo, 
trapezoideo, elytris basi vix impressis, antennis brevibus, articulis tribus ultimis 
rotundatis, abrupte maioribus. Long. '03. 

Upper part of Georgia, under pine bark. This species has very nearly the 
form of S. analis, but the thorax is longer. 

Bright rufo-testaceous, covered with fine yellow hair. Head strongly pilose 
posteriorly. Antennae as long as the head and thorax, three last joints equal, 
globular, twice as thick as the preceding ones, which are small and rounded. 
Thorax longer than wide, scarcely wider than the head, narrowed in front, sides 
straight, base not impressed. Elytra one half wider than the thorax, continuous 
in outline with it, regularly narrowed behind the middle, sparsely punctulate, 
slightly depressed on the disc, scarcely foveate at the base, thighs but slightly 

B c. 

26. S. gracilis, elongatus rufo-testaceus, pebescens, capite angusto, thorace 
elongatOj antrorsum subangustato, basi impresso, elytris elongato-ovalibus, con- 
vexis basi impressis, antennis articulis 5 ultimis sensim crassioribus. Long. '06. 


156 [September, 

San Jose, California, near water, abundant. Reddish testaceous, finely pubes- 
cent. Head one half longer than wide, sides almost parallel; last joint of the 
palpi very distinct; antennae as long as the head and thorax; in the female with 
the joints 3 6 subequal slightly rounded, 7 10 gradually larger, rounded, not 
transverse, 11th larger obtuse ; in the male the 4th joint is twice as thick as the 
3d and globular ; the 5th narrow, the 6th triangular, strongly produced internally 
at the apex, 7 11 as in the female. Thorax a little wider than the head, one 
half longer than wide, gradually slightly narrowed in front, transversely im- 
pressed at the base. Elytra twice as wide as the thorax and forming an angle 
with it, elongate elliptical, convex, impunctured, foveate at the base. Legs 
slender, thighs subclavate. 

^. S. Zimmermani, testaceo-rufus, pubescens, thorace elongato, sub-cor- 
dato, elytris elongato-ovutis, punctatis, convexis, antennis articulis tribus ulti- 
mis abrupte maioribus. Long. -06. 

Schaum, Anal. Entom. 26. 

One specimen, Habersham Co., Georgia ; a slender yellowish red species, 
easily known by its slightly cordate elongate thorax and strongly punctured 

The following species is unknown to me, and the description does not permit it 
to be referred with probability to any particular group. It is perhaps allied to 
S. subpunctatus Lee. 

S. californicus," piceus nitidus, subpubescens, capite triangulari, ver- 
tice excavato, thorace quadrato, lateribus subsinuatis, basi subimpresso, utrin- 
que foveolato, elytris rufo-testaceis, apice subtruncatis, ore antennis pedibusque 
testaceis. Long, f lin." 

Motschulsky. Bull. Mosc. 1845, 1, 48. 


Brathinus Lee. 

Palpi maxillares filiformes, articulo ultimo longiore ; labrum antice membra- 
neum, late emarginatum ; mandibulEe apice acuminatae ; antennfe elongatae fili- 
formes ; tarsi posteriores articulis gradatim, brevioribus, indistinctis. 

A remarkable apterous and glabrous genus, which except in the presence of 
eyes and in the form of the head and thorax bears a strong resemblance to Lep- 
todirus, (Schmidt.) 

The head is oval, strongly constricted behind, with the eyes moderately pro- 
minent; the front between the antennae is concave ; the vertex marked with two 
impressed lines converging behind ; the labrum is transverse, hairy, apparently 
membranous anteriorly and broadly emarginate ; the mandibles are acute at the 
apex; the ligula is emarginate, the labial palpi moderately short, three-jointed, 
the last joint a little longer ; the mentum is transverse, scarcely trapezoidal ; the 
head behind the mentum is deeply channeled, and bilobate. The maxillary palpi 
are long and slender ; the first joint is small, the second long, slightly conical, the 
third one half as long as the second, cylindrical ; the fourth a little longer than the 
second, very slightly fusiform, almost acute at the tip. Antennae inserted under 
the margin of the front, two thirds as long as the body, almost filiform, first three 
joints shining, the others opaque ; 2nd joint a little shorter than the 3rd, which 
is equal to the fourth and following ones. Mesosternum entirely simple ; legs 
very long and slender, thighs not at all clavate ; tibial spurs obsolete, tarsi short, 
the four first joints of the anterior and intermediate tarsi distinct, short, almost 
equal, the first a little longer ; the four first joints of the posterior feet gradually 
shorter, very indistinct, the fourth so closely united to the third and so short as 
to be scarcely visible. Thorax ovate, convex, not wider and scarcely larger 
than the head, narrowed behind, truncate at base and apex. Elytra not connate, 
ovate, large, convex, gradually dilated from the base for two thirds their length, 
then broadly rounded to the apex. 

1852.] 157 

1. B. nitidus, piceus, nitidissimus, thorace pallidiore, antennis pedibusque 
testaceis, elytris glaberrimis, stria suturali, obsoleta notatis. Long. '18. 

Four specimens, Nova Scotia, Dr. Leidy. I am unable to discover any sexual 
character, one specimen appears to have the penultimate ventral segment of the 
abdomen a little produced over the anal segment in the middle. 

2. B. varicornis, nigro-piceus, nitidissimus, elytris parce pilosis, pedibus 
testaceis, genubus nigris, antennis basi testaceis, medio nigris, articulis 3 ultimis 
albis. Long. -15. 

One specimen, Utica, J. C. Brevoort. The elytra are testaceous at the extreme 
apex ; there is no sutural stria, but the suture is slightly elevated behind the 
middle, the setce are very few and fine, they appear to be arranged in three or 
four lines. The antennae are a little less slender than in the preceding species ; 
the first four joints are dark testaceous, the four next are black ; the three last 
are white, the extreme apex of the last joint is piceous. 

Mr. Brevoort found this insect at the roots of some grass growing near water. 

An Attempt at a Synopsis of the Genus Geomys Raf. 
By John L. Le Contb, M. D. 

Having discovered in the museum of the Academy two nondescript species 
belonging to this curious genus of pouched rats, I thought that it might be use- 
ful, in making them known, to attempt also to bring together in a concise man- 
ner the characteristics of the species heretofore described. 

The collection of the Academy is fortunately so rich in this genus that I have 
had an opportunity of inspecting more species than any author since Richardson 
first made known his numerous species. 

I would further observe, that on account of the great rarity of specimens in the 
museums of continental Europe, the attempts in systematic works to reduce this 
genus to order have been by no means successful. 

Rightly has Richardson preferred the older name of Rafinesque to the more re- 
cent ones of Kuhl, Lichtenstein and Say; Pseudostoma, the name proposed by the 
latter, and unfortunately employed in the superb workof Audubon and Bachman 
on North American mammalia, can in no case be adopted, because, as will be 
seen below, even if the early name of Rafinesque should be dismissed on account 
of any mental obliquity displayed in other matters, the name Saccophorus, pro- 
posed by Kuhl, has fully three years priority. For the same reason Ascomys, 
proposed by Lichtenstein, and adopted by Wagner in his supplement to Schreber, 
must also be rejected, although it antedates Say's name by one year. 

There is among many scientific men a tendency to disregard every thing written 
by Rafinesque, on the plea that many of his names are hastily proposed, and 
founded upon false or imaginary characters. But surely his scientific zeal and 
laborious research deserve more attention, where their results are not obscured 
by his mental peculiarities. This view has induced me to coincide with Rich- 
ardson in restoring to this group the generic name of Geomys. 

Some persons disposed to be hypercritical might object, that as Rafinesque in 
reality established two genera, Geomys and Diplostoma, both referring to the 
same things, it is a matter of doubt which name should be adopted, and would 
therefore reject both. A simple reference to the original text will at once re- 
move this objection. The imperfection of the specimens will account for the 
" no tail " of Diplostoma, but no stretch of imagination can excuse the " four 
toes to all the feet," and " two long jutting and furrowed front teeth above and 

The characters of Geomys, on the contrary, are correct in every particular, 
and quite sufficient to separate the genus from all others known. 

Misled by accounts of travellers, Richardson at first divided this group into 
those with external and those with internal cheek-pouches, reserving to the for- 
mer the untenable name of Diplostoma. In his recent writings he has reviewed 
his former opinion, and now considers them as forming but one genus. 

158 [September, 

^ Much of the confasion in the species has arisen from a laudable desire to iden- 
tify and retain the names of the older authors, even when unsupported by suffi- 
cient descriptions. Science has now, however, advanced so far, that it is time to 
get rid of all hypothetical synonyms by excluding definitely all that is too im- 
perfect for use, even when sanctioned by great age or character. I have accord- 
ingly placed at the end of this paper, references to all such descriptions as seem 
to be unfit for quotations under any individual species, and would recommend 
that these having now been collected together, should be hereafter passed over 
in respectful silence. 

The synonyms of this genus are as follows :Geomys Raf. (1817): 
[DiPLoSTOMA Raf. (1817); Sacchophorus Kuhl^ (1820); Ascomys Lichtenstein, 
(1822); PsEUDOSTOMA Say^ (1823); Oryctomys, Eydoux, (1827); Thomomys 
Wied. (1839). 

The two last names belong only to the second division of the genus, or those 
with smooth incisors, that character having been assumed as of generic value. 

The following analytical table expresses the relation between all the species 
which I have had an opportunity of examining. Four species of Richardson be- 
longing to group B. and G. castanops, the place of which is uncertain, have not 
been included, as I have not seen them, and can only take what has been writ- 
tea by others upon them. 

A. Dentes primores superiores profunde sulcati. 
a. Cauda-fere nuda. 

1. Rufo-fuscus fere hispidus G. hispidus Lee. 

2. Supra rufus : primores superiores bicaniculati G. canadensis Lee. 
:i. Supra plumbeus : primores superiores unisulcati G. pineti^a/. 

b. Cauda pilosa. 

4. Supra nigricans, primores superiores unisulcati G. mexicanus Rich. 

5. Supra fuscescens, primores superiores bicanaliculati G. oregonensis Lee. 

B. Dentes primores non sulcati. 

6. Supra rufescens, infra albicans, auribus brevibus G. rufescens Lee. 

A. Dentibus primoribus sulco profundo exaratis. 

a. Cauda fere nuda. 

1. G. hispidus, pilis concoloribus rufo-fuscis minus subtilibus tectus, cauda 
brevi nuda, auribus obsoletis. 

Length from nose to root of tail, ----- 11-5 

Tail, ,-- 3 

Anterior foot to end of claw of third toe, - - - i7 

Posterior foot to end of claw of third toe, - - - 1.9 

One specimen, Mexico, Mr. Pease's collection. This species differs from all 
the others in having the fur very coarse and harsh, and entirely of a reddish 
brown color. Beneath it is slightly grayish, but the difference in color is by no 
means obvious. The ears are not at all prominent, being merely openings in the 
skin. The whiskers are as long as the head. The upper incisors are broken off, 
but enough remains to show that they were deeply grooved near the middle of 
the anterior surface ; it is impossible to determine if there is a second submar- 
ginal groove. The tail is completely naked except at the root. The feet are 
precisely as in the other species of this division of the genus. 

2. G. c an ad ens i s, supra rufus, infra flavicans, pilis subtilibus, basi satu- 
rate plumbeis, genis pedibusque albidis, cauda mediocri nuda, auribus brevibus, 
primoribus superioribus bisulcatis. 

Length from nose to foot of tail, - - - - - 6-7 

" Tail, 3-2 

Anterior foot to end of third claw, - - - - 1-3 

Posterior foot to end of third claw, - - , - 1-3 

1852.] 159 

Ascomys canadensis Lichtenstein, Abhandl. Berl. Akad. 1822, p. 20, tab.; 
Braatz, Muiz. 24 ; "Wagner, Schreb. Saiigeth. Suppl. 3, 383 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 
2, 132. 

Pseudostoma bursarius Say, Long's Exped. 1, 406, Godman, Nat. Hist. 2, 
90, fig. 2 ; Harlan, Fauna, 153 ; Audubon and Bachman, Quadrupeds of Ame- 
rica, 1, 332, pi. 44. 

? Mas sacca^ws Mitchell, Med. Repos. 1821 ; 5, 89. 

Saccophorus bursarius Kuhl, Beitrage, 66 ; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 304 ; Eydoux, 
Voy. Favorite, 1, 23. 

One small specimen from the Bonaparte collection, locality not stated. Ac- 
cording to Lichtenstein and Bachman it is found in Canada and in the upper and. 
middle portion of the valley of the Mississippi. 

The fur is fine and dense, not very lustrous ; it is deep plumbeous for two- 
thirds of its length ; above it is tipped with rufous, beneath with ochreous yel- 
low ; the margin of the cheek pouches, the feet, and the posterior part of the fore 
legs are covered with whitish hair. The margin of the ears is short but very 
distinct ; the tail is almost entirely naked. The superior incisors have two 
grooves, the outer one broad and deep, nearer the external than the internal mar- 
gin ; the inner one fine and deep, contiguous to the margin. The anterior claws 
are comparatively larger than in G. hispidus. 

This species agrees accurately with the description and figure of Lichtenstein. 
Mus bursarius (Shaw,) which is referred to this species, is altogether doubtful, 
and ought to be omitted ; his description reads " cauda subnuda," while the figure 
represents it as decidedly hairy for its whole length ; the references to it as well 
as to other notices too imperfect for determination will be found at the end ot 
this essay. Godman's figure is worthless, and both his account and Harlan's are 
copied from Say. Mitchell's account is extremely imperfect, and nothing bur 
the locality (Lake Superior) induces me to refer it to this species. Wagner has 
misquoted Lichtenstein ; the citations from Brantz and Kuhl I have copied, as I 
have not had access to their original memoirs. Eydoux' remarks relate only to 
the teeth, and are applicable to other species. 

3. G. p i n e t i , moUipilosus, plumbeus, pilis inferioribus apice albidis, mento 
pedibusque albopilosis, cauda brevi nuda, auribus obseletis, primoribus, superi- 
oribus extra medium sulcatis. 

Length from nose to root of tail, - - - - - 11' 

" Tail, - 2-5 

Anterior foot to end of third claw, _ _ - - 1.4 

Posterior foot to end of third claw, - - - - i-s 

Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Magazine, 1817, 2, 45. 
Saccophorus? pineti Fischer, Syn. Mam. 305. 

Pseudostoma floridana Aud. and Bachm. Quadrup. Am. 3 pi. 150, fig. 1. 
One specimen from Florida in the Academy, and two from Alabama, from V. 
G. Audubon, Esq. ; also inhabits the lower part of Georgia, but suddenly dis- 
appears at the Savannah river, not extending into South Carolina. The far is 
fine, dense and shining, dark plumbeous, on the back tipped with blackish brown, 
fading gradually on the sides into brown, and on the belly into whitish gray ; 
the upper lip is white; the ears are scarcely perceptibly elevated ; the tail is 
naked, with only a few distant, short, grayish hairs. The upper incisors are 
deeply grooved just outside of the middle of the anterior face : the inner margin 
is not grooved. The smaller of the specimens sent me by the kindness of Mr. 
Audubon is more decidedly brown, so that the dark color is assumed only by 
the adult animal, or is dependent on season. 

Rafinesque's description "murine color, tail entirely naked, shorter than the 
body," although short, is characteristicj and coupled with the locality, leaves no 
doubt whatever of the identify of the present species. There is a notice m 
Bewick's History of Quadrupeds, (New York ed., 1804, p. 525,) of a species from 
Georgia, by Dr. S. L. Mitchill, which from the locality may be identical with 
the one here described, but the description is worthless, and is moreover unac- 
companied by any systematic name. 

160 [September, 

b. Cauda pilosa. 

4. G. mexicanus, mollipilosus, saturate cinereus, supra nigro-tinctus, 
na30 brunneo, cauda mediocri, pilosa, versus, apicem subnuda, auribus brevibus, 
primoribus superioribus medio profunda sulcatis. 

Length from nose to foot of tail, - - - - - 11* 

" Tail, 5' 

Fore foot to end of middle claw, ----- 1-7 

Hind foot to end of middle claw, ----- 1-7 

Ascomys mexicanus Lichtenstein, Abhandl. Berl. Akad. 1825, 113 ; Brantz, 
Muiz. 27 ; Wagner, Schreb. Saiigth. Suppl. 3, 384 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 133. 

Saccojjhorus mexicanus Fischer, Richardson, Rep. Brit. Ass. 6, 156; Syn. Mam. 
305 : Eydoux, Voy. Favorite, 23, tab. 8. 

One specimen, Mexico, Mr. J. Speakman. Fur very fine, shining, very dark 
cinereous, above tipped with black, beneath entirely cinereous ; nose and whis- 
kers brownish ; breast and fore legs slightly tinted with brown. Ears short. 
Tipper incisors with a very deep groove on the middle of the anterior surface. 
Feet thinly clothed with brownish hair. Tail covered with hair, which is very 
dense and long at the base, gradually becoming shorter and more scanty, leav- 
ing the tip almost naked. 

This specimen agrees with Lichtenstein's and Wagner's descriptions, except 
that the tail is not " very thinly haired ; " a lighter colored specimen mentioned 
in a marginal note by Wagner, had the " root of the tail surrounded by a very 
short band of hair ; the remaining part naked, with verticillate scales." So that 
this species must vary considerably in the structure of the tail, or there are 
several closely allied species confounded under the same name. The extraordi- 
nary variations mentioned by Brantz, but not seen by any other author, would 
seem to give weight to the latter opinion ; the varieties are thus described : 

"/?. Castaneus, infra canescens, maculis gastrsei daabus nigro-fuscis. 

"}/. Saturate nigro-fuscus, maculis gastreei duabus irregularibus albis, canal- 
iculo dent. prim. sup. magis laterali et externo." 

I have omitted the citations from Hernandez and other old and unsystematic 
authors, because I see no utility in repeating continually barbarous names, which 
were in use before natural history assumed the form of a science. 

5. G. oregonensis, mollipilosus, cinereus, castaneo-tinctus, dorso fusces- 
cente, mento, cauda brevi, pedibusque albo-pilosis, auribus brevissimus, primo- 
ribus superioribus bisulcatis. 

Length from nose to root of tail, 

" Tail, 

Fore foot to end of third claw, - - - 

Hind foot to end of third claw, - - - 

Two specimens marked " Pseudostoma bursarius, Columbia river, J. K. 
Townsend." Another from Mr. Audubon without locality, under the same 
name. Fur fine, shining, very dark cinereous, tipped with chestnut brown, 
becoming paler beneath ; hair on the middle of the back tipped with fuscous ; 
whiskers shorter than the head, whitish ; chin with a large spot of whitish hair ; 
feet densely clothed with white hair. Ears with a very short elevated margin. 
Upper incisors with a very deep groove at the middle, and a narrow but distinct 
one at the inner margin of the anterior face. Tail short, covered with whitish 
hair, becoming scanty at the tip. Claws of the posterior feet rather obtuse, and 
moderately flattened. 

The hairy tail and white chin at once distinguish this species from G. cana- 
densis. The color is much less red, and the middle of the back darker. It agrees 
very closely with the figure and description of Diplostoma? bulbivorum, Rich- 
ardson, Fauna Bor. Am. 206, pi. 18B, (the latter marked by mistake D. Dougla- 
sii,) but that species has no grooves on the upper incisors. 











1852.] 161 

B. Dentes primores sulco medio nullo. 

6. G. rufescenB, raoUipilosus, saturate cinereus, supra rufo-tinctos,lateribus 
et infra albo-tinctus, oribus brevibus, cauda mediocri albo-pilosa, primoribus 
superioribus intus marginatis. 

Large. Small. 
Length from nose to root of tail, ... 8* 5*4 

" Tail, 1-9 2- 

Fore foot to end of third claw, ... 1. -8 

Hind foot to end of third claw, . . . 1-15 '9 

Thomomys rvfescens Weid, Nov. Act. Leop. Car. Akad. (1839) 19, 3Y7 ; 
Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 134. 

Geomys horealis Bachman, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. (1839) 8, 103 ; Richardson, 
Report British Ass. 2, 150 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 136. 

Geomys Toivnsendi Bachman, Journ, Ac. Nat. Sc. 8, 105 ; Richardson, Zool. 
of Beechey's Voy. 12 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 137. 

?OryctOTnys (Saccophorus) Bottce Eydoux, Voy. Favorite, (1837) 1, 2, 23. 

Ascomys rufescens Wagner, Schreber Saiigeth. Suppl. 3, 387. 

Ascomys borealis Wagner, ibid. 391. 

Ascomys Townsendi Wagner Wagner, ibid. 391. 

Pseudostoma borealis, Aud. & Bachm. Quadr. Am. 3, pi. 142. 

Saccophorjcs borealis Gray, Cat. Brit. Museum, 142. 

" Geomys bursarius Richardson." Gray, ibid. 

Two specimens from Columbia river, J. K. Townsend; the larger one labelled 
"Pseudostoma Townsendi (Rich.)," the smaller one "Pseudostoma borealis." 

The fur is very fine and shining, dark cinereous, tipped on the back with ru- 
fous, on the sides and beneath with white; on the chin and feet the hair is almost 
entirely white. The whiskers are gray, and nearly as long as the head. The 
ears are short but distinct. The tail is covered with whitish hair ; the upper in- 
cisors are slender, and marked with a very fine line at the inner margin of the 
anterior face. 

This species (and probably all the others of this division,) has the inferior 
incisors much more slender than those above described ; the fossorial claws of the 
anterior feet are also much smaller, so that even if the teeth were wanting no 
difficulty would ensue in the determination of the species. 

The specimen of the Prince de Weid was found on the plains of the Missouri, 
but his description agrees so accurately with our specimens, that there can be no 
doubt of their identity. Dr. Bachman mentions his want of faith in the specific 
difference of the two specimens described by him, and gives them as distinct on 
the authority of Richardson. The latter remarks in Beechey's Voyage, that 'G. 
Townsendi is distinguished from G. borealis by its longer tail." It must be ob- 
served, however, that in Dr. Bachman's measurements, the small specimen of G. 
borealis, five inches and a half in length, has the same length of tail as the large 
one, which is two inches longer. The specimen of G. Townsendi of the same 
size as the large G. borealis, had a tail nine lines longer, which is in exact pro- 
portion to the small specimen of G. borealis. The large specimen now before 
me, (which is labelled G. Townsendi,) has the precise proportions of the G. 
borealis described by Bachman, and is probably the identical one examined bj 
him. On careful examination, I find that the tail does not taper regularly as in 
the other specimen, and, moreover, at its apex a distinct cicatrix is visible. I 
think we are therefore warranted in concluding that Geomys borealis is founded 
in a mistake. 

I do not know what Mr. J. E. Gray means by quoting " Geomys bursarius 
Richardson, Report of British Association, 1836, 156," as a synonym of this 
species. Sir John Richardson, on page 9 of the Zoology of Beechey's Voyage, 
mentions that Mus bursarius of Shaw is a Geomys, and on page 12 describes G. 
borealis, thereby implying that he considers them as distinct species. 

There is a third specimen in the museum of the Academy labelled " Pseudos- 
toma Richardsonii, Columbia river, J. K. Townsend," which only differs from 

162 [September, 

those above described in being darker colored, and brown above, rather than 
rufous ; the head is darker, the breast is slightly tinged with brown, the chin and 
inside of the cheek pouches more distinctly white, and the sides of the mouth 
dark fuscous. As, however, I can find no specific characters of importance, I 
am obliged to consider it as a variety. Its dimensions are as follows : 

Length from nose to root of tail, *J'5 

" Tail, , . 2-9 

Fore foot to end of third claw, !! 

Hind foot to end of third claw, 1-25 

7. G. Douglasii, "supra fuliginosus, subtus pallidior, capite nigricante ; 
sacculis buccalibus, pedibus caudaque albidis ; dentibus primoribus omnibus eulco 
subtili submarginali signatis." 

Inches. Lines,. 

Length from nose to root of tail, .... 6 6 

" Tail, 2 10 

Fore foot with longest claw, .... 1 

Hind foot with longest claw, .... 1 2 

Richardson Fauna Bor. Am. 200, pi. 18, C. 1 6, (Skull.) ; Aud. and Bachm 
pi. 105. 
Ascomys Douglasii Wagner, Schreber Saugeth. Suppl. 3, 392. 
Geomys fuliginosus Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 136. 

Columbia River. Richardson in his generic description mentions that the ears 
have an elevated margin ; the species is cited in the Zoology of Beechey's Voyage, 
page 22, but as no further account is given of it, I have of course omitted that 
reference. Schinz has created an unnecessary synonym by neglecting to observe 
that plate 18B, of Fauna Boreali- Americana, represents in reality Geomys bulbi- 
vorus, and is lettered by mistake Diplostoma Douglasii. 

8. G. t alp old es, "supra subtusque cano-niger, gula caudaque brevialbis, 
pedibus posticis subtetradactylis ; dentibus primoribus superioribus sulco sub- 

Inches. Lines. 
Length from nose to root of tail, ... 7 4 


Fore foot with middle claw, 
Hind foot with longest claw, 

Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. 204 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 137. 
Cricetus ?talpoides Richardson, Zool. Journal, 2, 518. 
Ascomys talpoides Wagner, Schreber Saugeth. 1. c. 390. 
P seudostoma talpoides Aud. and Bach. Quadr. Am. 3, 43, pi. 110. 
Hndson Bay ; Saskatchewan? " Ears slightly margined." 

9. G. u m b r i n u s , " supra umbrinus, subtus griseus, gula pedibusque albidis, 
dentibus primoribus laevigatis." 

Inches. Lines. 
Length from nose to root of tail, ... 7 

JLaii, ...,...JL " 

Fore foot to end of third claw, .... 10 

Hind foot to end of third claw, .... 1 

Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. 202 ; Schinz, Syn. Mam. 137. 
Ascomys umbrinus Wagner, 1. c. 389. 

' Cadadaguios, Louisiana." This species has been seen by no one but Rich- 
ardson ; it seems by description very similar to the next, but by the generic de- 
scription of Richardson it ought to have a distinct margin to the ears. 

10. G. b ulbi vorus, "supra inter castaneoet flavido-fuscum intermediug, infra 
griseo-fuscus, labiis, maxilla inferiori sacculisque albidis, cauda pallide brunnea. 

1 10 











1. Mam. 2, 135. 

1852.] 163 

Length from nose to root of tail, . 

" tail, .... 

Fore foot to end of third claw, 
Hind foot to end of third claw, 

Richardson, Zool. Beechey's Voy. 13 ; Schinz, Syn. 
Diplostoma? bulbivoruvi Richardson, Fauna Bor, Am. 1, 206. 
Diplostoma Douglassii Richardson, ibid. pi. 13, B. 
Geomys Douglassii Schinz, Syn. Mara. 2, 135. 
Ascomys bulbivurus Wagner, 1. c. 387. 

Columbia river; ears obsolete. No one since Richardson appears to have ob- 
served this animal. Schinz has made ooe species of the description, and another 
of the figure of this animal : his description of the latter seems concocted from 
the text under Diplostoma? bulbivorum. 

11. G. castanops, pallide flavo-brunneus, capite utrinque macula lateral! 
magna castanea notato. 

Length to base of tail, (approximate,) ... 8 
(' tpil 

Hand, (along the palm,) ..... 
Length of exposed part of middle anterior claw, 
Hind foot (along sole) from heel, 
Middle claw, ....... 

Pseudostoma castanops Baird, Stansbury's Exped. to Great Salt Lake, 313. 

Found near Bent's Fort. Dr. Baird does not mention whether the tail is naked 
or hairy; the incisors are not described, probably because they were wanting, 
and we have therefore no data to determine the position of this species. Judging 
by the length of the exposed part of the anterior middle claw, it should belong to 
the first division. 

A species with bisulcate superior iacisors is mentioned by Richardson (Report 
British Ass. 5, 157,) under the name Geomys Drummondi, and by Wagner as 
Ascomys Drummondi, but as no description has yet been published, the species 
must of course be dropped from the books. 

The following descriptions are too ioiperfect, or too faulty for reference. 

Mus bursarius Shaw, Lin. Trans. 5, 227, pi. 8; Shaw, Gen. Zool. 2, 1, 100, 
pi. 138. 

Mus bursarius Mitchill, Silliman's Journ. 4, 183. 

Cricetus bursarius Desmarest, Mammalogie, 312, (copied from Mitchill and 
from Shaw) 

Cricetus bursarius F. Cuvier, Diet. Sc. Nat. 20, 27, (copied.) 

Diplostoma fusca Rafinesque, Am. Month. Mag. 1817, 45. 

Diplostoma alba Rafinesque, ibid. 

Saccophorus? albus Fischer, Syn. Mara. 305. 

Geomys cinerea Rafinesque, ^^m. Monthly Mag. 181 7, 45. 

Geornjs bursarius Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am. 203 ; Zool. of Beechej's 
Voy. 9. 




1 4-12th3 

Catalogue of the Melyrides of the JJiiited States, vjith Descriptions of New 


By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

Div. 1. M'l/ach i, 


1. C. bipunctatus Er. Entomographien, 55; Malachius bipunctatus 
Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. 3, 185 ; Am. Entom. 3, pi. 48. 
Missouri Territory and Northern Mexico. 


164 [September, 

-'^ 2. C. m argini c ollis , niger cinereo-pubescens, supra nigro-pilosellue, 
capite vix punctulato, thorace laevi transverse, rufo-marginato, elvtris cyaneis, 
confertissime subtiliter punctatis, abdomine sanguineo. Long. -2. 

San Diego, California ; one female, with the antennae piceous, except the 
three basal joints, which are rufous. The thorax is more transverse and less 
rounded on the sides than the next sp'3cies, and the discoidal black spot is so 
large as to leave only a narrow red margin. 

3. C. nigriceps Er. Entom. 56; Malaehius nigriceps Say, Journ. Ac. 
3, 183; Am. Ent. 3, pi. 48. 

Middle and ISouthern States. 

4. 0. e X i m i u s Er. Entom. 56. 

New York. Very similar to the preceding, bat the anterior femora are yel- 
low, and the abdomen sanguineous, without black spots. 

5. C. tricolor Er. Entom. 57 ; Malaehius tricolor Say, Journ. Ac. 3, 182 ; 
Am. Ent. 3, pi. 48. 

New York and Lake Superior ; a variety with the lateral margin of the elytra 
more distinctly rufous, is found in Missouri Territory. 

6. C. punctatus, niger subtiliter cinereo-pubescens, supra dense nigro- 
pilosellus, capite confertim subtiliter punctato, thorace laevi rufo, transverse, 
lateribus et basi valde rotandatis, eljtris alutaceis, confertim punctatis. 
Long. '17. 

Two females from Missouri Territory; the antennse are black, with the 
two basal joints rufous ; the body beneath is black, with the coxae inclining to 

7. C. cribrosus, aeneo-niger, cinereo-pubescens, supra nigro-pilosellus, 
thorace laevi, rufo, transverso, lateribus valde rotundato, macula magna discoi- 
dali nigro notato, elytris convexis viridibus grosse punctatis, pedibus anticis 
testaceis. Long. -15 -17. 

San Diego, California, under sea weed. The male has the antennae entirely 
rufous ; in the female the external joints are piceous, with their outer angles 

8. C. q u a drim ac ul at us Er. Entom. 58. Malaehius ^-macidatus Fabr. 
Syst. El. 1, 308. 

Common in the Middle and Southern State?. 

9. C. confluens; niger, cinereo-pubescens, supra nigro-pilosellus, capite 
Subtilissime punctulato, thorace rufo transverso, ad latera punctulato, elytris 
confertissime punctatis rufis macula basali alteraque majore postica fere con- 
fluente viridibus, abdomine sanguino. Long. -17. 

Missouri Territory, two females ; the antennae are piceous, with tbe four 
basal joints pale ; the spots on the elytra are so large as to leave only the suture 
and margin red ; the red is wider at the middle, both on the suture and margin, 
"while in the next species, the external margin alone is dilated. From both C. 
4-maculatus and C. vittatus it is easily distinguished by the finely punctured 
Bides of the thorax. 

10. C. vittatus Er. Entotu. 60; Malaehius vittotus Say, Journ. Ac. 3) 
184 ; Am. Ent. 3, pi. 48. ( 5 ) Megadcuterus llaworthi Westwood, Tr. Ent- 

Middle States, rare. 

11. C. marginellus, niger, densins cinereo-pubescens, supra nigro- 
pllosellus, capite thoraceque subtiliter pnnctulatis, hoc tenuiter rufo marginato, 
transverso, elytris cyaneis confertim punctatis margine ad medium latiore sutu- 
raque rufis, abdomine pedibusque rufis. Long. -17. 

River Colorado, California ; the red margin of the elytra is dilated as in C. 
vittatus. The antenna? of the male are entirely rufous, those of the feranle are 
piceous, with three or four b-isal joints rufous. 



_, 12, C. p u nc t ul atu 8 , niger subtillns pubescens, et parcius nigro pilosel- 
las, capite confertim sobtilius ponctato, thorace parcius punctulato margine 
lateral! tenui testaceo, elytris alutaceis, subtilius punctatis, margine ad medium 
latiore, sutura antice dilatata apiceque flavis, tibiis tarsisque testaceis, femori- 
bus nigris. Long. -12. 

One female, Missouri Territory; the first joint of the antennae and half of the 
second are pale, the others are black. 

14. C. hi strio Er. Entom. 59 ; Mannerheim, Bull. Mosc. 1843, 247. 

California, unknown to me. This species rs very similar to 4-maculatus, but 
the thorax is densely punctulate, and the posterior spot of the elytra reaches 
the margin near the apex. 

Malachius Fabr. (emend. Er.) 

1. M. ae n e u s Fabr. Syst. El. 1, 306 ; Er. Entom. 66. 

Cambridge, Mass., Dr. Harris. Undoubtedly introduced, but apparently 
naturalized, as one or two specimens occur every year. For the synonjma see 
Erichson as cited above. The references relate only to the occurrence of the 
insect ic Europe, and therefore should have no place in our fauna. 

2. M. a u r i t u s , cyaneo-niger, vix cinereo-pubescens, labri margine 
clypeoque flavis, thorace vix transverse, angulis omnibus rotundatis, lateribus 
anguste rubris, elytris subtiliter scabris, linea vix elevata notatis. Long. -23. 

San Francisco and San Jose, California. The male has the tips of the elytra 
obliquely truncate and split, the inner part rising over the outer; in the female 
the tip is not distorted, and is of a brilliant red Cvlor. The maxillary palpi are 
short and subacute; the abdomen is entirely horny beneath. 

3. M. 1 o n g ic e p s , niger nitidus, breviter nigro-pilosellus, parce subtiliter 
pubescens, capite elongato, thorace lateribus sanguineis rectis antice rotundatis, 
elytris vix rugosis sutura apiceque sanguineis. Long. -15. 

A very singular species from San Diego, California. The head is twice as 
long as wide, the antennae are inserted in from of the eyes, but not at the tip ; 
they are strongly serrate in the male, and but moderately so in the female, the 
last joint of the maxillary palpi is longer than the preceding, and acute. The 
thorax is not wider than long. The elytra are dilated behind, and the tip is 
entire in both sexes. The basal joints of the abdomen are membraneus in the 
middle of their ventral surface. The anterior tarsi of the male have the two 
basal joints slightly dilated. In this species the clypeus has a small mem- 
branous spot anteriorly, similar to the ' rhinariurrC of some species of 

Anthocomus Er. 

1. A. Erichsonii. " ^. oft'o*?** Say." Er. Entom. 99. 

This species is unknown to me, it differs from the next species by having the 
apex of the elytra of the male compressed ; the anterior tarsi are not dilated. 

2. A. otiosus. Malachius wtg-rtpenwi^HSay, Journ. Ac. 3, 184; Mala- 
chius otiosus Say, Am. Eat. 3, pi. 48. Anthoconins atripennis Er. 108 (var. 
with immaculate thorax.) 

Middle and Southern States. The male of this, as of all the following species 
has the second joint of the anterior tarsi enlarged and produced above the 
third and fourth joints ; the tip of the elytra is not compressed or distorted. The 
anterior feet are usually yellow. 

3. A. rufifrons. Malachius r?//?/row5|Dej. Cat. 

Georgia ; from a specimen too mutilated for description this species seems 
very similar to the last mentioned, but differs in the head being entirely rufous. 

4. A. lateralis, niger, subtilissime cinereo-pubescens, clypeo rufo, 

166 ' [September, 

thorace transverso, lateribus et angulia valde rotundatis subtiliter punctulato, 
rufo, vitta lata nigra notato, elytris vix rugosis. Long. -lO. 

Pennsylvania. Very similar to A. otiosus, but the thorax, besides being 
finely punctulate, has the posterior angles more broadly margined. 

5. A. flavilabris. Malachius Jlavilabris Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 
169. Mai. ccendeus Randall, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 2, 16. 

One specimen, Vermont. Prof. C. B. Adams. 

6. A. circumscriptus Er. Entom. 107. Malachius ciratmscriptus Say, 
Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 3, 185. 

SoutLern States, not rare. 

7. A ci n c tu s , testaceus, supra niger, subtiliter cinereo-pubescens, parce 
nigro-pilosellus, ore thoracis margine tenui, elytrorum basi margineque omni 
flaxis, postpectore nigr. Long. -12. 

Colorado River, California. The antennae are piceous, with the base pale; 
the thorax is transverse aud rounded on the sides as in the other species. The 
pygidium is black, margined with testaceous; the abdomen has two rows of 
piceous spots, the posterior tibiae are piceous. 

8. A. difficilis, niger, ore flavo, thorace lateribus tenuiter 3avi3, elytris 
margine suturali et externo usque ad medium, apiceque flavis, pedibus basi 
liavis. Long. -13. 

Colorado River. This species is so similar to the last, in every respect, 
except color, that I hesitate to consider it distinct; the pubescence if it ever 
had any has been entirely removed. Only a single specimen was found. 

9. A. lobatus, flavus, parce cinereo-pubescens, capite postice piceo' 
thorace maculis 3 nigris confiuentibus notato, scutello nigro, elytris nigris 
margine omni, basi suturaque late flavis, subtus niger pedibus abdominisque 
apice flavis. Long. -07. 

A very pretty little species from the Colorado River, California. The 
antennae are piceous, with the under part of the basal joints pale. A variety 
has the head black, with only the clypeus pale ; the spots of the thorax so large 
as to leave only a narrow yellow margin ; the sutural yellow margin of the 
elytra not reaching the scutel, and the posterior feet dusky. It was found at 
Vallecitas, on the western edge of the desert of the Colorado. 

10. A.terminalis Er. Entom. 108. Malacldiis terminalis Say, Journ. 
Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 71. 

Middle and Southern States. 

11. A. scincetus Er. Entom. 109. Malachius scinceius Say, Journ. 
Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, 170. 

Southern States. Inasmuch as Erichson has adopted this specific name, I 
do not venture to change it. I fear, however, that the German philosopher has 
been as much at a loss as myself to give any meaning to it. It certainly can- 
not be considered as a ' vox eu[honia,' such as are frequently invented by those 
who rejoice in a limited amount of classic lore. The name given by Dejean 
{Malackms lividus) is certainly infinitely better. 

This species varies in the color of the thorax, which is sometimes entirely 
black ; usually it is yellow with a broad black vitta. 

12. A. granularis Er. Entom. 112. 
South Carolina, Dr. Zimmerman. 

13. A. basalis, niger, glaber, nitidus, clypeo pedibusque flavis, thorace 
subtilissime punctulato, basi, flavo-marginato, elytris postice latioribus, vix 
rugosis. Long. 06. 

One specimen, Colorado Jliver, California. 

14. A. m e 1 a n o p t e r u s Er. Entom. 1 1 0. 
This species is unknown to me. 

1852.] 167 Er. 

1. E. morulus, niger nitidus, parce pubescens, thorace subtransverso, 
lateribus et basi rotundato, elytria irapunctatis, abdomine brevioribus, abdo- 
minis segmentis flavo-marginatis, clypeo pedibusque anterioribus testaceis. 
Long. -12. 

One specimen, Missouri Territory. The antennae are piceous, with the infe- 
rior margin pale. 

2. E. apicalis Er. Entom. 119. Malachius apicialis Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. 
Sc. 5, ITO. 

Southern States, very abundant; the elytra of the female are entirely blact. 
It is the Malachius melinojHerus of Dejean's Catalogue. 

3. E. bicolor, niger, tenuiter cinereo-pubescens, capite, thorace antenna- 
rum basi pedibusque flavis, elytris subtiliter alutaceis. Long. -07. 

One male-, from Georgia, with the tip of the elytra yellow and hamate as in 
the preceding species, from which it differs principally by its yellow head. 

4. E. pu si 11 us, 3Ialachius pusillus Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. 5, IVO. 
Southern States; the male has the tip of the elytra yellow and hamate ; the 

female resembles very much Anthocomus granularis Er., but is distinguished at 
once by its bluish color and densely alutaceous elytra. 

5. E. o bl i t u s , niger, vix cyanescens, tenuiter cinereo-pubescens, thorace 
convexo, subtilissime punctulato, subtransverso, lateribus et basi rotundato, 
po=?tice subangustato, elytris convexis subtilissime punctatis, antennarum basi, 
pedibusque flavis. Long. -OV. 

Middle and Soutbern States. Differs from the preceding by its less transverse 
more convex, and finely punctured thorax; the male, as usual, has the tip of 
the elytra pale colored and hamate ; in the female the elytra are much dilated 

6. E. submarginatus, longiusculus, sneo-niger, tenuiter pubescens, 
thorace subtiliter alutaceo non transverse, versus basin angustato, basi refun- 
data obsolete rufescente, elytris vix dilatatis depressiusculis, obsolete rugosia, 
abdomine brevioribus. Long. '06. 

One specimen, Colorado River, California. The antennae and tibiae are testa- 
ceous at base. 

7. E. minutus, Malachius minutus Mels. Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2, 305. 
Pennsylvania. This species is unknown to me. It is described as being 

black, with the feet antepectus, head and thorax rufous, the latter with a 
dusky vitta. It may be an Anthocomus, but from its small size, the reference 
to this genus is probably correct. 


Antennae U-articulatae, maris pectinatee. CJypeus brevissimus, indistinctus. 
Labrum parvum transversum, breve. Palpi maxillares breves, arliculo 4to apice 
acurainato. Tarsi antici maris articulo l^o inferno, 2ndo obliquo. 

I have only males of this genus, which differ from Ebaeus by the first joint 
of the anterior tarsi being inferior, and almost indistinct; the tip of the elytra 
is not impressed ; the ventral segments of the abdomen are entirely corneous. 
The itisect has somewhat the appearance of Malihinus, but with longer elytra. 

1. A. nigrelluSj niger, nitidus, vix pubescens, thorace valde transverse, 
capite vix latiore, angulis omnibus rotundatis, posticis, explanatis, elytris thorace 
paulo latioribus, subtilissime vix rugosis. Long. -11. 

Two male from Eagle Harbor, Lake Superior. The posterior tibiae are slight- 
ly bent inwards, and the joints of the antennae after the 4th, are triangular, 
with the internal angle much prolonged, so that the organs become tolerably 
strongly pectinate. 

168 [September, 


Antennae ll-articulatae, elongatae, eubserratae. Palpi maxillares, breves, 
crassi, articulo 4to conico. Labrum quadratum, apice subrotundatum. Clj'peus 
brevis, coriaceua. Tarsi antici articulis 4-subtu8 breviter lobatis. 

The body is elongate and linear, the head as broad as the thorax, very much 
narrowed in front of the eyes, which are prominent ; the tip of the elytra is 
eimple in both sexes ; the head of the male is slightly trifoveate ; the ventral 
segments of the abdomen are entirely corneous. 

1. M. laticeps, elongatus, aeneo-niger, tenuissime cinereo-pubescens 
clypeo flavo, thorace vix transverso, angulis rotundatis, margine tennui iSavo, 
elytris vix rugoais, apice rotundatis anguste flavis. Long. '13. 

San Diego, California ; the palpi and antennae are black, the under part of 
the three basal joints of the latter pale. The pale margin of the thorax is inter- 
rupted at the apex in a specimen from San Francisco, which also has the thorax 
a little narrowed behind, and the posterior angles less rounded than in the San 
Diego specimens. It may perhaps be a different species, but a greater number 
of specimens will be wanted to determine the question. 

Atelestds Er. 

1. A. basalis, opacus, sanguineus, brevissime pubescens, capite fusco, 
thorace latitudine longiore, postice angustato basi producto et emarginato, 
elytris depressis, thorace loagioribus, atris basi sanguineo-marginatis. 
Long. 12. 

San Diego, California, under sea weeds. The red of the base of the elytra 
extends on the outer margin almost to the middle. The male of this species, 
as well as of both the following, has the 2d joint of the anterior tarsi obliquely 
produced above (as in our species of Anthocomus) as far as the end of the 3rd 
joint, which is aUo elongated. In this character it differs remarkably from 
Erichson's Atelestus hemipterus, the male of which has the first joint of the 
anterior tarsi produced obliquely under the second. According to Erichson's 
principles of division, our species should form a separate genus, but as I have 
been able, by this description, to find no difference except this sexual one, I do 
not feel justified in giving a new generic name to the species here described. 

2. A. abdominalis, sanguineus, opacus, brevissime pubescens, thorace 
latitudine longiore, postice angustato, basi producto vix emarginato, elytris 
depressis, thorace longioribus, atris, abdomine toto atro. Long. -12, 

San Diego, with the preceding; the scutellum is red, but the elytra are 

3 A. collaris, niger, opacus, brevissime pubescens, thorace latitudine 
vix breviore, rotundato, sanguineo basi medio late emarginato, elytris thorace 
brevioribus, scabris. Long. -12. 

San Francisco ? One male sent by Mr. Pease. In the two preceding species 
the elytra are gradually widened from the base, and lie together at the suture 
for the greater part of their length. In this species they are not widened on 
the sides, and commence to separate immediately behind the scutellum, which 
is black. 

Div. 2. Dasytini. 

Dasytes Fabr. 

Although differing much in the form of the body, there appears to be no natu- 
ral mode of separating the following species into genera; the two last species, 
which are the only oues from the eastern part of the continent, do recede 
remarkably from the others in the absence of the appendages between the claws 
of the tarsi. There are however European species similar to them, which are 
retained by Redtenbacher, in the genus Dasytes. We have not in North Ame- 
rica the intermediate forms having one claw simple and the other with an 

1852.] 169 

appendage. The following scheme may aid the student in determining the 
species, which in the western part of the continent will become quite numerous 
and very difficult. 

A. Ungues omnes appendiculati. 

a. Thorace transverse, marginibus integris, Sp. 1 8. 

b. Thorace elongato, raarginibus integris, Sp. 9. 

c. Thorace lateiibus serrulatis, Sp. 10 17. 

B. Ungues non appendiculati, Sp. 18 19. 

A a. 

1. D. fuse us, fusco-subaeoeus, dense fusco-pubescens, obesus, thorace 
longitudine duplo latiore, lateribus valde rotundatis, elytra convexis, subtilius 
sat dense punctulatis, pedibus rufo-piceis. Long. -14. 

Valleciias, California, May. The male has the thorax wider than the elytra, 
which are a little narrowed posteriorly. 

2. D. suturalis, oblongus nigro-feneus, subtiliter cinereo-pubescens, 
dense nigro-pilosellus, thorace iatitudine paulo breviore, lateribus paulo rotun- 
datis, angulis posticis obtusis, elyiris confertim punctulatis et subrugosis, 
sutura lateribusque densius cinereo pube?centibus. Long. '13 '15. 

San Diego, California. In the male the elytra are narrower than the thorax, 
and narrowed posteriorly. 

3. D. c n f r m i s , nigro-aeneus, subtiliter cinereo-pubescens, dense nigro- 
pilosellus, oblongus, thorace Iatitudine breviore, lateribus et angulis posticis 
valde rotundatis, elytris confertim punctulatis et subrugosis, sutura saepius 
densius cinereo-pubescente. Long. 12- 14, 

San Diego. Very similar to tbe Nst, and only differing in the form of the 
thorax; the male has the elytra slightly narrowed posteriorly. 

4. D. sordidus, oblongus, convexus, aeneo-piceus, longius sordide 
pubescens, et nigro-pilosellus, thorace Iatitudine breviore, parce subtiliter 
puntulato, lateribus rotundatis, elytris sat dense minus subtiliter punctatis. 
Long. "14. 

San Diego abundant; distinguished by the equally distributed coarse pubes- 
cence and longer more numerous erect black hairs. The male is e, little nar- 
rower than the female. 

5. D. griseus, oblongus, convexus, aeneo-piceus, densius longe sordide 
pubescens, non pilosellus, thorace Iatitudine breviore, punctulato, lateribus 
rotundatis, elytris sat dense grossius punctatis, pedibus antennisque rufis. 
Long. -1. 

One specimen, California, (San Diego?). The joints of the antennae are not 
transverse, and from the 4th 10th are equal in size. The preceding species 
have the antennas serrate only from the 5ih joint. 

6. D. brevicornis, oblongo-cylindricus, aeneo-piceus, dense subtiliter 
longe cinereo-pubescens, non pilosellus, thorace Iatitudine breviore, punctulato, 
lateribus valde rotundatis, elytris sat dense grossius punctatis, pedibus anten- 
nisque rufis, his articulis a 4to subtransversis. Long. -1. 

San Diego. A little narrower than D. griseus, and with more rounded thorax. 
The antennae are shorter, the joints from the 4th are transverse, and the Vth and 
8th are a little narrower than those which precede them. 

7. D. squalidus, oblongo-elongatus, aeneo-piceus, subtiliter longe'cinereo- 
pubescens, nigro-pilosellus, thorace transverso parce punctulato, lateribus paulo 
rotundatus, angulis posticis obtusis, elytris sat dense grossius pucctatis, dorso 
leviter depressis. Long. 09. 

San Diego, two specimens. Resembles most nearly D. suturalis, but is 
smaller ; the posterior angles of the thorax are less distinct, and the elytra less 
finely punctured. As in D. suturalis, the 4th joint of the antennae is scarcely 

170 [September, 

8. D. aenescens, subelongatiS; cylindricus, nigro-pilosellus, vix subfilis- 
sime cinereo-pubeecens, thorace subtransverso, parce punctulato, lateribus et 
angulis posticis valde rotundatis, elytris dorso subdepressis sat dense grosse 
punctatis. Long. -10. 

San Diego ; the male is a little narrower than the female. 

A b. 

9. D. CO n s t ric tu s , elongatas, a?neo-fQscus, subtiliter cinereo-pubesceng, 
non pilosellus, thorace latitudine fere longiore, capiie vix latiore ante medium 
angustato et paulo constricto, elytris subtilliter punctatis, antennis pedibusque 
rufis. Long. 09. 

San Diego, rare. The sides of thorax are almost straight, and parallel, 
with the exception of the sinuosity produced by the anterior constriction. 

A c. 

10. D. canescens,' subelongatus subcylindricus, aeneo-niger, irregulariter 
longius cinereo-pubescens. thorace transverso, lateribus valde rotundatis, serru- 
latis, confertim punctulato, vittis denudatis notato, elytris sat dense punctatis 
maculis denudatis plaribus ornatis. Long. -15. 

Mannerheim, Bull. Mosc. 1842, 248. 

San Jose and San Francisco, very abundant. The description of Mannerheim 
is not at all characteristic. The male is narrower than the female ; the inferior 
segment of the abdomen is short, and articulates with an anal segment. 

11. D. rot u n d i col 1 i s , elongatus, subcylindricus, aeneo-niger, subirregu- 
lariter cinereo-pubescens, thorace rotundato, lateribus serrulatis, elytris dorso 
subdepressis, sat dense grossius punctatis, maculis subdenudatis vix conspicuis 
notatis. Long. "ll. 

San Jose, abundant ; the male has the last ventral segment deeply excavated. 

12. D, difficilis, elongatus, subcylindricus, aeneo-niger, irregulariter 
cinereo-pubescens, thorace subtransverso, antrorsum angustato, lateribus serru- 
latis valde rotundatis, sat dense puuctato, elytris sat dense punctatis, maculis 
indistinctis subdenutatis notatis. Long. -11. 

San Jose. Very similar to D. canescens, but the thorax is less transverse, 
and less thickly punctured ; the spots on the elytra are less distinct ; they form 
three transverse bands and a mark at the base. The male has the last ventral 
segment small and canaliculate ; it articulates with an anal segment. 

13. D. s en i 1 i s , elongatus, dense cinereo-pubescens, aeneo-piceus, thorace 
opaco punctulato, subquadrato, antrorsum subangustato, lateribus serrulatis vix 
rotundatis, elytris confertim subtilius punctatis. Long. -IS. 

Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory. 

14. D. obscurellus, subelongatus, niger vix aenescens, subtilissime vix 
conspicue cinereo-pubescens, capite thoraceque alutaceis, parce punctatis, hoc 
rotundato, serrulato, convexo, elytris tliorace latioribus, dorso vix depressis, sat 
dense grossius punctatis. Lon. -09. 

San Diego, one specimen. Resembles in form D. rotundicollis, but is smaller, 
and with the pubescens scarcely visible. 

15. D. 1 u t eip es , aeneus, elongatus, subcylindricus, longe injequaliter 
cinereo-pubescens, thorace non transverso, convexo punctato, lateribus serrulatis 
rotundatis, antrorsum subangustato, elytris grossius distincte j)unctatis, dorso 
non depressis, maculis subdenudatis atris notatis, antennarum basi pedibusque 
rufo-flavis. Long. -l. 

One specimen, San Diego. 

16. D. pusiUus, aeneo-niger, oblongo-elongatus, parcius longe cinereo- 
pubescens, thorace opaco, confertissime ruguloso, transverso, lateribus eubser- 

1852.] 171 

rnlatis rotnndatis, eljtris dorso convexis sat dense punctatis antennarum basi 
pedibusque rufis. Lonjr. -OT. 
One specimen, San Diego. 

17. D. erythropus, niger, vix aeneas, oblongo-elongatis, parcius cinereo- 
pubescens, thorace opaco, confertissime ruguloso, latitudine fere duplo breviore, 
lateribus vix serrulatis rotundatie, elytris dorso subdepressis, sublilius punctatis, 
antennarum basi pedibusque rufis. Long. -09 

New Mexico ; brought also from the boundary of Mexico, by Col. Graham. 
This species is extremely similar to D. pusillus ; the color is however less 
bronzed, the elytra are less convex and less coarsely punctured. The male has 
the last ventral segment slightly foveate and emarginate; the anal segment 
broad and short. 


' 18. D. basal is, oblongo-elongatus, ater vix pubescens, capite thoraceque 
opacis valde punctatis, hoc transverso, lateribus subrotundatis marginalia 
serratis, elytris cribratim punctatis, valde marginatis, basi maculaque ante 
apicem rufis. Long. -13. 

Georgia, very rare, I have adopted the name under which this species appears 
in Dejean's Catalogue. 

19. D. cribratus, aeneo-niger subtilissirae parce pubescens, oblongo- 
elongatus, capite thoraceque valde punctatis hoc transverso, lateribus subrotun- 
datis marginatis serratis, elytris valde marginatis cribratim punctatis. 
Long. 'lO. 

South Carolina and Pennsylvania, Dr. Zimmerman. 

I have not been able to identify the two following California species : 

D. laticollis Mannerheira, Bull. Mosc. 1843, 247. 
D. parvicollis Mannerheim, ibid, 248. 

Dr. Fisher offered his resignation as a member of the Committee on 
the proposed enlargement of the Hall of the Academy, which was ac- 
cepted, and on motion Dr. Zantzinger was appointed to fill the vacancy. 


Dr. Francis V. Greene, Mr. R. E. Griffith, Prof. James C. Booth, 
and Dr. Mark W- Collet, all of this city, were elected Members of the 

And Thomas Antisell, M. D., of New York, M. H. Perlcy, Esq., of 
St. Johns, N. B., and the Bight Rev. Alonzo Potter, D. D., of Penn- 
sylvania, were elected Correspondents, 

October bth. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Dr. Leidy presented a paper from Prof. S. F. Baird and Mr. Charles 
Girard, intended for publication in the Proceedings, entitled " Descrip- 
tions of new species of Reptiles, collected by the U. S. Exploring Ex- 
pedition, Captain Wilkes: Part I., including the species from the West 
coast of America.'^ Referred to Dr. Hallowell, Dr. LeConte and Dr. 


172 [October, 

October 12ih. 
Major John Le Conte in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Dr. Martyn Paine, dated New York, Oct. 5th, 1852, present- 
ing the works announced this evening. 

From the Librarian of the Manchester (England) Free Library and 
Museum, dated Sept. 6, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of copies of 
the late " Notice of the Academy by Dr. Ruschenberger.'^ 

From the Secretary of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 
dated Sept. 6, containing a similar acknowledgment. 

October 19/^. 
Major John Le Conte in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Secretary of the Trustees of the New York State Library, 
acknowledging the receipt of No. 5, Vol. 6, of the Proceedings. 

From the Secretary of the Theological Society, of London, dated 
Oct. 17th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of the Proceedings and 
Journal of the Academy. 

From the Secretary of the ^'Naturwissenschaftliche Yerein in Ham- 
burg," dated May 28th, 1852, transmitting the volumes announced 
this evening, and requesting an exchange of publications. 

From M. Lacordaire, Secretary of the Societe Royale des Sci. de 
Liege,'' dated 9th July, 1852, transmitting the memoirs of that Society, 
and also requesting an exchange of publications. 

From Dr. T. I. Kirkbride, Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital for the Insane, dated Oct. 15, 1852, requesting the loan or gift 
of duplicate objects of Natural History for the Museum of that Insti- 
tution. Referred to the Curators with power to act. 

Dr. Hallowell presented a paper designed for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, describing some new Reptiles inhabiting North America. 
Referred to Dr. Leidy, Dr. Le Conte and Dr. Woodhouse. 

Dr. Hallowell presented a second pnper, also for publication, entitled, 
*' Descriptions of new species of Reptiles from Oregon Territory.'* 
Referred to the same Committee. 

Mr. Cassin presented a "Catalogue of the Halcyonidse in the Col- 
lection of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia," which being intended for 
publication in the Proceedings, was referred to the following Committee : 
Dr. Wilson, Dr. Bridges and Dr. Woodhouse. 

Mr. Cassin presented another paper intended for publication, de- 
scribing new species of liirds, specimens of which are in the Collec- 
tion of the Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia. Referred to same Com- 



October 2^th. 

Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committae to which was referred the following papers by Prof. 
Baird and Mr. Charles Girard, reported in favor of publication in the 
Proceedings : 

Characteristics of some new Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Insti- 

By Spencer F. Baird and Charles Gibard. 

Third part. Containing the Batrachians in the collection made by J. H. 
Clark, Esq., under Col. J. D. Graham, on the United States and Mexican 

Amblystoma PROSERPINE, B. and G. Head oval, longer than broad. Limbs 
and toes well developed. Posterior legs a little shorter than the anterior ones. , 
Tail somewhat compressed, tapering; shorter than the body and head together. 
Five inches in length from the end of the mouth to the tip of the tail : head one- 
eighth of this length. Body nearly cylindrical, more so in the male than in the 

This species is related to A. mavortium, which it resembles in coloring, but 
it differs from the latter in having a proportionally longer head, and longer limbs 
and toes. The tail, however, is shorter. 

Six immature specimens were obtained at Salado, four miles from San Antonio, 
Texas. Specimens nearly full grown were collected by R. H. Kern, Esq., of 
Philadelphia, on the route from Montgomery, Mexico. 

Rana areolata, B. and G. Head very large, sub-elliptical ; snout prominent, 
nostrils situated half way between its tips and the anterior rim of the eyes, which 
are proportionally large. The tympanum is spherical, and of medium size ; its 
central portion is yellowish-white, whilst its periphery is black. The body is 
raiher short and stout ; the limbs well developed ; the fingers and toes very 
long without being slender. The ground color of the body and head is yellowish- 
green, marked with dark brown. Besides there are from thirty to fifty brown 
areolae, margined with a yellowish line. The upper part of the limbs is of the 
same color as the body, but instead of areolae, transverse bands of brown are 
seen on the hind ones. The lower part of ihe head and body is yellowish, with 
small dusky spots along the margin of the lower jaw, and under the neck. 

A specimen three inches and a half long was found at Indianola, and a small 
one on the Rio San Pedro of the Gila. 

BuFo PDNCTATUS, B. and G. Head short, sub-triangular ; upper surface even. 
Two inches in total length. Body and upper portion of the limbs covered with 
minute red tubercles. Color of a uniform yellowish-green or yellowish-brown, 
punctured with red on the head, on the upper part of the body and limb?. Be- 
neath yellowish, with occasional minute dots under the head and on the breast. 
Caught on the Rio San Pedro of the Rio Grande Del Norte. 

BuFO GRANULOSUS, B. and G. This species is closely related to the preceding, 
from which it can be distinguished by a larger and more triangular head, whose 
upper surface presents a widely open groove, extending from the occiput to the 
snout, where it terminates in a very narrow channel. The upper periphery of 
the orbits is thus surrounded with a carina which extends from the eyes to the 
nostrils below. The body is covered with very conspicuous tubercles. The 
limbs are rather slender. The ground color is brown, maculated or marbled 
above with black patches and dots. Unicolor beneath. 

One specimen was collected on the route between Indianola and San Antonio, 

174 [October, 

Descriptions of new species of Reptiles^ collected ly the U. S. Exploring Expedi- 
tion under the command o/Capt. Charles Wilkks, U. S. N. 

First part. Including the species from the Western coast of America. 
Bj Spencer F. Baibd and Charles Girard. 

Amblystoma tenebrosum, B. and G. The single specimen of this species 
brought home by the Expedition is five inches and a half in length, of which 
the tapering and most compressed tail occupies two and a quarter. The head 
is subelliptical, and longer than broad. The limbs are proportionally stout ; the 
third finger is the longest. The color (as preserved in alcohol) is uniformly 
cheanut brown, marbled with a much deeper (nearly black) brown. 

This species is related to A. macro dactylum^ Baird, but differs from it in the 
Structure of the hind feet, in which the fourth finger is the longest; also in the 
vomerine band of teeth, which, in A. macrodactylum forms a curve convex for- 
w^irds, on the middle region of the palate, while in A. tenebrosum, the convexity 
of the same curve is directed backwards. 

From Oregon. 

Rax\a aurora, B. and G. The general aspect of this species differs greatly 
from that of all its congeners in North America. The length of the body and 
head together is three inches and a half, the head forming nearly one third of 
this length. The head itself is pyramidal, pointed, the nostrils situated midway 
between the anterior rim of the eye and the tip of the snout. Eyes of medium 
eiz?, anterior limbs short; fingers rather long and slender. The body is orange 
red, with here and there black irregular patches. 

From Puget Sound. 

Rana Draytonii, B. and G. This species resembles very much the preceding 
in its external appearance. It differs, however, in having a truncated snout, the 
no3tril3 consequently nearer to its tip than to the eyes. The eyes themselves 
and tympanum are proportionally larger than in R. auroray the limbs more de- 
veloped and the tongue much narrower. The ground color is olivaceous green, 
maculated with black on the upper region of the body and limbs, whilst under- 
neath the hue is unicolor, except sometimes under the head, breast and hind 
legs, where the brown and white mingle in circular dots. 

Specimens were collected at San Francisco, California, and on Columbia River 
by Mr. Drayton himself, to whom we take pleasure in dedicating this species. 

Hyla regilla, B. and G. This is a species of medium size; the largest indi- 
vidual observed measuring one inch and a half from the nose to the posterior 
exireraity of the body, the head itself occupying about half of this length. The 
bind legs are long and slender, the web extending only to half the length of the 
longest toe; fingers comparatively long. The general color is green above, 
turning to orange yellow along the sides of the bead, abdomen and legs. Two 
oblong, brownish black spots exist on the occiput, from which two vittse (one 
pair) of the same black color extend along the dorsal region; a similar band 
passes from the tip of the nose, across the eye and tympanum, and along the 
abdomen, when it is interrupted and forms a series of black and irregular small 
spots. In the immature state, green is the prevailing color; a few black spots 
being present along the whitish abdomen. 

Specimens of this species were collected on Sacramento River, in Oregon and 
Puget Sound. Drawings from life were made on the spot by Mr. Drayton. 

Bufo BOREAS, B. and G. Upper surface of head flat, nearly even, the orbits 
alone being raised above it. Snout truncated. Parotids of medium size and 
oblong. Tympanum comparatively small. Body tuberculous or warty. Ilind 
feet webbed to nearly the tip of the toes. The color is brownish green abovr, 
dirty white below, with blackish brown patches spread all over. There is a 
dorsal, narrow and yellowish stripe, extending posteriorly from behind the eyes 
along the whole length of the body. 

1852.] 175 

Specimens were obtained on Columbia River and Puget Sound. The body of 
the largest one measures a little over four inches. 

ScELOPORUs GRACILIS, B. and G. A pretty little species, calling to mind Sc. 
graciosus described and figured in Stausbury's Report on the great Salt Lake of 
Utab. It is slenderer, however, and possesses more elongated limbs and tail. 
The fingers and toes are likewise very slender. The head is gently conical in 
front; the plates which cover its upper surface resemble somewhat those in Sc. 
graciosus, although presenting good specific differences as will be shown by the 
figures. The scales are proportionally small and slightly carinated ; larger on 
the tail. There are from twelve to fourteen distinct femoral pores right and 

Above, the color is brown with a lateral and narrow yellowish stripe extend- 
ing on either side from the eye to the tail, and margined by a series of elongated 
black dashes. On the sides of the body there is a double series of black cres- 
cents, convex backwards. The inferior part of the body is light and unicolor in 
the female, whilst the male is provided on the sides of the abdomen with a deep 
blue elongated area. 

Inhabits Oregon. 

ScELOPORUS occiDENTALis, B. and G. This species has the general appearance 
and shape of -S'c. undulatus, from which we distinguish it by marked differences 
in the cephalic plates. The dorsal scales are more strongly carinated and their 
posterior point more acute, thus giving to the animal a rougher aspect. The 
posterior margin of the scales on the lower surface of the head and sides is on 
the other hand much less indented, especially in advance of the hind legs. 

Inhabits California, and probably Oregon, although less numerous in the 
latter country where it is replaced by Sc. gracilis and the following species. 

ScBLOPORUS FRONTALIS, B. and G. The most striking character of this species 
consists in the rounded shape of the snout, a feature attracting immediate notice. 

The occipital, vertical and frontal plates resemble more those in Sc. undulatus, 
than in Sc. occidentaHs, but the arrangement of the supraciliaries is more like 
that in Sc. occideiitalis than in Sc. undulatus. The scales are slightly carinated ; 
heuce a general smooth appearance which contrasts somewhat strikingly with 
that 0^ Sc. occidentalis. The dorsal scales are nearly of the same size as in Sc. 
occidentalism but at the origin of the tail are sensibly larger. The tail of the 
unique specimen before us, is broken off at about an inch from the vent. 

Caught in going up Puget Sound. 

Elgaria prin'cipis, B. and G. Twelve longitudinal rows of smooth abdominal 
scales, trapezoidal on the belly. Fourteen similar rows of carinated scales on 
the upper part of the body, forming forty-five transversal series from immedi- 
ately behind the meatus to the origin of the tail. On the tail itself the scales are 
the largest, smooth underneath and slightly carinated above. The body and 
limbs are of slender appearance. The species appears not to attain a very large 
size ; the largest individual seen measures about nine inches from the nose to 
the tip of the tail. 

Of the cephalic plates the vertical one is the most prominent; the shape of 
the frontal plates readily distinguishes this species from E. scincicauda. 

Color uniform olivaceous brown above and below ; three series (either double 
or single) of black spots all along the upper region from the head to the tail. 

From Oregon and Puget Sound. 

Edgaria FORMOSA, B. and G. Sixteen longitudinal rows of strongly carinated 
scales on the upper part of the body, forming about fifty transversal series from 
the meatus to the origin of the tail. Abdominal scales twelve rowed. Tail 
very long, conical, and tapering. Color yellowish green, with numerous irregu- 
lar, narrow, transverse bands of brownish black tipped posteriorly with white. 

This species resembles Gerrhonotu^ muliicarinatus of Blainville, {Elgaria 
multicarinata) in the slender appearance of its body and limbs; the latter how- 

176 [October, 

ever assume still more this character in E. muliicarinata, the scales of which 
are considerably larger than the species here described. 
From California. 

Elgaria grandis, B. and G. Fourteen longitudinal rows of carinated scales 
on the upper part of the body; the carina on the sides is but slightly apparent. 
Fifty transversal series from the meatus to tqe origin of the tail. Tail itself 
one and a half times as large as the body, conidal and tapering. Twelve rows 
of abdominal scales, subquandrangular in shape. Color olivaceous brown, with 
irregular, transverse and narrow bands of brownish black tipped posteriorly 
with white. 

This species is intimately related to the preceding, from which it differs in the 
structure of the fronto-nasal plates and the shape of the scales generally. The 
limbs are also shorter. 

Inhabits Oregon. 

Tropidonotus ordinoides, B. and G. Is distinguished from T. inprnaliSf 
{^Coluber infernalis, Bl.), to which it bears the closest resemblance, by a 
smaller and more slender head and likewise a smaller eye. There are two an- 
terior orbitals, whilst T. infernalis has but one. The scales constituting the 
lateral row on either side of the abdomen are larger and not keeled. The scales 
on the upper part of the tail are likewise smooth. The general color is yellow- 
ish green with a dorsal yellow line ; sometimes also there exists a lateral band 
of yellowish or whitish yellow, between which and the dorsal line, are two lon- 
gitudinal rows of polymorphic black spots recalling to mind T. ordinatus. 

From Puget Sound. 

WENONA (Nov. gen.) Head conical, rather small and continuous with the 
body. Vertical plate about as broad as it is long; between it and the rostral 
plate are two or three pairs of frontals. Occipitals and supraorbitals rather 
small and nearly of equal size. Eyes very small, no loral plaie ; one anterior 
orbital, large ; the post orbitals are not to be distinguished from the temporal 
scales. Body cylindrical, covered with small lozenge-shaped and smooth scales. 
Abdominal shields narrow, one rowed under the tail behind the vent, as well as 
on the abdomen. Tail very short, slightly tapering towards the tip. 

This genus is related to Tortrix, and will probably include the T. Boitce of 

Wenona ISABELLA, B. and G. Vertical plates broader than long. Two pairs 
of frontal ones. A small plate between the post-frontal pair and the vertical. 
Length about sixteen inches, of which about two belong to the 'tail. Of a uni- 
form deep Isabel color, lighter on the belly. 

From Fuget Sound. 

Wenona plumbea, B. and G. Vertical plate broader than long. Three pairs 
of frontal plates; the anterior pair extending on the side of the snout in advance 
of the nostrils as in the preceding species. The second pair extends likewise 
down and occupies the place of the loral, which may sometimes appear as an 
independent plate. Lower jaw much shorter than the upper one. A double 
row of plates along the upper jaw ; length about eighteen inches. The tail two 
and a half inches and slightly tapering. Shield under the tail narrower and 
more elongated than in the preceding species. Of a uniform bluish lead color 
above, whitish beneath. 

From Puget Sound. 

Calamaria tenuis, B. and G. General form slender; about eight inches in 
length from the tip of the snout to the end of the tail. Head somewhat detached 
from the body. Tail short and conical, one inch and a quarter in length. Occi- 
pital plates elongated, elliptical in form ; vertical one subpentagonal. Two pairs 
of frontals, an odd and elliptical small plate in advance of the vertical, between 
the posterior frontals. Eyes proportionally large. Scales smooth and subellip- 
tical in form. Color of a uniform brown, lighter beneath. 

From Puget Sound. 

1852.] 177 

Crotalus LUCIFER, B. and G. Head subcircular or elliptical, nearly one inch 
and a quarter in length, covered on the vertex with very small and polygonal 
scales, elliptical and slightly carinated on the occipital region. One large supra 
orbital scutella obliquely striated. Eyes proportionally small, ten large anterior 
orbital plates ; the upper one, which is the longest, is polygonal, whilst the lower 
one is triangular. The rostral plate is rather small, pointed above, higher than 
broad and pentagonal in form. The general color is reddish brown above, 
deeper along the dorsal line than on the sides, yellowish beneath. For two- 
thirds of the length there exists on the back a series of subcircular white rings 
lined internally with a narrow, black line. There are on the sides a series of 
irregular blotches which extend to the belly. The posterior third of the body 
is alternately semi-annulated above with black and yellow, the yellow, however, 
being much narrower than the black. 

From Oregon and California. 

Emys marmorata, B. and G. The shape of the shell seen from above is regu- 
larly elliptical, slightly concave anteriorly, with a small notch behind. It is 
rather depressed and provided with a slight dorsal keel. Ventral shield rounded 
in front, openly concave behind. The tail is very slender and tapering. The 
posterior nails are stouter than the anterior ones and very much arched. The 
color is yellowish brown marbled with black. 

The largest specimen under examination measures four inches in length from 
the tip of the snout to the end of the tail ; the shell itself being only two inches 
and three-eighths in length and a little over two inches in width. 

From Puget Sound. 

The Committee on Dr. Hallowell's descriptions of new ReptileS; re- 
ported in favor of publication in tlie Proceedings. 

Descnpttdns of neio Species of Reptiles inhabiting North America. 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 
Tropidonotus rhombifer. 

Sp. Char. Head elongated, depressed, slightly swollen at the temples ; a 
series of dark colored rhomboid spots upon the back, presenting the form of 
triangles, their apices posteriorly and anteriorly touching each other; a row of 
dark colored transverse bars upon the sides, uniting with the lateral inferior 
extremities of the rhomboid spots upon the back ; a series of dark colored bands 
upon the tail ; abdomen wnd under part of tail more or less maculated ; scuta 
very strongly carinated: 25 rows of carinated scales; abdominal scuta 142; 
sub-caudal 70. 

Dimensions. Length of head l^^ inches (Fr.) ; greatest breadth posteriorly 
10 lines; length of body 2 ft. ; of tail 6^ inches ; total length 2 ft. 8 inches. 

Habitat. Arkansas river and its tributaries, near the northern boundary of 
the Creek Nation ; found abundantly on the borders of streams. Dr. Wood- 
house observed one with many young on one of the sand banks of the Arkansas 

Tropidonotus transversus. 

Sp. Char. Head large, swollen at the temples, convex posteriorly, flattened 
between the orbits, depressed in front ; a series of subquadrate dark colored 
blotches, thirty-six or thirty-seven in number, along the back ; a transverse 
row of oblong bars along the sides, their upper margins alternating with the 
inferior margins of the dorsal blotches; scales strongly carinated, 23 rows; 
abdominal scuta 144; sub-caudal 78. 

Dimensions. Length of head 12 lines; greatest breadth 7; length of body 
1 ft. (Fr.) 5 inches 7 lines ; length of tail 6 inches; total length 2 ft. 

Habitat. Creek boundary, found near the banks of the Arkansas and its tri- 

178 [October, 

Remarks. In Tropidinotas taxis pilotus the bars upon the back are much wider 
apart than in the above species, and it has but two posterior ocular plates ; the 
arrangement of the temporal plates is also different ; the frontal plate is much 
larger, and it has thirty-one rows of scales. Tropidonotus taxis pilotus is remark- 
able for its great size, being perhaps larger than any of our known water serpents ; 
transversus is a much smaller animal. The markings upon the back and sides 
correspond in some degree with Say's description of Coluber calligaster, but 
the scales in C. calligaster are smooth. The latter animal is most probably the 
one well know as Col. eximius. 

Phrynosoma planiceps. 

Sp. Char. Head more compressed, longer and broader than in P. cornutum ; 
nostrils within the supraciliary ridge; upper jaw bordered posteriorly by a row 
of pointed spines ; central spine of the croiarn separated from the two adjacent 
spines by a wide interval ; front part of head furrowed in the centre ; scales of 
chin of nearly equal size ; abdominal scales smooth or indistinctly carinated ; 
tail longer than in cornutum, and less suddenly tapering to a point; ground 
color of animal light yellow or ash color ; (brown mingled with yellow in 

Dimensions. Length of head 9 lines ; greatest vertical measurement 7 lines; 
breadth posteriorly, inclading spines, 1 inch 2 lines ; length of body to vent 
3 inches ; length of tail 1 inch 7 lines ; length of humerus 7 lines ; of fore arm 
6J ; of hand to extremity of longest finger, including nail, 7| lines; length of 
thigh 9 lines ; of tibia 9 lines ; of foot to extremity of longest toe nail 9^ lines ; 
total length 5 inches 4 lines. 

Habitat. Western Texas, near the Rio Grande. 


Sp. Char. Four plates behind the rostral and between the nostrils, the two 
first more or less linear ; six plates upon the frontal region ; behind these, five 
plates surrounding one which is pentagonal; posterior to these, midway between 
the supraciliary ridges, a single large hexagonal plate (intraorbital ;) snout 
rather pointed, more narrow than in delicaiissimus; body slender; scales bi- 
punctate posteriorly. 

Dimensions. Length of head 6^ lines ; greatest breadth 4 lines ; length of 
neck and body to vent 1 inch 5 lines ; length of tail 2 inches 10^ lines ; length 
of humerus 3 lines ; of fore arm 3 lines ; length of hand to extremity of longest 
finger 4 lines ; length of thigh 5 lines ; of tibia 5 lines ; of foot to extremity of 
longest toe 7 lines : circumference of body 14 lines ; total length 4 inches 10 

Habitat. San Antonio, Texas. 


Sp. Char. Four plates behind the rostral and between the nostrils ; the two 
first much smaller than the latter; nine plates upon the frontal region, in two 
rows (four in front and five posteriorly ;) behind these five plates without the 
central pentagonal one above described; snout somewhat obtuse; body more 
slender than that of marmoratus ; scales bipunctate posteriorly. 

Dimensions. Length of head 6 lines; greatest breadth 4 lines; length of neck 
and body to vent 1 inch 5 lines ; length of tail 3 inches 2 lines ; length of hu- 
merus 3 lines ; of fore arm 3 lines ; of hand to extremity of longest finger 4 
lines ; of thigh 4 lines ; of tibia 6 lines ; of foot to extremity of longest toe 
11 lines ; total length 5 inches 1 line. 

Habitat. San Antonio, Texas. 


Sp, Char. Head long, superior and inferior marginal outline of cranial portion 
slightly convex ; temples depressed ; body robust ; color light brown or fuscous 
above ; chin, throat, abdomen, and under part of tail yellow ; 17 rows of scales ; 
abdominal scuta 130; sub-caudal 97, 

1852.] 179 

Dimensions of largest specimen. Length of head 1 inch 6J lines ; greatest 
breadth 9 lines ; length of body 3 ft. 5 in. 7 lines ; of tail 9 inches (mutilated;) 
greatest circumference 3 inches 2 lines. 

Remarks. The animal above described difiFers from the Psammophis flagelli- 
formis, in being more robust, and in its coloration ; all the specimens brought 
by Dr. Woodhouse being of a light brown or olive color above, and of a yellow 
straw color beneath. The specimen of flagelliformis in the collection of the 
Academy corresponds with the description of Prof. Holbrook, who makes the 
following observations in regard to its color ; '* The superior surface of the head 
and neck and nearly one half of the body, is raven black, gradually becoming 
green on approaching the tail, which is of a very light brown or tawny color ; 
the scales on the tail are rendered conspicuous by their dark margins. The 
inferior surface of the neck and anterior part of the abdomen is bluish slate 
color, the posterior part white clouded with brown ; some parts of the abdomen 
white and shining, as well as the inferior surface of the tail. This snake, how- 
ever, varies in color or rather in shade. Bartram has seen them of a cream 
color, clay colored, and sometimes almost white, but always raven black near 
the head." The Psammophis flagelliformis appears to be rare. Prof. Holbrook 
having seen but one specimen during a seven years' search ; and Major Le Conte, 
who resided a long time in Georgia, informs me that he also has seen but one. 
The present species, according to Dr. Woodhouse, is very abundant where he 
discovered it namely, in the sandy region reaching from the frontiers of Texas 
to the Creek Territory, and designated by a strip of timber extending across it. 
The specimen under consideration appears also to differ from flagelliformis in 
the form of the scales, the number of rows of which is the same in both species. 
In flagelliformis they are more narrow and elongated, resembling the scales of 
Dendrophis ; in flavi-gularis they are broader, and many of them distiactly 
hexagonal. The tail is two and a half inches shorter than in flagelliformis, 
but the body of flagelliformis is eight inches longer. Schlegel observes that 
the serpents belonging to this genus may be considered as holding a middle place 
between the terrestrial serpents and those which inhabit trees ; he describes 
eight species, none of which belong to the United States. The present species, 
however, is known to ascend trees with great agility, reaching their summits 
with ease when attacked. 


Elgaria marginata. 

Sp. Char. Head and upper part of body and tail olive colored; a few minute 
points along the middle line of the back ; nine or ten transverse bars of black 
along the sides ; the posterior margin bordered with white ; under surface 
greenish olive, immaculate. 

Dimensions. Length of head 4| lines ; greatest breadth 2 lines ; length of 
neck and body to vent 1 inch ; length of tail 1 inch (mutilated ;) length of an- 
terior extremities to end of the longest of the five fingers 4^ lines ; length of 
posterior extremities to end of the longest of the five toes 6^ lines. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 


Gen. Char. Head depressed, covered above with polygonal scales ; nostrils 
superior; occipital plate distinct; temples not swollen; marginal plates of the 
upper jaw imbricate; upper surface of neck, body, and tail covered with granu- 
lations ; abdomen and under surface of the tail with smooth quadrangular scales ; 
external openings to the ears ; throat folded ; femoral pores ; tail but little 
longer than the body ; body and entremities slender; 


Sp. Char. Head silvery white, with a tinge of yellow ; body above ash- 
colored, thickly maculated with small white spots irregularly disposed ; trans- 
verse dark colored bars upon the posterior extremities and base of tail ; abdo- 


180 [October, 

men silvery white, with two longitudinal blue colored blotches having two ob- 
lique bars of black running across them ; two small blue spots upon the under 
surface of tail. 

Dimensions. Length of head 7^ lines ; length of neck and body to anus 2 
inches 2^ lines; of tail in the specimen examined, which appears to have been 
mutilated and restored, 2 inches 3 lines ; body 1 inch 5 lines in circumference ; 
length of arm 6 lines ; of fore arm 5^ lines ; of hand to extremity of longest 
nail 7| lines ; of feet to extremity of longest toe 1 inch 2 lines j total length of 
body 5 inches 1 line. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 

Remarks. This animal approaches Crotaphytus, Holbrook, but the nostrils 
are superior instead of being lateral as in the latter genus. The head of Crota- 
phytus is covered with tubercles, and the occipital plate does not exist, or is 
small and ill-defined. The forearm is also shorter and much more robust, 
and the longest fingers are of nearly equal length ; in Homalosaurus the 
fourth finger is considerably longer than the third. The temples are much 
less swollen than in Crotaphytus, which has but a single row of plates along ihe 
border of the lower jaw. The nostrils in Holbrookia are situated as in Homa- 
losaurus ; and the plates along the margin of both the upper and under jaw 
have the same configuration and arrangement ; the occipital plate also is 
very distinct, which, as well as most of the plates upon the upper part of the 
head, is smooth ; a considerable number of granulations, however, are observed 
above the supraciliary ridge at its anterior and posterior part, chiefly in the 
former position ; but in Holbrookia there are no external ears, the ear lying im- 
mediately beneath the skin, which covers it. Both Holbrookia and Crotaphytus 
have femoral pores, bat no anal ones, of which also Crotaphytus is destitute. 

Crotalus Lecontei. 

Sp. Char. Head quadrangular, broader behind than in front, much flattened 
above ; a few small plates in front : the rest of the upper surface of the head, 
except over the orbit, covered with scales ; a series of about thirty subquad- 
rate brownish blotches along the back, and ten or twelve transverse bands of 
the same color ; brownish bands upon the tail ; subquadrate blotches along the 
back, margined with light yellow ; ground color light yellow or straw-color ; 
scales strongly carinated ; abdominal scuta 174 ; sub-caudal 27. 

.Dimensions. Length of head 14 lines ; greatest breadth 11 lines; length of 
body 2 ft. 9 in. 9 lines ; length of tail, exclusive of rattles, 2 inches 6 lines ; 
length 2 ft. 6 inches 5 lines. 

Habitat. Cross Timbers. 

Remarks. My friend Dr. Le Conte informs me that he found near the 
Colorado, about seven hundred miles from the last mentioned locality, a species 
of Crotalus which was very abundant in that region, over four feet in length, 
and which appears to be the same as the one above described. He took the 
following notes of it upon the spot: ** Crotalus cinereous ; black with a series 
of subrhomboidal spots margined with dark brown, and exterior to this a line 
of white scales ; sides with a few darker cinereous spots; beneath pale ochra- 
ceous ; neck and under part of head white ; tail white, with four black rings,* 
becoming irregular beneath. Length 4^- feet ; greatest circumference 5 J inches ; 
185 transverse scales beneath the body, 28 caudal; fourteen scales in tbe ob- 
lique rows from spine to side in middle and on neck ; nine posteriorly and on 
tail. Colorado, March, 1851." The dorsal spots become indistinct behind. 
Sandy deserts. 

5^ In a young specimen brought by Dr. Woodhouse these four black rings are 
very distinct. 



PITYOPHIS,* Holbrook. 


Sp. Char. Scales much larger upon the sides than upon the back, where they 
are comparatively small ; a series of brownish or black subquadrate blotches 
upon the back ; a row of much smaller blotches on ea^ch side ; transverse bands 
of jet black upon the tail ; tail short; abdomen and tail thickly maculated with 
black ; thirty-one rows of carinated scales ; abdominal scuta 221 ; sub-caudal 64. 

Dimensions. Length of head 1 inch 2 lines ; greatest breadth 8 lines ; length 
of body 2 ft. 5 inches ; of tail 5 inches 5 lines ; greatest circumference 2 inches 
2^ lines. 

Another specimen was received of the same species as the above, but which 
presents a remarkable deviation in the form and arrangement of the plates upon 
the head, which is no doubt abnormal. Thus there are seven plates upon the 
head, instead of six, as in Pityophis; these are arranged in three rows two 
plates in the front, two in the middle and three in the posterior; on each side 
of the middle row is a small quadrangular plate lying immediately above the 
loral, constituting as it were a superior loral ; there is but one large ant-orbitar 
and four posterior orbitar on the right side, and three on the left; there are 
nine superior labials ; abdominal scuta 227 j sub-caudal T 1. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 

Leptophis tjenita. 

Sp. Char. Head much flattened, olive colored with yellow markings ; ground 
color of body above olive, with two lateral longitudinal yellowish vittae, extend- 
ing from the occiput to the tail, each middle scale marked with a longitudinal 
line of black; two lines of black on each side, passing through the middle of 
two inferior rows of scales from the occiput to a short distance beyond the tail ; 
abdomen immaculate, except toward the neck, where there are a number of 
small black spots; abdominal scuta 199; sub-caudal 130; 14 rows of longitu- 
dinal smooth scales. 

Dimensions. Length of head 9J lines; greatest breadth 5 lines; length of 
body 1 ft. T in. 5 lines; of tail 9 inches; circumference 1 inch 1 line; total 
length 2 ft. 5 inches 2\ lines ; abdominal scuta 199 ; sub-caudal 140. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 


Sp. Char. Above dark brown, with numerous irregular lines of yellow ; a 
vertical line of yellow continuous with one which is less distinct upon the head ; 
transverse blotches of black upon the thighs and fore arms ; under surface of 
the animal ochraceous. 

Dimensions. Length of head 8 lines ; greatest breadth 9 lines ; length of head 
and body 3 inches ; length of arm 8 J lines ; of fore arm 7 lines ; of hand to ex- 
tremity of longest finger 10 lines; of leg 14 lines; of tarsus 9 lines; of foot 
1 inch four lines to extremity of longest toe. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 

Remarks. This animal differs widely from the Bufo cognatus and Americanus, 
but resembles the lentiginosus, which Prof. Holbrook observes is found, without 
doubt, all along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. It differs from it, however, 
in the elevation of the ridges upon the head, which in lentiginosus are highly 
developed, giving to the upper part of the head a canaliculated appearance, a 
condition that does not exist in this species. 

The reptiles above described were collected by my friend Dr. Woodhouse, 
who was attached to the expedition under command of Capt. L. Sitgreaves, 
of the corps of Topographical Engineers, for the purpose of exploring the 

"The genus Pityophis is characterized by its projecting snout and the pre- 
sence of four posterior frontal plates in a transverse row, instead of two, as in 
the ordinary Colubers and Tropidonotes. These characters, with its peculiar 
physiognomy, cause it to be readily recognised by one familiar with our reptiles. 

182 [October, 

rivers Zuni and Great and Little Colorado of the West. Too much praise 
could not be awarded to Dr. Woodhouse, for the zeal and intelligent industry 
he has manifested in the performance of his arduous duties as physician and 
naturalist to the Expedition. 

When the reptiles brought from Oregon and California by Mr. Townsend, and 
those of the Exploring Expedition, shall have been carefully studied, much 
will have been done toward the attainment of a knowledge of the geographical 
distribution of our reptiles, to which the admirable work of Prof. Holbrook has 
so greatly contributed. To him we owe nearly all the knowledge we possess 
with certainty of North American Herpetology, having brought into order and 
system what was before uncertain and confused, and in cleir and classical 
language determined their characters with precision j thus greatly facilitating 
the labors of all future inquirers. 

ANOTA, Hallowell. 

Gen. Char. Head small, covered above with polygonal plates ; a row of pointed 
spines posteriorly ; nostrils within the supraciliary ridge : supraciliary ridge 
but slightly developed, terminating posteriorly in a small pointed spine ; chin 
covered with smooth granulations of unequal size ; a row of pointed scales on 
each side ; two gular folds ; no external openings for the ears ; extremities 
slender; upper surface of body smooth, the numerous pointed species of the 
ordinary Phrynosomas not existing; no fringe along the lateral margins of the 
abdomen ; body compressed, oval, tail nearly as long as the body ; femoral 
pores very distinct. 

Anota M'Callii, 

Sp. Char. Margin of upper jaw denticulated posteriorly; the two posterior 
of the rows of spines along the margin of the under jaw small ; the two anterior 
to these quite large ; the two middle spines of thie row upon the occiput much 
longer than the rest, and incurvated; intermediate spine very small; body light 
ash color above, with a narrow dorsal line of black extending from the occiput 
to the root of the tail; two oblong dark colored blotches upon each side of the 
neck ; two rows on each side of the dorsal line, of dark colored subcircular 
spots, two in a row, the external larger than the internal ; ground color of upper 
surface of tail and extremities same as that of the upper surface of the body; 
under surface of body and extremities silvery white, immaculate; twenty dis- 
tinct femoral pores on each side. 

Dimensions. Length of head V lines; greatest breadth, exclusive of spines, 
8 lines ; length of longest spine b\ lines; of the next to it 2J; length of arm 
"7 lines; of fore arm 5 lines; of hand, to extremity of longest finger, 6 lines ; 
length of thigh T lines ; of tibia 7 lines ; of foot to extremity of longest toe, 
7 J lines; length of neck and body to vent 2 inches 4^ lines; length of tail 1 
inch 8^ lines ; total length 4 inches 5 lines. 

Habitat. Great Desert of the Colorado, between Vallicita and Camp Yuma, 
about 160 miles east of San Diego. 

Remarks. The animal above described is a Phrynosoraa, the ears of which 
are concealed by the integument. It was caught by Col. George A. M'Call, of 
the United States Army, during a recent journey through California and Oregon, 
and presented by him to the Academy, with two young specimens of Phrynoso- 
raa coronatum. The great length of its middle posterior spines, its contracted 
neck and singularly shaped body and tail, give to it a very odd appearance, 
dififering remarkably from that of any of the known Phrynosomata. 

Descriptions of New Species of Reptiles from Oregon, 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 

Troi'idonotus concinnus. 

^ Sp. Char. Head slightly swollen at the temples, depressed ; canthus rostra- 

lis grooved ; a longitudinal yellow line running along the median line of the 

back, including one entire row and one half of each of the adjoining rows of 

1852.] 183 

scales; about sixty oblong transverse golden colored spots on each side ; ground 
color raven black. Abdominal scuta 156 ; sub-caudal V8. 

Description. The head is of moderate size, depressed above ; the temples 
are somewhat swollen ; the plates upon the upper part of the head, nine 
in number, do not differ materially from the plates of the Tropidonoti in gene- 
ral ; the canthus rostralis, or that portion of the side of the head situated between 
the eye and the extremity of the snout, is distinctly, but not so deeply grooved 
as in Psammophis; the nostril is situated between two nasal plates, the anterior 
larger than the posterior ; there is a small quadrilateral frenal plate ; there is 
one ant-ocular, and three posterior oculars ; a very small part of the ant-ocular 
plate is seen upon the surface of the head ; the eye is of moderate size, projecting; 
there is a large temporal plate immediately behind the oculars, and posterior to 
it are four others ; seven plates margin the upper jaw, of which the fifth and 
the sixth are the largest ; neck contracted ; body of moderate length, thicker 
in the middle ; tail about one-fourth the length of the body. There are seven- 
teen rows of carinated scales. 

Color. Head light chesnut above, deeper in front ; margin of upper jaw, 
for two thirds of its extent, light olive ; ground color of the body and tail above 
and upon the sides, raven black ; a yellow band, including one row and the 
half of each adjoining row of scales, extends from the occiput to the tail, 
along the middle line of the back ; it is continued upon the tail, but there 
becomes more narrow ; upon each side of the body, just above the inferior row 
of scales, is a row of about sixty transverse oblong golden colored spots; one 
and sometimes two of the intermediate scales is perfectly black ; the spots 
themselves cover about three rows of scales. Abdominal scuta 156; sub-cau- 
dal 78. 

Dimensions. Length of head 1 inch ; greatest breadth 6 lines: length of body 
2 ft. 3 inches length of tail 5 inches 10 lines; greatest circumference 2 inches 
five lines ; total length 2 ft. 9 inches 10 lines. 

Habitat. Oregon Territory. A specimen in the Museum of the Academy, pre- 
sented by Dr. Shumard. The most beautiful of the North American serpents 
hitherto discovered. 

Hyla scapularis. 

iS^. Char. Head small ; body small and slender, olive green above, with nu- 
merous irregular bluish blotches ; a bluish vitta running from the eye over the 
shoulder ; total length one and a half inches (Fr.) 

Description. The head is short and small, depressed ; the snout some- 
what rounded ; the nostrils are small and circular, looking upward and out- 
ward, about a line apart, situated immediately below the ridge running from 
the extremity of the snout to the anterior canthus of the eye ; they are nearer 
the extremity of the snout than the eye; mouth quite large ; the tongue is 
heart-shaped, quite free behind, notched upon its posterior border; there are 
two series of palatine teeth between the nostrils, and separated from each other 
by a narrow intermediate space; the eyes are round and project considerably; 
the tympanum is small and circular; the body is flattened, rather slender, much 
contracted posteriorly ; extremities slender ; the upper surface of the body and 
extremities present numerous small granulations ; abdomen and under surface 
of extremities much granulated; the granulations upon the abdomen vary in 
size, and are closely in juxtaposition ; chin and throat granulated. 

Color. Ground color above greenish olive, presenting numerous irregular 
bluish blotches upon the surface ; several deeper colored blotches upon the 
sides ; a bluish vitta, about two-thirds of a line in breadth, extends from the 
posterior part of the eye along the sides of the neck over the shoulder, a short 
distance beyond which it terminates ; upper surface of extremities marked 
with bluish spots. 

Dimensions. Length of head 5 lines ; greatest breadth 5 lines ; length of body 
1 inch ; length of humerus 4 lines ; of fore arm 3 J lines ; of hand to extremity 
of longest finger 5 lines ; length of thigh 7 lines ; of leg 8 lines ; of foot to ex- 
tremity of longest toe 7 J lines ; total length 1 inch 5 lines. 

Habitat. Oregon Territory. Piesented to the Academy by Dr. Shumard. 

184 [October, 

The Committee on the following paper by Mr. Cassin, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Descriptions of new species of Birds, specimens of which are in the colleC' 
tion of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 

By John Cassin. 

1. Ammodromus rtificeps, nobis. 

Form. Rather slender ; wings short, with the third, fourth and fifth quills 
nearly equal and loagest ; tail rather long, with the feathers narrow ; legs long. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 5f 
inches, wing 2^, tail 2| inches. 

Colors. A conspicuous black line on each side of the throat from the base of 
the lower mandible. Head above bright reddish chestnut which is also the pre- 
vailing color of the back, but with the feathers of the latter broadly edged with 
ashy. Rump and upper tail coverts ash-gray, tinged with the chestnut color of 
the back. 

Spot on the nares white, running into an ashy superciliary line, ear coverts 
and below ashy, succeeded by a white line from the lower mandible, which is 
again succeeded by the black line from its base. 

Throat white tinged with dull brownish ashy, running into deeper shades of 
the same colors on the other inferior parts, deepest on the breast and with yel- 
lowish on the flanks and under tail coverts. Wings edged with pale yellow at 
the flexure, wing coverts and quills fuscous edged with cinereous and reddish. 
Tail fuscous, tinged and edged with reddish, the two middle feathers reddish 

Bill and tarsi light colored. 

Mab. Calaveras river, California, discovered by A. L. Heermann, M. D. 

Obs. Four specimens of this bird were brought by Dr. Heermann in the fine 
collection made by him in California. It does not resemble any other species 
sufficiently to render necessary any designation of comparative characters, 
and may be easily recognized by its distinct narrow lines of black on the 
sides of the neck, running from the base of the lower mandible. 

2. Emberiza rostrata, nobis. 

Form. Short and rather heavy, somewhat resembling Peuccea Bachmanii 
(Aud.) but with the bill and wings longer, the tail shorter, and hardly of the 
same genus. Somewhat resembles and is generically allied to Emberiza Bairdii, 
(Aud.), and is about the same size, but has the bill much longer, the tarsi and 
feet stouter, and the claws stronger and much less curved. Bill lengthened and 
strong. Wings, with the first, second and third quills longest and nearly equal. 
Tail rather short, emarginate. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 5|- 
inohes, wing 2|, tail 2 inches. 

Colors. Entire plumage above dull brownish and cinereous, every feather 
longitudinally marked with the former and tipped and edged with the latter, 
the brown stripes being most strongly marked on the head and back. Nar- 
row, superciliary lines nearly uniting in front. Throat and entire under parts, 
white, with longitudinal stripes and arrow heads of brown on the breast and 
flanks ; these stripes forming two lines on each side from the lower mandible 
and enclosing: a stripe of white. Abdomen and under tail coverts dull white. 

Wings and tail brown, edged with paler shades of the same color, nearly white 
on the outer webs of the external tail feathers, deeper and tinged with rufous on 
the wing coverts and exposed edges of the secondaries. Bill and feet light 
colored, the former brownish above, (in skin.) 

Hub. Sea shore at San Diego, California, discovered by A. L. Heermann, 
M. D. 

Obs. A plain plumaged bird, of which there are several specimens in Dr. 
Heermann's collection. It is unlike any other finch that I have ever seen, and 

1862.] 185 

may be recognized by its lengthened and strong bill, which is even stronger than 
that of Pcuccea Bachmanii. In the general character of its form it approaches 
E. Bairdii, but is colored differently, is more robust and has the bill much larger. 

3. Spermestes nigriceps^ nobis. 

Form. Small, -with the bill rather large ; wing with the second quill slightly 
longest ; tail short, but wide and with the feathers broad. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 3i 
inches, wing If, tail 1^ inches. 

Colors. 5 Head entirely black, which color is extended to the breast and 
sides of the body, on the latter (the sides) the black plumage is tipped with 
white. Middle of the abdominal region and under tail coverts white. 

Back and wing coverts bright reddish chestnut, primary quills black with 
regularly disposed minute spots of white on their outer webs, exposed portion 
of secondaries reddish chestnut, rump black with minute white spots, tail black. 

Bill and feet light colored (in skin.) 

5, , or ^ juv. Entire plumage above brownish tinged with chestnut on the 
back, below soiled yellowish or pale whitish brown, with a few black feathers 
on the throat ; primaries black edged with white ; tail brownish black. 

Hab. Zanzibar. 

Obs. Three specimens of this pretty species belong to the Rivoli collection, 
and are marked as from Zanzibar. It is similar to no other species of Spermestes 
with which I am acquainted, but is marked with white spots on the wings like 
S. poensis, (Frazer). 

4. Spermestes fuscans, nobis. 

Form. Small but robust, and with the bill very strong, wing with the first, 
second and third quills nearly equal, tail rather long, with the central feathers 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 3| inches, 
wing 2, tail 2 inches. 

Colors. Entire plumage dark chocolate brown, deeper on the throat and around 
the base of the bill. Inner webs of quills paler and nearly white. Bill horn 
color. , 

Hab. Borneo. 

Obs. I have not succeeded in finding a description of this little bird, though 
specimens in the collection of the Academy have been labelled in Europe, " F. 
nigerrima,'^ and others " ^. aterrima.''^ It is not nearly related to any species 
known to me, and may be distinguished from all others by its plain uniform 

5. Ephialtes elegans^ nobis. 

Form. A typical species, bill rather small, wings with the third and fourth 
quills longest and nearly equal, tail rather short. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 8 J to 9 
inches, wing 6f, tail 3J inches. 

Colors. Feathers of the ear tufts bright yellowish rufous, every feather mark- 
ed longitudinally and with irregular transverse bands, and minute points of black, 
which color is almost confined to the outer webs. Face whitish, every feather 
with irregular lines and points of brown. 

Entire plumage above pale umber brown, every feather with an obscure longi- 
tudinal stripe of brownish black and with very numerous irregular narrow lines 
and points of the same color. Plumage of the neck behind with white spots ob- 
scurely indicating a collar. 

Inferior surface of the body handsomely mottled with white, light fulvous and 
brownish black ; the former being the ground color and every feather longitudi- 
nally striped, and with numerous narrow transverse lines and points of the latter, 
these stripes most strongly marked on the breast, and least distinct on the 
abdomen and inferior tail-coverts. Flanks light fulvous ; tarsi reddish, with ir- 
regular lines and spots of brown. "Wings and tail umber brown, the former with 

186 [October, 

square spots of reddish white on their outer webs, and the latter with numerous 
irregular lines, and narrow bands of reddish and brown. 

Hah. Northern Asia, Japan ? " En Mer, cotes du Japon, lat. 29 AV N. long. 
126 13' 30" E." 

Obs. This is one of the handsomest of the small species of owls, and bears some 
resemblance, rather remote, however, and on a small scale, to the large Horned 
Owls. It is somewhat like E. semitorques, (Temm.) but wants the white on the 
throat and breast, and is smaller and differently colored, and has the toes bare. 
It resembles also to some extent both L. lettia, (Hodg.) and E. lempiji, (Horsf.,) 
but is larger than either, and otherwise different. The brown stripes and lines 
on all parts of the plumage are unusually delicate. 

Two specimens are in the collection of the Academy, the more adult of which 
was obtained by Dr. Wilson from Mr. J. P. Verreaux, of Paris, by whom it was 
designated as probably an undescribed species. It bears a label indicating the 
locality as above. 

6. Ephialtes Hendersonii, nobis. 

Form. Resembling E. capensis (Smith) and E. senegaUnsis (Sw.) but smaller 
than either, and has the bill shorter and weaker ; wing with the third quill 
longest, but only slightly exceeding the fourth : tail short. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail 6^ inches, 
wing 5, tail 2\ inches. 

Colors. Generally very similar to those of E. capensis (Smith) and E. sene- 
galensis (Sw.), but darker and with the fine lines and points of brown through- 
out the plumage much more numerous and distinct. Entire plumage above 
cinereous, mixed on the neck, back and rump with bright fulvous, every feather 
longitudinally striped and with numerous very irregular transverse lines and 
points of brownish black most distinct on the head and back. Frontal feathers 
nearly white, tufts and face very pale cinereous, striped longitudinally, and 
minutely lined with dark brown. Plumage below variegated with white and 
brown, with a tinge of fulvous, every feather having stripes and minute lines 
and points, as on the back, but less numerous, with the white predominating 
and nearly pure on the lower abdomen and under tail coverts. 

Quills brown with quadrangular spots of white on the outer webs. Tail pale 
cinereous with irregular transverse bars of brown and exhibiting a different 
style of coloring from either of the species above mentioned. Tarsi nearly 
white, obscurely spotted with brown. 
Sexes similar. 

Ilab. Angola. " Came on board U. S. brig Perry off Novo Redondo." Dr. 
Henderson's label. 

Obs. It is not without some feeling of reluctance that I add another to the 
several nearly allied and little understood species resembling E. scops, (Linn.) 
Of these there are several which are clearly distinct and well marked, and the 
bird at present described is one of this character. My reluctance has arisen 
from the knowledge, that from the descriptions heretofore published, it is quite 
impossible for naturalists to identify them, or to ascertain in what manner one 
differs from another ; and nothing short of actually examining the original spe- 
cimens in European collections, which was done by Dr. Wilson in 1851, can 
afford the necessary information. From his notes and from specimens which he 
procured during his visit to Europe, and from others previously in the collection 
of the Academy, I have the gratification of entirely coinciding with him in the 
opinion that the following are distinct, but some of them nearly related species ; 
Ephialtes scops, (Linn.) from which E. pennaia, (Hodg.) cannot be distinguished; 
E. capensis, (Smith,) E. sencgalensis, (Sw.,) E. sunia, (Hodg.,) of which I am 
acquainted with both young and adult, and E. Ilenclersonii, Cassin: and of ano- 
ther group also resembling E. scops to some extent, the following appear to be 
different ; E. lempiji (Horsf.) which is J. noctula, Temm., E. javanicm (Less.) 
E. lettia (Hodg.,) E. spilocephahis (Blyth,) and E. mantis (Temm.,) which is 
S. rufescens, (Horsf.) Of all these species, specimens and mostly suites are 
now in the collection of this Academy, and I hope to give, at an early day, the 

1852.] 187 

result of an attempt to arrange them, and to reconcile their synoaymes, in a 
eecond edition of my catalogue of Strigidice in our collection. 

Of the interesting little bird at preBent described, two specimens, male and 
female, are in a collection made principally on the coasts of Angola and Ben- 
guela, during a recent voyage of the U. S. brig Perry, and presented to the 
Academy by A. A. Henderson, M. D., Surgeon U. S. NavY, who was attached 
to that vessel as a medical officer. I have taken the liberty of dedicating it to 
Dr. Henderson as a slight testimonial to his profound and varied scientific ac- 
quirements, and as a memento of our long-continued and pleasant friendship. 

7. Larut ffeermanni, nobis. 

Form, Bill rather long and slender, wings very long, extending beyond the 
tail, first primary slightly longest ; tail truncate or slightly emarginate. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 17 J 
inches, wing 13|, tail 5J, bill from the angle of the mouth to the tip 2 J inches. 

Colors. Bill red, both mandibles tipped with black ; feet and legs dark ; head 
white, which color gradually fades into an ashy lead color, enveloping the entire 
body above and below ; darker above and on the wings, and paler beneath. 
Secondaries tipped with white, which forms an oblique bar of white on the wing. 

Superior coverts of the tail pale cinereous, nearly white. Quills and tail 
brownish black, the latter tipped with white. Shafts of the two first primaries 
white on the inferior surface of the wing. 

Young. Rather smaller, total length about 16 inches, wing 13, tail 5, bill 
from the angle of the mouth 2 inches. Entire plumage brown, dark on the 
head and paler on the under surface of the body, quills and tail feathers brownish 
black, the latter narrowly edged at the tip with white. 

Eab. Coast of California at San Diego, discovered by A. L. Heermann, M.D. 

Obs. This beautiful gull appears to belong to a group of species comprising 
Larus Belcheri, Vigors, L. erythrorynchus, Gould, and others, all of which in- 
habit the shores of the Pacific ocean. It is most nearly related to L. Belcheri, 
but is not so large, and has the head pure white, which is not the case in that 
species. In the description of the latter (in Zool. Jour. iv. p. 328,) the rump 
is described as white ; in the present bird the rump is dark ashy, but the su- 
perior coverts of the tail nearly white, and in the young bird they are dark 

I have dedicated this handsome species to my friend Dr. Heermann, as a token 
of acknowledgment due to his accomplishment as a naturalist, and his great 
perseverance and success as a scientific traveller. 

8. Mergus americanus, nobis. Wilson's Am. Orn. viii. pi. 68. Aud. B. of Am. 
pi. 331. 

Obs. I propose this name for the common bird which has hitherto been re- 
garded as identical with the European species well known as Mergus mergan- 
ser, Linn. It is, however, specifically quite distinct. In the American bird the 
prolonged feathers of the head are almost restricted to the occiput and neck be- 
hind, but in that of Europe they commence almost at the base of the bill, and 
are erectile and crest-like. On the large wing coverts in the American species 
there is always an exposed and conspicuous bar of black, which, in the Euro- 
pean species, is entirely concealed by the lesser coverts. This character is suffi- 
cient for the purpose of the practical recognition of the two species in all the 
specimens that I have ever examined, and may be observed on comparing any 
plates of the two species that I have seen, but especially Wilson Am. Orn. viii. 
pi. 68; Aud. B. of Am. pi. 331 ; Selby, 111. pi. 57; Gould B. of Eur. v. pi. 39; 
and Korner Skandinaviska Foglar pi. 57. 

9. Anser parvipes, nobis. 

Form. Generally resembling A. canadensis^ Linn., but not so large, and with 
the bill and feet much smaller, the latter being not much more than half the 
size of that species. Upper mandible not so strongly serrated on its edges, 
tarsi slender, tail rather fully developed. Possibly a Bernicla. 


188 ' [October, 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail about 28 
inches, wing 15, tail 6 inches. 

Colors. Much like those of Anser canadensis, Bemicla Hutchiyisii and B. leu- 
copariea. Large space on the throat and sides of the head white, head above 
and neck black, back and wings ashy brown, with the feathers having paler tips 
and edges, rump and tail black, upper tail coverts white; plumage beneath ashy 
white, with a silky yellowish tinge, and many feathers having darker subtermi- 
nal stripes ; ventral region and under tails coverts white. 

Hab. Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Obs. One specimen of this singular bird has been several years in the collec- 
tion of the Academy, having been presented by its eminent member Marma- 
duke Burrough, M. D., and collected by him during his residence at Vera Cruz. 
It resembles the common Anser canadensis in general appearance, but may at 
once be distinguished by the smaller size of the tarsi and feet, as well as its 
comparatively small and weaker bill. It is much larger than either Bemicla 
Hulchinsii or Bemicla leueopariea both of which are in the collection of the 

The Committee to which was referred Mr. Cassin's " Catalogue of the 
Halcyonidae in the collection of the Academy," reported in favor of 
publication. ( |CP See end of the present No.) 


Dr. Dinwiddle B. Phillips, U. S. Navy, was elected a Memher of the 

1852.] 189 

November 2d, 1852. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Asiatic Society of Bengal, dated July 9th, 1852, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of the Journal of the Academy, vol. 2, part 2, and 
of the Proceedings vol, 6, part 1. 

From the Chief Commissioners of H. M. Works and Public Buildings, 
dated London, Sept. 15, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of copies of the 
^' Notice of the Academy by Dr. Ruschenberger,'' which have been de- 
posited in the Museum of Practical Geology. 

From M. Haidinger, dated Vienna, 20th April, 1852, transmitting 
the volumes acknowledged this evening. 

From the Academy of Sciences of Vienna, dated October 3d, 1852, 
transmitting its works announced this evening. 

November 9th. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Librarian of the British Museum, dated 
London, 21st Oct., 1852, acknowledging the receipt of recent Nos. of the 
Academy's Proceedings, &c. 

Dr. Owen, in presenting to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
a copy of the Geological Map of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, just published, 
made the following remarks : 

The region of country embraced in this geological map extends from latitude 
38 to 49, and from longitude 89 30' to 96 30^ It has a length, from north 
to south, of 750 miles, and its greatest width 270 miles, the area being 200,000 
square miles. Embracing the Mississippi river and all its tributaries, from its 
source to its junction with the Missouri ; the Missouri river, as high as Council 
Bluff; the Red river of the north, from its source to the northern boundary of 
the United States ; together with the northern and southern shores of Lake 
Superior, from Fond du Lac north to the British dominions, and east to the 
Michigan line. 

All the calcareous rocks are represented on this map by tints of blue; the 
pure calcareous rocks being of pure blue tints, while the magnesio-calcareous 
or dolomitic rocks are of shades of purple blue; the sandstones, of yellow; the 
coal measures, of sepia; the metamorphic schists, of purple; the metamor- 
phosed rocks, of Silurian date, of orange ; while all the igneous rocks are of 
bright red colors. 

A very large tract of the northern regions of this district, being more than 
one half of the country, is overspread with extensive drift deposites, penetrated 
only at a few limited and distant points, (these chiefly in the deep cuts of the 
streams,) by igneous rocks and metamorphic schists; except along the height 
of land dividing the waters of Lake Superior and the Mississippi ; on the north 
west shore of Lake Superior and the region bordering on the British dominions, 
where the exposure of granite, gneiss, and metamorphic schists and trappose 
rocks, are rather more extensive. 

The drift consists of deposites of sand, gravel clays of great thickness, of 
marls, and, locally, of erratic blocks. The summit levels of this region are 
from 500 to 1100 feet and more above Lake Superior. 


190 [November, 

A considerable portion of the southern and eastern part of this drift is 
based on the lowest protozoic sandstones of lower Silurian date; which forma- 
tion is best explored in a semicircular belt east of the Mississippi and up the 
Valley of the Wisconsin as high as Point Boss ; and bearing northeast to the 
Michigan boundary line. 

These lower Protozoic Sandstones have proved themselves far more fossili- 
ferous than the corresponding strata in the State of New York the Potsdam 
sandstone ; having yielded, besides the two small Lingulas,^. antiqua qm A prima, 
of New York, four new genera of trilobites and at least nine or ten new species; 
which is the more remarkable since no remains of crustaceans had previously 
been found lower than the Trenton, Black river and Chazy limestones. 

In the ascending order succeeds the Lower Magnesian Limestone, reaching 
the surface to the southwest of the Protozoic sandstones; characterized chiefly 
by gasteropodous mollusca, allied to Pleuroiomaria, Ophileia and Strappa- 
rolus. They are represented by the deeper purple blue tinis, and correspond in 
age to the calciferous sandrock of New York. 

With the intervention of non-fossiliferous sandstones, from forty to eighty 
feet in thickness, often composed of limpid grains of quartz, there is superim- 
posed on this formation, beds of shell-limestone of the age of the Trenton and 
Black river limestone of New York, and the blue limestones of Ohio and In- 
diana, containing Leptcena alternata, sericea, deltoidea, Orthis testudenarta, 
occidentalism suboequata, Atrypa capax^ modesta, Isoielus ffiffas, Calymena 
senaria, besides a great; variety of other fossils found in the corresponding 
strata in Ohio, Indiana and New York, besides many new species. Though 
somewhat magnesian, these beds are the purest limestone of Silurian date in 
the district. 

Next succeeds, on the south, the lead-bearing beds of the upper magnesian 
limestone, colored Prussian blue, and containing Spirifer lynx^ hiforatus, Lin- 
gula quidrata and a few other fossils of the Trenton limestone, Utica slate and 
Hudson river group. This formation is represented of a lighter shade of purple 
blue. This part of the Upper Magnesian Limestone of Wisconsin has yielded 
latterly upwards of 50,000,000 of pounds of lead annually, and is about three 
hundred feet thick. 

The upper 200 feet of upper magnesian limestone of Wisconsin, form what 
we have designated the Coralline and Pentamerus beds, from the abundance of 
Catenepora esckaroides and Pentamerus oblongus, formed towards the top of this 
formation, which corresponds to the Niagara and Clinton groups of New York. 
To the southwest of this, crossing the Mississippi, near its upper or Rock- 
island rapids, is a very pure calcareous formation, containing Atrypa reticularis, 
aspera, Orthus resupinata, Phocops macropthalma, and a variety of Spirifers, 
most of which are new species, allied to those of the Hamilton and Corniferous 
groups of New York, with extended hinge, and often with wide cardinal area?, 
and mostly smooth on the bourrelet or mesial fold. Also many of the corals 
found in the Onondaga limestone of New York and the limestones of the Eifel 
in Germany. 

Much of the limestone of this formation has a close texture, smooth surface 
and conchoidal fracture, approaching to lithographic limestones. 

The valley of the Mississippi, below Muscatine, is occupied by a zone of 
carboniferous limestone, which we divide into the upp^r and loner series, the 
former characterized by Lithostrotion basalti/orme, several species of Produc- 
tus, the Spirifers and Terebratulce ; the latter by the ^rc^mtf/e^, a great variety 
of Pentramites and Crinoidea, Productus punctatus, Spirifer cuspida'us, Sptrifcr 
striatus, and remains of Psammodus and other fossil fishes ; besides a variety 
of other species of organic remains. These beds of limestones encircle the 
Iowa and Missouri coal-field, and separate it from the Illinois coal-field, with 
which it may have been once in connection, before the denudation of the Mis- 
siesippi Valley; but they are now separated by a belt of from 25 to 50 miles 
of this Bubcarboniferous limestone, now encroached upon only by a few outliers 
of the coal measures near the Keokuk rapids of the Mississippi. 

The Iowa and Missouri coal-field, now for the first time laid down on a geo- 



logical map, comprises in all about 50,000 square miles, nearly one half of 
which lies in Iowa, and the other half in Missouri. From north to south this 
coal-field is about 300 miles, and from east to west about 200. 

This coal-field is shallow, hardly exceeding fifty fathoms, and the coal-bear- 
ing strata proper hardly 100 feet. It seems to be the attenuated part of the 
great coal-field east of the Mississippi. It contains from four to six workable 
beds of coal, which, in Iowa, vary from two to five or five and a half feet. 
Towards the southern margin of tbis coal-field, in Missouri, there are beds of 
great thickness 20 feet or more of a character intermediate between cannel 
coal and asphaltum. 

The coal of this coal-field is all highly bituminous and most slaty in its struc- 
ture ; very frequently presenting the woody fibre on the surface of the natural 
joints as distinctly displayed as on charcoal. 

On the extreme south of this map will be observed, close to the southern 
margin of this coal-field, an uplift of magnesian limestone and sandstone of 
lower Silurian date, bordering on the lead region of Missouri, and to be found on 
both sides of the Missouri river, between Tavern Rock and Marion ; here the 
carboniferous and lower Silurian rocks, are in close proximity and much 
blended together. 

To the extreme west of the map, on the Missouri river, opposite the mouth of 
Floyd's river, the green represents the cretaceous formation which extends 
west of the Missouri river towards the heads of the Cheynne, ilcreau and 
White rivers, where it is succeeded by that remarkable Eocene tertiary basin 
in the Mauvaise Terres of Nebraska, containing those interesting extinct races 
of fossil mammalia described by Dr. Leidy in the Memoir forming part of the 
geological report. 

Many important additions will be found to our geographical knowledge of the 
country, derived partly from drafts and astronomical observations made by th 
geological corps, and partly from the most recent linial surveys. 

For further particulars I beg to refer the members to the forthcoming geolo- 
gical report of the surveys of the region of country represented by this geolo- 
gical map. 

November 16^A. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

A note was read from Mr. Elias Durand, dated Nov. 15, 1852, accom- 
panying his donation, acknowledged this evening, of 109 autographs of 
Scientific and Literary men. 

Dr. B. H. Coates stated that he had been referred by a friend to a passage ia 
page 136, of a work entitled "The Unity of the Human Races, proved to be the 
doctrine of Scripture, Reason and Science ; by the Rev. Thomas Smyth, D. D. 
New York, 1850" in which his name is cited, with those of several others, as 
that of an "opponent" of the doctrine or dogma of the Unity of the Human 
Species ; and this on the authority of the late Dr. Morton. Dr. Coates had no re- 
collection of the passage in any of the writings of his late honored friend just named, 
or of any other, in which such a statement had been made for him ; and could only 
presume that Dr. Smyth has either misapprehended some expression in Dr. 
Morton's books, or has quoted from memory without referring to the text. Dr. 
Coates hoped to be allowed to have placed upon record in the Proceedings of the 
Academy an explicit denial of the above allegation, having never held the opinion 
there implied as his. He acquiesces in what he believes to be the general 
judgment of the most scientific men the unity of the human species without 
claiming to have formed an independent opinion; but he is not ignorant that 
some strangely marked varieties, as the Ethiopian, are of a very high antiquity. 

The proposition frequently combined with the above, that the origin of the 

192 [November, 

whole human race is from a single couple, and that such is the legitimate con- 
struction of the biblical passages mentioning Adam and Eve, did not appear to 
him to be a question in Natural History ; that is, he conceives it to be impossible, 
from any natural evidence now existing upon the surface of the earth, either to 
prove or disprove this proposition, or to render it more probable or improbable, 
and that it must, therefore, rest for its certainty upon revelation, records and the 
grammatical construction and just verbal meaning of an ancient language. 

November 2od. 

The President, Mr. Ord, in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Acad. C. L. C. Naturae 
Curiosorum, dated Breslau, 28th Aug. 1852, presenting the volume 
of its Transactions acknowledged this evening. 

Dr. Leidy presented a paper from M. Tuomey, entitled " Description 
of some fossil shells from the Tertiary of the Southern States,'' which, 
being intended for publication, was referred to a committee, consisting of 
Dr. Leidy, Mr. Conrad, and Mr. Charles E. Smith. 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper for publication, describing a new 
species of Numenius ; which was referred to Mr. Cassin, Dr. Wilson 
and Dr. Heermann. 

Dr. Owen presented for inspection by the members, a copy of his Re- 
port of the Geological Survey of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 
called attention to some of the illustrations, which were produced by an 
entirely new method ; the copy of the fossil being medal-ruled on the 
steel plate from the object itself. 

November SOth. 
Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

The committee on Mr. Tuomey's paper, offered at last meeting, re- 
ported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of some Fossil Shells from the Tertiary of the Southern States. 
By M. TcoMEY, Prof, of Geology, Univ. of Alabama. 

The fossils described in this paper are from a well known locality at Wil- 
mington, N. C. The bed in which they were found is a coarse calcareous con- 
glomerate resembling, in mineral composition, the compact white limestone of 
the Santee. 

Sir Charles Lyell described this structure in the first volume of the Quar- 
terly Journal of the Geological Society of London, and referred it to the Eocene. 
In a report on the geology of South Carolina I pointed out the existence of one 
or two Cretaceous forms /Ammonites placenta, Morton, and a Trigonia related 
to T. thoracica, Morton, in the same bed, together with Eocene fossils. 

Some of the fossils described are much larger than any occurring in the 
Eocene, yet as a group, no one acquainted with our Cretaceous and Eocene 
fossils could hesitate in referring them to the latter. Besides, Sir Charles 
Lyell has given a list, from this locality, of several species found elsewhere in 
the Eocene. 

1852.] 193 

As the deposit is a, conglomerate and in the vicinity of cretaceous beds, it 
would occur to any one that the presence of a few cretaceous forms could be 
easily explained by supposing the breaking up of a cretaceous bed, and the 
transportation of its debris and included fossils into the eocene sea, where they 
were entombed with the molluscous remains of that period. Nevertheless it is 
evident that the cretaceous shells were filled at the eame time, and with the 
same mineral matter as those of the eocene found with them, for the casts of 
both are composed of compact white limestone. Now, excepting the stratum 
on Timber Creek, New Jersey, none of our cretaceous deposits could furnish 
the mineral matter of either the casts of these shells or the rock in which they 
are enclosed. Between the Delaware and Chattahoochee the cretaceous rocks 
are made up of loose, grey, loamy and silicious strata, without white creta- 
ceous beds ; and in Alabama, the rotten limestone, which is the prevailing rock, 
is entirely different from the Wilmington bed ; even the cretaceous deposit in 
the vicinity, from which it might be supposed these remains were derived, is 
composed of the usual dark-colored silicious stratum of green sand. It would 
be equally difficult to account for the presence of these fossils, by supposing 
that they remained empty and were subsequently drifted into the eocene sea, 
and there filled with sedimentary matter and buried with the forms of that 
period. At all events, after a careful examination of the locality, as well as 
the fossils, I could satisfy myself only by supposing the inhabitants of these 
shells to have lived and died during the eocene period, to have been cotempora- 
neous with the forms with the remains of which they are buried. 

The fossils to be described are for the most part in the form of casts : fre- 
quently, however, casts of both the interior and exterior of the shells occur, 
and they are generally so characteristic that there can be but little danger of 
mistake, if even hereafter the shells themselves should be found. 

1. Trochus nixus : large ; axis very oblique ; whorls 5 or 6, flat or slightly 
concave, marked by revolving lines obsoletely cancellated ; suture of the cast 
deep, of the shell basely impressed ; umbilicus open, deep. 

JDimen. Spiral angle 75 j hr. 4; br. 5 in. 

2. Pyrula ampla : ventricose, ovate ; epire depressed ; whorls 4, last one 
very large. 

Dimen. Spiral angle 100 ; ht. 6in. ; br. 4-5 in. 

This fossil is also found in the white limestone of the Santee. 

4. Fdsus abruptus : ovoid ; whorls rounded, ventricose, the last one termi- 
nating abruptly in the canal. 

Dimen. Spiral angle 70 ; ht. 6 in. ; br. 4 in. 

4. CoNus MUTiLATUS : Spire depressed ; whorls flattened ; sides longitudinally 

Dimen. Spiral angle 101; ht. 2-5 in. ; br. 1-5 in. 

Casts of shell are abundant at Wilmington, N. C, and in the white limestone 
of Alabama. It is also found in the eocene beds on the Santee. TLey are 
easily distinguished from the other eocene species. In C. gyratus^ Morton, the 
spire is more produced ; whilst in C. i?auridens^ Don., it is more depressed. 
Casts of the latter have the spiral whorls in nearly the same plane. 

5. VoLUTA coNoiDEs: conical ; spire short; whorls 4, columcllar plaits nu- 
merous. Resembles Conus gyratus. 

Dimen. Spiral angle 87; ht. 2 in. ; br. 1 in. 

6. Trigonia divaricata: cast of left valve, ribs 15, somewhat acute, con- 
verging towards the posterior margin, arched on the umbones, diraricating be- 
low. After the sixth rib there is a half rib intercalated. 

Dimen. Length 2 in.; br. 1*5 in. ; ht. 1 in. 

7. T. LCNATA : ribs 14, rounded, slightly ventricose; posterior margin cre- 

Dimen. Length 1-75 in. ; br. 125 in. ; ht. 1 25 in. 


This and the preceding are distinguished from T. tkoracica, Morton, by their 
greater length compared with their breadth, as well as by the more round ribs. 

8. Cardita trapezium : shell rhomboidal, cordate ventricose, ribs acute, 
crossed by coarse incremental lines. 

Dimen. Length 225 in.; br. 2 in. ; ht. 2 in. 

This shell differs from C. alticosta. Con., in outline, as well as in being more 
ventricose, and having less prominent ribs. 

9. CccuLL^ LiEVis : shell smooth or marked by increment lines, ribs none ; 
umbones ventricose; beaks nearly central; hinge area wide; plate of anterior 
muscular impression extending from the beaks to the margin, wide. 

Dimen. Length 4-25 in. ; br. 3'5 in. 

This fossil can be distinguished from C. vulgaris, which it resembles, by the 
smooth exterior, and deep and long muscular impression. 

10. Arca cancellata: shell thin, very inequilateral, cancellated by radiating 
lines and approximating transverse lines ; umbones prominent ; beaks close ; 
hinge-line slightly curved; posterior margin rounded, compressed; anterior 
margin much contracted. 

Dimen, Length 25 in.; br. 3*5 in. 

The Committee on the following paper by Dr. Woodhouse, reported 
in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of a new species of Numineus [Moehr.) 

By S. W. WooDHOTJSE, M. D. 

Numineus occidentalis. 

Form, In general form and color, this bird is much like N. longirostris, 
Wilson. The color, however, is much lighter and more rufous, the bill short 
and very slender, the primaries are more pointed ; their inner web is not so 
broad. Wings extend about half an inch beyond the tail. Toes short and 


Dimensions. Total length of skin - - - - 16 3-lOths. 

Length of bill along the ridge . - 4 2-lOths. 

Wing from flexure - - - - - 11 5-lOths. 

Length of tarsus ----- 2 8-lOths. 

" middle toe - - - - 1 3^-lOths. 

" naked space of tibia - - - 1 6-10th3. 

Color. Feathers of the top of the head have a broad central line of blackish 
brown, terminating on their side by whitish brown ; neck light reddish brown, 
the shaft of each feather being black and terminating by a broad blackish-brown 
spot. ThosB of the hind part of the neck have the central line of black much 
broader. Chin white. Back black with irregular markings of reddish brown, form- 
ing spots: these, as they approach the rump, become more reddish and are broader, 
having much the appearance of bands. Upper tail coverts reddish brown ; 
shafts black, with transverse black bands. The tail is slightly rounded, and 
consists of twelve feathers of a reddish brown color, with ten transverse black 
bands. Under coverts reddish brown. Belly and thighs light reddish brown. 
Sides reddish brown, with irregular blackish brown zigzag lines. The shaft of 
the 6rst primary is white ; the outer webs of the first three are black ; of the 
fourth slightly mottled with reddish brown ; on their inner webs reddish, 
mixed with irregular lines of brown ; the remainder of the primaries are reddish 
brown, with zigzag transverse bars of black. The secondaries and tertials are 
more black, the bands being confluent in the middle. Under plumage long 

18^2.] 195 

axUlaries, inner wing coverts, bright reddish brown. Bill blackish brown. 
Legs and feet flesh color. A pale supraciliary line extends from the base of 
the bill. 

Habitat. Rio Grande, New Mexico. 

Obs, This remarkable species is closely allied to the N. longirostris and N. 
Hudsonicus, but from both of them it differs very materially. I procured it near 
Albuquerque, on the Rio Grande, whilst attached to the Expedition, as Surgeon 
and Naturalist, under the command of Captain L. Sitgreaves, Topographical 
engineer U. S. army, exploring the Zuni and the Great and Little Colorado 
rivers of the west. There were but few of them there at the time. They 
were on the sandbars of the river, feeding upon worms and insects. 


Dr. James M. Corpe, of Philadelphia, was elected a Member ; and 
Dr. H. W. Kennedy, of Buenos Ayres, and Mr. James Broome Smith, 
of California, were elected Correspondents of the Academy. 

Decemher 7th. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From Mr. Dexter Marsh, dated Greenfield, Mass. Dec. 3d, 1852, 
acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election, as a Correspondent. 

From the Librarian of the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, dated 1st 
Nov., 1852, acknowledingthe receipt of a copy of Dr. Euschenberger'a 
Notice of the Academy. 

From the President of the " Naturwissenchaftlichen Yerien in Halle'* 
dated l8th Oct. 1852, presenting the volumes of its Proceedings an- 
nounced this evening, and asking an exchange of publications. 

Dr. Heermann presented a paper intended for publication in the Jour- 
nal^ entitled ^' Notes on the Birds of California, collected during a three 
years residence in that country '," which was referred to Mr. Cassin, Dr. 
Woodhouse and Dr. Wilson. 

Dr. Charles M. Wetherill read a paper, intended for publication in the 
Proceedings, entitled " Analyses of the Cotton Plant and Seed, with 
suggestions as to manures, by the late Thomas J. Sumner, of South 
Carolina ; communicated by Chas. M. "Wetherill '/' which was referred to 
Dr. Genth, Dr. Le Conte and Mr. Vaux. 

Dr. Hallowell presented a paper, intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled " On a new genus, and two new species of Reptiles in- 
habiting North America;'* referred to Dr. Le Conte, Dr. Woodhouse 
and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings 
describing two new species of pouched Rats of the genera Geomys, Raf. 
and Perognathus, Wied, which was referred to a Committee consisting 
of Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Le Conte and Dr. Leidy. 

196 [Decembek, 

Dr. E. K. Kane announced that a new American Expedition was 
about to proceed to the Arctic Regions in search of Sir John Franklin. 
Dr. Kane made some remarks explanatory of the geography of the 
region, and the plan of the proposed search. 

The Secretary then read a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, 
addressed to Dr. Kane, assigning to him the conduct of the Expedition. 

The following Resolutions were then offered and unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to confer with Dr. E. K. 
Kane Commander of the projected Arctic Exploring Expedition, and 
communicate whatever information there may be in the possession of the 
Academy, relating to the collection and preservation of objects of Natural 
History and to procure such instruments and apparatus as may be neces- 
sary for this purpose, and for his use. 

Committee : Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Fisher, Mr. W. S. Vaux, Dr. 
Bridges and Mr. Cassin. 

December 14^A. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Secretary of the Trustees of the New York State Library, 
dated Albany, Dec. 6th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of the Pro- 
ceedings, vol. 6, No. 5. 

From Dr. H. W. Kennedy, of Buenos Ayres, dated Dec. 4th, 1852, 
acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election as a correspondent. 

From the Right Rev. Alonzo Potter, dated Dec. 7th, 1852, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of his notice of election as a Correspondent. 

Mr. Conrad presented a paper intended for publication in the Journal, 
entitled '' Descriptions of New Fossil Shells of the United States ;" 
which was referred to Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Leidy and Mr. Phillips. 

Mr. Conrad presented a second paper intended for publication in the 
Proceedings, entitled '< Remarks on the Tertiary Strata of St. Domingo, 
and of Vicksburg, Miss." Referred to the above Committee. 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper, intended for publication in the 
Proceedings, describing a new bird, of the genus Struthus (Boib.) 
Referred to Dr. Heermann, Mr. Cassin and Dr. Wilson. 

On leave granted. Dr. Ruschenberger, on behalf of the Committee 
appointed at the last meeting, on the subject of the proposed American 
Arctic Expedition, presented the following Preamble and Resolutions, 
which were adopted : 

Every manifestation of dispoBition in the officers of the National and State 
governments to encourage the pursuit of truth, by affording facilities to men 
devoted to scientific investigations, is pleasing to the members of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Aware of the important influence of sci- 
entific researches on the prosperity and happiness of the people, they are gra- 
tified to observe that the recent report of the Hon. John P. Kennedy, on the 
condition of the navy, is in tone and spirit cheering to tho-e who are seeking to 

1852.] , 197 

expand the limits of human knowledge ia any of its branches. While asking 
Congress to augment the means of instructing young men for dififerent depart- 
ments of the naval service, he pleads the cause of science in a manner worthy 
of that enlightened judgment which should characterise all who participate in 
the direction of nautical affairs. He announces that expeditions to Japan, to 
the China Seas, to Africa, to the interior of South America, to the Pacific 
Ocean, and to the Arctic regions, are in progress, or about departing to seek 
and peacefully open new fields of enterprise ; and while he incites the spirit of 
hardy adventure, he encourages, to the extent of the means in his power, care- 
ful observation and scientific investigation of natural phenomena. He advocates 
explorations which promise results beneficial to the agricultural, commercial 
and manufacturing industries of the country ; and for motives apparently ana- 
logous to those which animate the members of this institution. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary be directed to address a letter to 
the Hon. John P. Kennedy, Secretary of the Navy, expressive of the gratifica- 
tion the Society derives from the disposition he manifests to encourage men 
engaged in the cultivation of science ; a disposition more especially exhibited 
in the permission given to our fellow member, Dr. E. K. Kane, of the Navy, to 
undertake the direction and management of an expedition to the north polar 
regions, to ascertain the fate of Sir John Franklin ; an enterprise sustained by 
the intelligent munificence of Henry Grinnell, Esq., and a few other American 

Resolved, That science does not limit its benefits and influence to any class 
or caste of men ; being open and free to all alike, it is republican and democratic 
in its tendency ; and therefore, the members of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia may hope that the National Legislature will foster the 
several expeditions embracing scientific research, by granting such seasonable 
supplies and substantial encouragement as may be worthy of the most powerful 
and wealthy republic on the face of the earth. 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary is hereby instructed to furnish a 
copy of these resolutions to the President of the Senate of the United States, 
and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, for the information of 
Congress, and also to the Secretary of the Navy. 

On leave, granted, Mr. Cassin, from the Committee on Dr. Heer- 
mann's paper, entitled ^^ Notices of Birds observed in California,'^ 
reported in favor of publication in the Journal of the Academy, which 
was adopted. 

December 2\st. 
Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

Mr. Cassin presented a paper by P. R. Hoy, M. D., of Racine, Wis- 
consin, intended for publication in the Proceedings, describing two 
species of Owls, presumed to be new, inhabiting the State of Wisconsin 
during the winter season. Referred to Mr. Cassin, Prof. Haldeman 
and Dr. Heennann. 

Mr. Conrad presented a paper intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled, " Notes on Shells, and descriptions of new species.'' 
Referred to Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Le Conte and Prof. Haldeman. 

Dr. Hullowell presented a paper, intended for publication in the 
Proceediuiis, " On a new genus and two new species of African 


198 , [December, 

Serpents ;" which was referred to a Committee consisting of Major 
Le Conte, Prof. Haldeman and Dr. Leidj. 

Dr. G-enth presented a paper, intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled, " On a probably new Element, with Iridosmene and 
Flatinum, from California." Referred to Prof. Frazer, Dr. Le Conte 
and Dr. Bridges. 

Prof. Haldeman stated that he had seen, at the recent agricultural exhibition 
at Lancaster, Pa., a pair of albino specimens of Tamias lysieri (or striata) ; also 
a black specimen of the same species ; which would throw light upon the varieties 
of the grey squirrels, since it is more likely that these should have black varie- 
ties than the uniform species of Tamias. The specimen was black throughout, 
and there were no indications of the lateral stripes, A few scattered hairs of 
white might be observed on a close inspection. Prof H. stated further that he 
had had an idiotic specimen of Sciurus Hudsonius, which had the actions of 
a human idiot. It was thus affected when caught, and was merely able to take 
its food, but incapable of running or leaping. Its principal actions were turning 
in a circle aod moving the head up and down continually. 

December 2Sth. 

Yice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Coramitte on Mr. Conrad's papers, containing " Ptemarks on the 
Tertiary Strata of St. Domingo and Vicksburg,^' and " Notes on Shells, 
with descriptions of new species," reported in favor of publication in 
the Proceedings. 

Remarks on the Tertiary Strata of St. Domingo and Vickshurg^ (^Miss.) 

By T. A. CoNEAD. 

The remarkable group of fossils which I discovered at Vicksburg, Miss., in 
1845, derives a new interest for the geologist since the discovery of an analogous 
deposit in St. Domingo, in which are some few of the species of the Vicksburg 
strata. Whether all the forms of this group in St. Domingo are synchronous 
remains to be proved, but the probability is that they are. They have been 
referred to the Miocene period, whilst I had supposed that the Vicksburg 
strata were more intimately related to those of the Eocene period. I founded 
this supposition on the following data, viz : 

1. No recent species was known, or is yet ascertained to occur in this 

2. Two or three fossil shells of the Older Eocene of Alabama are common. 

3. No species is identical with, and only two or three analogous to, fossil 
shells of the American Miocene, even as the group occurs in South Carolina, but 
little north of the latitude of Vicksburg. 

4. The forms have a closer analogy with those of the European Eocene than 
with any other group of fossils. 

It might be supposed that a more southern latitude would vary the Miocene 
species, but not thnt the percentage of recent shells would be reduced to zero, 
nor would an utterly dissimilar group be introduced. The only condition which 
would seem likely to produce such a result would be a great depth of water, in 
which the shells had lived and died on the bed of aprofounder sea than wehave 
elsewhere eny evidence of; but this is not probable, because the presence of so 

1852.] 199 

many littoral genera as Pleurotoma, the species of which are very abundant in 
specimens, TurritcUa, Natica, Terebra, Oliva, and various others, indicate shallow 
water, and the abundance of comminuted shells and waterworn specimens attest 
the vicinity of a sea beach. 

The well known Miocene deposits are remarkably unlike that of Vicksburg, 
in the abundance of large species of Venus, Fulgur, Perna, and Panopoea, some of 
which genera, with their peculiar species in every latitude, render the Miocene 
period recognizable at a glance. Indeed it is singular that the distinctive cha- 
racter of this formation should be so strongly marked over an extent of 400 
miles north and south. Even the Venus alveata, a common Maryland fossil, 
seems to be abundant beneath the level of the sea, on Sullivan's Island, near 
Charleston, and another Maryland fossil, which I have named Ecphora -i-costata^ 
{Fu^us A-costaius oi Say,) was found on the beach of St. Simon's Island, Georgia. 
Both localities are south of the latitude of Vicksburg, the Georgia one nearly a 
degree farther south. The researches of Mr. Tuomey, in South Carolina, have 
brought to light at least 26 species, which are known to occur as far north as 
St. Mary's river, Maryland. From this comparison of groups it seems obvious 
that the Vicksburg deposit must be of earlier origin than the fossiliferous Ter- 
tiary strata of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, which seem all 
to be of one geological era, though Mr. Tuomey refers those of South Carolina 
to the Older Pliocene period. Whether the Mississippi formation should be 
termed an Older Miocene or a Newer Eocene, may yet be doubtful, but that it 
is intermediate between the Lower and Middle Tertiary, and differing widel/ 
from either in the period of its deposition, is obvious. 

A careful exploration of the St. Domingo locality will probably clear up all 
doubts on the subject. 

In conclusion, I may observe, that besides the Turbinella Wilsoni and Oniscia 
harpula, the Cassidaria Icevigata, Forbes, is identical with my C. liniea, thus 
giving three species common to the Vicksburg and St. Domingo groups. 

Notes on Shells, luith Descrtpttons of new Species. 

By T. A. Conrad. 
Cryptodon, Con. 

The name of this genus, founded on i/ya cancellata, having been previously 
applied by Turton to another group of bivalves, and now adopted by some 
conchologists, it is necessary to change it, and I therefore propose 


in allusion to the profound channel which indents the hinge of both sides of 
the cardinal teeth. 


Cryptodon Nuttallii, Con., Journ. A. N. S. vol. 1, p. 325, pi. 18, fig. 1. 


Unio Mortoni, Con., Dec. 1835. 
U. turgidus, Lea, 1837. 

Mr. Lea's description of this species was read at a meeting of the Philosophi- 
cal Society in Dec. 1834, but not published before 1837. 

Miocene species ? 


Ostrea Titan. Elliptical or oblong ; extremity thick and ponderous, contracted 
towards the hinge; ligament cavity profound ; upper valve slightly arched ; 
surface coarsely marked. Length 10^ inches. 



Locality. San Luis Obispo, California. 

This huge species is imbedded in friable limestone which contains abundance 
of silicious sand rounded by attrition. No other fossil can be detected in the 
portions of limestone which accompany the specimens. 

Cretaceous Species. 

Pholas pectorosa. Ovate-cuneate ; anteriorly inflated, contracted in the 
middle ; posterior side cuneiform ; disk with radiating ribs, largest anteriorly, 
and interrupted by concentric furrows ; anterior side yery short, margin ob- 
tusely rounded or subtruncated ; basal margin rounded anteriorly, contracted 
medially, straight posteriorly. 

Locality. Tinton Falls, Monmouth Co., N. J. 

This rare species was found by the late Lardner Vanuxem. It is a cast, on 
the right valve of which an impressed line runs obliquely from the apex, while 
on the opposite valve there is a corresponding furrow, and the three ribs nearest 
the posterior end are more remote from each other, than in the right valve. 

Inocer amies Senseni. 

Inocebamus, Sow. 

Rounded ; both valves profoundly curved ; beaks involute, the volutions of 
the larger valve, 3, contiguous in both valves. Length 1^ inches ; width 1^ in. 
Locality. Missouri river, Nebraska. Mr. Senseny. 

Tnoceramus perovalis. Oval, convex, slightly oblique ; beaks medial, both 
dorsal margins equally declining; basal margin acutely rounded: surface 
with obsolete concentric undulations. Height about 1^ inches j length less 
than the height. 

Locality. Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Mr. Vanuxem. 

The Committee on papers by Dr. Woodhouse namely, "Descrip- 
tion of two new species of Pouched Rats,'' and " Description of a new 
species of Struthus/' reported in favor of publication in the Pro- 

Description of a New Species of Pouched Rat, of the Genus Perogna- 

thus, Wied. 

By S. W. W. Woodhouse, M. D. 

Peuognathus penecillatus. 

Characters. Above yellowish brown, beneath white, tail longer than the 
head and body, penecillate, with bright brown hair. 

Form. Head of moderate size, not easily distinguished from the neck ; 
incisors small and partially exposed, upper ones sulcate in the middle. Nose 
small and rather pointed, extending some distance beyond the incisors ; whiskers 
light brown, irregularly mixed with black; eyes dark brown, and of moderate 
size; ears nearly round and moderate, almost naked anteriorly and covered 
posteriorly with fine brown fur; the tragus and antitragus are quite prominent. 
The external meatus is protected by a tuft of short black bristles extending 
across the ear. Tail about one and a quarter inches longer than the head and 
body, round, gradually tapering, and covered with hair; on the superior and 
middle portion commences a row of long silky hairs, which gradually increase 
in width until they form a tuft at the end. Fore legs short, feet small, with 
four well developed toes and a short thumb, which is armed with a nail ; 
palms naked. Hind legs and feet long, having five toes, terminated by nails. 
Feet and toes covered with short fine fur ; soles naked. The fur longer on the 
back than on the belly; it is thick, soft and silky. 

1852.] 201 

Color. IncisorB yellow, top of head and back dark yellowish brown, lighter 
on the sides ; fur at base light ash color. Throat, belly, vent, fore legs and 
inner portions of thighs white. The white commences at the nostrils, and 
forms a well marked line to the thighs, and extending down to the heel, leaving 
the front of thigh white, the remainder and outer portion light yellowish brown ; 
feet white. Under portion of tail white, above dark brown ; the long hair of 
the tail is a rich brown. 

Dimensions. Total length from tip of nose to root of tail - 3 5-lOths. 
" " of tail vertebra - - - - 3 7-lOths. 
" " of ear anterior , - - - 3-lOths. 
" ' of whiskers - - - - l 7-lOths. 

" " OS calcis, middle toe nail - - 1. 
Distance from anterior angle of orbit to tip of nose 6^-10th3. 

Habitat. New Mexico, west of Rio Grande. 

Ohs. Of the habits of this animal I know but little. The specimen in my 
possession is a male, and was procured in the San Francisco Mountain, New 

Description of a New Species of Pouched Rat of the Genus Geomys, Raf. 

By S. W. WooDHOusE, M. D. 

Geomys fulvus. 

Characters. Light reddish brown above, beneath whitish. Ears small, 
round, and covered with thick short black fur. Tail long in proportion when 
compared with others of this genus. 

Description. Head large, nose broad, covered with short thick fur, with the 
exception of a small space at tip and the margins of the nostrils, which are 
naked. The nose extends a short distance beyond the plane of the incisors. 
The incisors are exserted, with three (fonvex smooth sides, the exterior broadest, 
and of a yellowish color ; their cutting edges are , even. The upper incisors 
extend downwards and inwards ; the under ones are one-third longer than the 
upper, and slightly narrower. Ears small and round, covered with short thick 
black fur externally. Eyes larger than is common in this genus. Tail round, 
thick at base, and gradually tapering. The fore claws are long, compressed, 
slightly curved and pointed. The claw on the middle toe is the longest, the 
fifth is the shortest, and that of the thomb resembles much the claw of the 
fourth toe of the hind foot, both as regards size and shape. The toes on the 
hind feet are a little longer and more slender than those of the fore feet ; the 
nails short, somewhat conical and excavated underneath. 

Color. Head, cheeks, back and sides bright reddish brown, being darker on 
the top of the head and back. The breast, vent, feet, inner portion of legs and 
thighs white, slightly inclining to ash ; abdomen very light reddish brown ; for at 
base dark ash color above, beneath light ash. Edges of cheek pouches encircled 
with rufous ; the long hair of the back extends about one third the length of the 
tail. The tail is covered with short white silky hairs, terminating in a small 
tuft. The fore feet above are covered with short white hair ; the toes on their 
inner side have a row of long white hairs ; palms naked. Claws are opaque, 
white for half their extent, the other half transparent; there is a small oblong 
reddish brown spot in the centre of each. The hind feet are covered above with 
white hairs, soles naked. The lips, on their inner side, are covered with short 
fine white hair, with a band of short fine black fur encircling the mouth. 
Whiskers silvery white. 

202 [Decembee, 


Dimensions. Total length from tip of nose to root of tail - 5. 

" " of tail vertebra - - - - i 3-lOths. 
" " from anterior angle of eye to tip of nose 7-lOths. 

' " from tip of nose to auditory opening 1 l^-lOths, 
' " of OS calcis including middle toe and 

claw 1 1-lOth. 

*' " from elbow to end of middle hind 

claw - - - - 1 8-10th8. 

" " of middle fore claw - - - 4-10th8. 
" ' of hind claw - - - - 2i-10thB. 

'* " offuronback - - - - 2|-10ths. 

" " of whiskers, about - - - 1 in. 

Habitat. New Mexico, west of Rio Grande. 

Obs. The specimen in my collection was procured near the San Francisco 
Mountain, New Mexico, where they were quite abundant. 

These Pouched Rats of the genus Perognathus and Geomys I procured whilst 
attached as Surgeon and Naturalist to the party under command of Capt. Sit - 
greaves, U. S. Army, exploring at Zuni, and Little and Great Colorado Rivers 
of the west. 

Description of a new Snow Finch of the genus Struthus, Boie. 

By S. W. WooDHOUSB, M. D. 

Struthus caniceps. 

Form. Bill longer and more gradually tapering than in S. oregonus. Wings 
rounded ; first quill shortest ; second, third and fourth nearly equal ; third 
slightly longest. Tail long and slightly emarginate. Tarsus long and slender. 

Colors. Head above, back of neck, and cheeks dark gray; throat, breast, 
and sides lighter grey; abdomen, vent, and under tail coverts inclining to white. 
Upper mandible dark brown, almost black; space between the eye and base of 
bill black. Back bright reddish brown ; rump and upper tail coverts dark grey. 
Tail dark brownish black, with the lateral feathers in some specimens entirely 
white, and with others having large spots of white on their inner webs. In one 
of the specimens which I have seen, all of the three lateral feathers are mottled. 
Wings, with the primaries dark brown, and their outer margin narrowly edged 
with yellowish white. The secondaries with their inner webs dark brown, and 
their outer light reddish brown; scapular and lesser wing coverts light reddish 
brown. Tarsi and feet flesh color ; nails brownish. 

Dimensions. Total length of skin from the tip of bill to end of tail, 6 2-lOthB. 
" of bill along the ridge > - _ 4|-10ths. 

" of wing from flexure - - - 3 U-lOths. 

" of tarsus 8|-10ths. 

" of tail 3 1-lOth. 

The female has the feet and bill colored like the male ; the general plumage 
is darker and not so bright. The head is ashy brown, back dark reddish brown ; 
secondaries dark brown, with a slight reddish brown margin on the outer webs. 
Scapular feathers and^^lesser wing coverts greyish brown ; the measurements 
differ but little from those of the male, being slightly smaller. 

Habitat. Western Texas and New Mexico. 

Obs. My attention was first called to this bird by my friend Mr. John Cassin, 
who very kindly suggested an examination of several specimens of mine in the 
collection of the Academy in connection with another in his possession, and a 
female in the collection, made by me when attached to the Exploring party under 
the command of Capt. Sitgreaves, Topographical Engineer. U. S. Army, in the 

1852.] 203 

San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico. One of the specimens in the collection 
of the Academy is from Mexico, the others are from Texas. My specimen is 
from New Mexico. When obtained it was feeding in company with S. oregonns 
and various species of Parus, and it appeared very similar to the former and 
the common snow bird (S. hyemalis) in its habits. 

The Committee on the following papers by Dr. Hallowell namely, 
" On a new Genus and two new Species of African Serpents," and 
'* On a new Genus and new Species of Reptiles, inhabiting North 
America," reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

On a nexo Gtnus and two new species of African Serpents. 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 

DiNOPHIS Hallowell. 

Gen. Char. Form, that of a tree snake ; perforated fangs in the anterior part 
of the upper jaw, immovable; several of the anterior teeth of the lower jaw 
longer than the others ; but two rows of teeth in the upper jaw, the exterior row 
not existing; two rows in the lower jaw, quite short; no loral plate; 4 poste- 
rior,* 3 anterior orbital plates ; tail long, sub-caudal scales bifid. 

DiNOPHIS Hammondii. 

Sp. Char. Head olive color above, superior labials bordered with black ; 
body above and upon sides green; total length about six feet; thirteen rows of 
long and smooth scales. Abdom. scuta 127. Sub-caud. 116. 

Description. The head is long, rounded and narrow in front, covered above 
with nine plates ; the upper surface in front of the orbit is flattened ; between 
the orbit it is convex, and also, but to a less extent, upon the occiput; the ros- 
tral is large, heptagonal, much broader below than above, excavated inferiorly, 
rounded in front; the anterior frontal are much smaller than the posterior, and 
are more or less quadrilateral in shape ; the posterior frontal are very large, 
irregularly quadrilateral; they are prolonged externally upon the sides of the 
head, passing downward between the posterior nasal and the two superior ant- 
ocular plates ; the vertical plate is short, very broad anteriorly ; the supra- 
orbital are also short, projecting very slightly over the eye, naxrow in front, 
broad behind ; the occipital are very large and pentangular, much larger than 
broad ; there are two nasal plates of nearly equal size, the anterior somewhat 
larger, with the nostrals between them ; the external openings for the latter are 
quite large; there is no loral plate; there are three antocular and four poste- 
rior-oculars; the superior antocular is the largest of the three; it is prolonged 
superiorly, so as to form a part of the upper surface of the head, entering in be- 
tween the posterior frontal and the vertical and supra-orbital plates ; the inferior 
antocular is small and quadrilateral, the middle long and slender ; there are eight 
plates upon the margin of the upper jaw ; of these the seventh is the largest, and 
is remarkable for its unusual form ; its superior margin is nearly straight, its pos- 
terior and inferior very much curved ; the plate on the leftside in the specimen 
examined differs considerably from that on the right, being more prolonged, and 
also truncated posteriorly ; the fourth labial plate forms part of the inferior 
margin of the orbit, the remainder being completed by the inferior, anterior, 
and posterior oculars ; there is a long, triangular, temporal plate occupying 
the space between the occipital and the seventh superior labial ; the eyes are 
of moderate size, slightly projecting ; there are but two rows of teeth in the 
upper jaw, one on each side, and two in the lower ; in the front part of the 

* In one of the specimens there are but three posterior oculars. 

204 [December, 

upper jaw, immediately below the nostril, on each side of the head, is a curved 
and perforated immovable fang about three lines in length ; there is no pit be- 
tween the eye and the nostril, and this space is not channelled as in L. gracilis 
and Kirtlandii ; several of the anterior teeth in the lower jaw are much larger 
than the others ; the longest is slender and deeply fissured anteriorly. The neck 
is contracted, the body long, thicker about the middle, covered above with long 
and smooth quadrangular scales, arranged in thirteen rows ; the scales nearest 
the abdomen are shorter than the others ; the tail is quite long, covered above 
with four rows of short hexagonal scales, with margins more or less rounded 
posteriorly ; the plates upon the under part of the tail are bifid. 

Color. Head olive colored above, lighter upon the sides ; the posterior margins 
of the labial plates black; posterior margin of inferior labials also black; neck, 
upper part and side of body green, the scales upon the posterior part of the 
body bordered with black ; abdomen greenish, without spots or blotches ; tail 
greenish olive, many of the scales bordered with black. 

Dimensions. Length of head 1 inch 4 lines ; greatest breadth 9 lines ; length 
of the body 3 ft. 11 inch. 2\ lines; length of tail 1 ft. 5 inch. *l lines; total 
lenth 5 ft. 7 inch. 2 lines ; greatest circumference 2 inch. 8 lines. 

I have named this serpent after my friend Ogden Hammond, Esq., of Charles- 
ton, S. Carolina. 

Dimensions of a larger specimen. Length of head 1 inch 6 lines ; greatest 
breadth 11 lines; breadth between the orbits posteriorly 9 lines; length of 
body 4 ft. 62^ inches ; of tail 1 ft. 5 inch. 9 lines ; total length 6 ft. 1 in. 9^ lines ; 
greatest circumference 3 inches. Abdom. scuta 225; 112 pairs of subcaudal 

Habitat. Liberia, W. Africa : Two specimens in the Museum of the Academy, 
presented by Dr. Goheen. 

Remarks. The dentition of this animal is very remarkable, no serpent with 
which I am acquainted having a single immovable perforated fang on each side 
of the anterior portion of the upper jaw. It is well known to Herpetologists 
that, although in Vipera, Naja, and other genera of venomous snakes, the exte- 
rior row of teeth is wanting ; the poisonous fangs in certain serpents have behind 
them a number of smaller grooved teeth. This condition exists, according to 
Prof. Owen, in all the family of marine serpents, four such being found in Hy- 
drophis striata, and five in Hydrophis schistosa. This is the case also in Bun- 
garus, a land serpent, and in Hamadryas, a genus of poisonous tree snakes* in 
India, established by Dr. Cantor.f In our own venomous serpents, Elaps, Tri- 
gonocephalus and Crotalus, the exterior row of teeth is wanting. In this re- 
spect they resemble Dinophis, but the fang in the latter genus is, as above 
stated, quite immovable. In one of the specimens a movable perforated fang 
was observed on the right side behind the other immovable one. 

Dr. Edward Whitaker Gray, in the Philosophical Transactions of London for 
1789, makes some interesting observations on the *' class of animals called by 
Linnaeus, amphibia ; particularly on the means of distinguishing those serpents 
Avhich are venomous from those which are not so." He arrives at the conclusion 
that the only mode of distinguishing a venomous from a non-venomous serpent 
is by an examination of their teeth ; the tail, which is usually short in the 
venomous species, being sometimes short in the innocuous. This is the case 
in Pityophis affinis, and melanoleucus, both harmless serpents, with very 
short tails. Serpents whose appearance indicates inoffensiveness are not unfre- 
quently very dangerous, as in the instance above cited, and in that of the genus 
Sepedon of Merrem, and Distichurus maculatus, which is quite small, and resem- 
bles in its general appearance an ordinary Coluber, but is provided with a small 
isolated fang on each side of the upper jaw. One of these, I have been informed, 

* These poisonous tree snakes are probably more numerous in the East than 
is generally supposed. Dr. Ruschenberger informs me that in Siam he observed 
a large green tree snake, which was said by the natives to be very venomous. 

t Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1838, p. 72. 

1852.] 205 

killed a black womaa in Western Africa, death ensuing a short time after the 
bite ; so that, as a general rule, it is best for travellers to avoid all serpents, un- 
less they be naturalists and well acquainted with their structure and habits. In 
Bucephalus, a genus established by Dr. Andrew Smith, found in S. Africa, the 
posterior teeth are larger than the rest, and grooved upon their anterior and 
convex surface, as is the case also in Dryophis and Dipsas. Bucephalus, accord- 
ing to Dr. Smith, has six rows of teeth in the upper jaw, which is very re- 
markable, most serpents having but four. In vol. iv. p. 39 of the Proceed- 
ings of the Academy, mention is made by Dr. Savage of a wood sawyer having 
been bitten by a green serpent, while in the act of preparing a log for the saw 
probably one of the species above described. The wound was in the foot, which 
was swollen, as was also the leg as high as the knee. Strong rum and Sulph. of 
Morphia were administered, and a free incision was made over the wound. Pas- 
sive hemorrhage ensuing, the vessels were taken up and tied; the whole limb 
up to the groin became enormously swollen ; a bad sore followed the incision, 
and the cuticle of the limb to a great extent came off. He recovered at the end 
of three weeks. 


Dendrophis plavigulaeis. 

Sp. Char. Head dark brown above, lighter upon the sides ; body and tail jet 
black; thirteen rows of scales; total length 6 ft. 3 in. 10 lines. Abdominal 
scuta 207 ; sub-caudal 146. 

Description. The head presents the form of a triangle truncated anteriorly, 
depressed above posteriorly ; rostral plate pentangular, broader below than 
above, rounded in front ; there are two nasal plates with the nostrils between 
them ; the anterior nasal is very large ; there is a loral plate, also 
large and more or less quadrangular in shape ; there is but one ant-ocular, 
which is broad above, its upper surface extending inward between the posterior 
frontal and the supra-ocular; there are three post-oculars, the two upper 
of nearly equal size, the inferior long and slender ; there are two anterior and 
two posterior frontals, the posterior rather larger than the anterior ; the 
vertical is pentagonal, much broader anteriorly; the supra-oculars are 
large, broad behind, narrow in front ; the occipitals are broad and short, 
their transverse diameter being equal to their length ; there are two temporal 
plates behind the posterior ocular, the posterior much larger than the anterior; 
there are eight superior labials, the fourth and fifth forming part of the orbit, 
the sixth and seventh are the largest ; the eyes are very large ; there are four 
rows of teeth in the upper jaw ; nine plates margin the lower jaw on each side ; 
the neck is contracted ; the body long and slender, thicker in the middle, covered 
above with long and 'harrow carinated scales ; those nearest the abdomen are 
shorter and broader than the rest ; tail covered with smooth imbricated scales, 
broader than long. 

Color. Dark brown upon the upper part of the head, and upon the temples ; 
lighter upon the sides ; chin and throat yellowish white ; neck yellowish white, 
spotted with black ; body and tail jet black ; lighter upon the abdomen. 

Dimensions. Length of head 1 inch 4 lines ; greatest breadth 6 J lines ; length 
of body 3 ft. .5 in. 2i lines ; length of tail 1 ft. 6 in. 8 lines ; greatest circum- 
ference 2f inches. 

Habitat. Liberia, Western Africa. 

A specimen in the Museum of the Academy, presented by Dr. Henry A. Ford. 

Remarks. The animal above described has a general resemblance to the 
Bucephalus capensis of Dr. Andrew Smith, and is of about the same length, 
but differs in color. Bucephalus capensis, according to Dr. Smith, has six rows 
of teeth. 


206 [December, 

On a New Genus and three New Species of Reptiles inhabiting North America. 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 


Gen. Char. Head conical, pointed, rostral vertical, the supra-nasals on each 
side contiguous ; internasal large ; nostrils between two nasal plates ; two 
fronto-parietals ; tympanum depressed ; a few small scales in front of the ear ; 
no gular fold; body and extremities slender; toes 5-5; scales smooth and 
shining, similar upon back and abdomen, rounded posteriorly ; preanal scales 
large ; no femoral pores ; no palatine or sphenoidal teeth ; body and extremities 

Lamprosaurus guttulatus. 

Sp. Char. Body and upper surface of extremities black ; a row of seven or 
eight white spots along the margin of the upper jaw ; a row of white spots 
along the inferior margin of the supra-orbitar plates, continuous with which 
is a white spot upon the fronto-nasal, and another upon the parietal plates ; 
the rest of the upper surface, sides and front part of the head, are jet black, 
with the exception of a small white spot along the upper margin of the third 
supra-orbitar, and one which is indistinct upon the freuo-nasal plate ; chin black ; 
throat, abdomen and under surface of extremities iron grey, with a shining 
lustre. Total length 2 inches 6 lines. 

Description. The head is elongated, conical and pointed, rounded above and 
in front ; the rostral plate is vertical, pentangular, not grooved inferiorly, a little 
larger, apparently, in the vertical direction than transversely ; there are two 
nasal plates, with the nostril between them ; there are two supero-nasals, one on 
each side, contiguous, rhomboidal ; the internasal is large, in contact laterally 
with the supero-nasalandthe freno-nasal plate; in front with the supero-nasal, 
posteriorly with the fronto-nasal; the fronto-nasal are pentagonal, larger than 
the supero-nasal, their internal angle prolonged ; they are in contact anteriorly 
with the inter-nasal and the freno-nasal ; laterally with the freno-orbitar and the 
anterior supra-orbitar ; posteriorly with the frontal ; the frontal plate is long 
and hexagonal, broader in front, excavated laterally; the fronto-parietal are 
large and quadrilateral, larger than the fronto-nasal ; the inner-parietal is broad 
and rather short, rounded posteriorly, the anterior angle passing in between the 
fronto-parietals ; the parietals are large ; there are five supra-orbitar plates, the 
third the largest ; there are seven superior labials on one side and eight on the 
other, the last the largest; body and extremities slender; tail, according to Dr. 
Hammond, nearly as long as the body (mutilated in the specimen ;) fourth toe 
much longer than the third, and stouter ; third and fourth fingers of nearly equal 
length ; body covered above with smooth imbricated scales, broad and rounded 
posteriorly ; the scales upon the abdomen are similar to those upon the back ; 
no femoral or anal pores ; chin, throat and extremities covered with smooth 
imbricated scales. 

Color, Body and upper surface of extremities black ; a row of seven or eight 
white spots along the margin of the upper jaw ; a row of white spots along the 
superior margin of the supra-orbitar plates, continuous with which is a 
white spot upon the fronto-nasal, and another upon the parietal ; the rest 
of the upper surface, sides and front part of the head is jet black, with the 
exception of a small white spot along the upper margin of the third supra- 
orbitar, and one, which is indistinct, upon the freno-nasal; chin black; 
throat, abdomen and under surface of extremities iron grey, with a shining 

Dimensions. Length of head 4 lines ; greatest breadth 2\ lines ; length of 
neck and body 1 inch ; of anterior extremity 7 lines; of posterior the same; 
of tail about 1 inch 2 lines. 

Habitat. New Mexico, Fort Fillmore, below the Jornada del Muerte : found; 
also, at El Paso : rare, Dr. Hammond having seen but two specimens. 



The specimen above described was found by Dr. G. F. Hammond, and pre- 
sented by him to the Academy. 


Crotaphytus fasciatus. 

Sp. Char. Head of moderate size, triangular, slightly swollen at the temples j 
body slender ; anterior extremities idem ; tail nearly three times as long as the 
body (including neck and extending to vent ;) body covered with small granu- 
lations, ash colored, with seven or eight narrow transverse bands upon the back 
of the color of vermilion ; bands of a similar color upon the tail ; legs banded ; 
abdomen covered with quadrangular scales : flesh-colored ; femoral pores in the 
male very distinct. 

Description. The head is subtriangular, rounded in front, slightly swollen at 
the temples, covered above with polygonal tubercles, larger anteriorly ; a row 
considerably larger than the rest runs along the middle line of the front part of 
the head, midway between the nostrils ; these tubercles are much smaller and 
of more uniform size upon the temples ; they are also small over the orbits ; the 
occipital plate is of moderate size, and rather indistinct ; the supraciliary ridges 
are well developed ; the external margin of the eyelid is bordered with a row 
of quadrangular scales, external to which is another row upon the lower lid, 
with pointed extremities, presenting a well-marked denticulation ; the lids are 
covered with minute granulations ; the nostrils are large, oval, lateral, looking 
outward and slightly backward, situated in a single scale; the rostral plate is 
narrow, quadrangular, much more extended transversely than in the vertical 
direction ; the upper jaw is bordered with a row of seventeen plates ; the exter- 
nal opening of the ear is very apparent, oval, its anterior border presenting a few 
small denticulations ; neck folded ; body slender, covered above with small 
granulations, rather larger upon the back than upon the sides ; anterior extre- 
mities slender; posterior well developed ; both covered above wiih granulations, 
rather larger in front than posteriorly ; several rows of small plates along the 
margin of the lower jaw ; chin and throat covered with small granulations ; abdo- 
men covered with smooth hexagonal and quadrangular scales ; anterior surface of 
arms and forearms covered with small granulations ; of thighs and legs with 
scales similar to those upon the abdomen ; femoral pores very distinct ; no anal 
ones ; tail very long and slender posteriorly, covered with smooth quadrangular 
scales near its root, hexagonal posteriorly ; these scales are distinctly verticil- 
late throughout the greater part of the length of the tail, less so anteriorly, and 
carinated both anteriorly and posteriorly, except within about two inches of its 
root ; femoral pores very distinct. 

Color. Head of the specimen examined of a light yellow color, with numer- 
ous small brown spots disseminated upon its surface ; a dark colored bar upon 
the temples, between the orbit and ear ; chin and throat marked with dark 
colored lines and blotches ; body ash color above, presenting numerous small 
points upon its surface, and marked with transverse bars of a vermilion color 
during life ; upper surface of its extremities resembling in color that of the 
abdomen, the thighs and more especially the legs marked with transverse bands 
of vermilion ; abdomen flesh color ; tail ash, beautifully banded with trans- 
verse bars of vermilion. 

Dimensions. Length of head 10|^ lines; greatest breadth 7 lines; length of 
neck and body 2 J inches ; length of tail 6J inches ; of arm 5 lines ; of anterior 
extremity 1 inch 7 lines ; length of foot to extremity of longest toe 13 lines. 

Habitat. Sand hills, at the lower end of the Jornada del Muerte, New 

Remarks. This animal, of which there are two specimens, a male and a fe- 
male, forming part of Dr. Woodhouse's collection, differs from the Crotaphytus 
Wislizenii of Baird and Girard, in the size and shape of the head: that of 
Wislizenii being about a quarter of an inch longer ; the latter is also broader and 

208 [December, 

the snout less pointed ; the neck also in fasciatus is much more contracted, and 
the body and both anterior and posterior extremities are much less robust. In 
addition to these distinguishing characteristics, sufficient of themselves to sepa- 
rate the two animals, there exist in fasciatus seven or eight narrow transverse 
bands of a bright vermilion color upon the back, which are not observed in the 
other species. 


Tropidondtus Woodhousii. 

Sp. Char. Head long, depressed, rounded in front; eyes projecting; neck 
much contracted ; body thicker in the middle ; tail of moderate length ; scales 
strongly carinated ; a series of transverse rhomboidal dark colored blotches 
upon the back, less distinct near the tail, obsolete upon the anterior half of the 
body; which is of an olive green color ; interstices between the blotches white ; 
23 rows of scales. Abdominal scuta 150; sub-caudal 

Description. The head is quite large and much depressed, covered above with 
nine plates ; of these the anterior frontal are pentangular, their posterior and 
external angle being somewhat prolonged ; the posterior frontal are much 
larger and irregularly quadrilateral ; the vertical is pentagonal, much 
broader in front than posteriorly, its lateral margins being slightly hollowed ; 
the supra-orbitar are oblong, pentagonal, broader behind than in front; the 
occipital are very large, pentagonal : the rostral is broad and quadrilateral, 
rounded above, excavated below ; the nostrils look upward and outward, and 
are situated between two nasal plates ; there is one loral on each side which is 
quadrilateral ; there are one anterior ocular and three posterior ocular plates ; 
the former is quite large, and excavated anteriorly, so as to receive the 
posterior margin of the loral ; there are two large temporal plates on each side 
of the occipital; there are eight labials upon the margin of the upper jaw on 
each side; of these the sixth and seventh are the largest ; the eyes are large and 
projecting, the supraorbitars extending but slightly over the eye ; the 
mental plate is small and triangular ; the anterior and posterior geneials are 
quite long, the posterior somewhat more slender and larger than the anterior ; 
the body is long, much thicker in the middle than at the extremities, covered 
with twenty-three rows of strongly carinated scales ; the rows upon the sides 
are much less strongly carinated than those upon the back ; the row nearest the 
abdomen is the broadest. 

Color. Dusky olive upon the upper part of the head and back, becoming 
darker upon the middle of the body, and toward the tail, presenting numerous 
transverse dark colored bands, most distinct upon the posterior half of the body ; 
these bands do not, as in Tropidonotus sipedon, extend as far as the abdomen; 
they are bordered anteriorly and posteriorly with a strip of white ; chin, thorax 
and neck straw color ; the abdominal scales are bordered anteriorly with black ; 
tail, straw color, with indistinct bands of black along the borders of the scales. 

Dimensions. Length of head 1 inch 6 lines ; greatest breadth 9 lines ; length ; 
of body 2 ft. 2 inches; of tail 5^ inches. Abdominal scuta 150; sub-caudal 44, 
(tail broken off at extremity.) 

Habitat. Prairies near the Arkansas river. 

Remarks. The reptile above described resembles the Tropidonotus erythro- 
gaster, in having the same number of rows of scales, there being 23 in each ; 
and nearly the same number of abdominal plates, there being 148 in the erythro- 
gaster and 149 in Woodhousii. The tail in the specimen of the latter species 
having been mutilated, their number could not be accurately determined. The 
coloration of the two animals, however, is very different, the white transverse 
bands upon the back being very apparent in Woodhousii, but do not exist in 
erythrogaster. They differ also greatly in size, Woodhousii being a much 
smaller animal. Tropidonotus fasciatus has 140 abdominal plates and 42 pairs 
of sub-caudal scales. The " body has singular oblong or triangular purplish 
red spots on the flanks, which are insensibly lost about midway between the 
abdomen and vertebral line." "In old animals the whole superior and lateral 
surface becomes of a brownish color." Its circumference is five inches. 

1852.] 209 

Ambystoma nebulosum. 

Sp. Char. Head as broad as long, rounded in front; palatine teeth in the form 
of a triangle, the apex directed forward ; body brown with numerous yellow 
spots ; tail longer than neek and body; total length 5 inches 9 lines. 

Description. The head is large, depressed above, about as broad as it is long ; 
snout rounded ; nostrils small, about three lines apart ; eyes large and promi- 
nent ; mouth very large ; tongue broad and flattened, free at its edges, attached 
at its anterior border ; palatine teeth ..^^^"N^ shaped, the angle presenting for- 
ward, the extremities of the row being placed a short distance behind the inter- 
nal nares ; neck contracted ; posterior extremities stouter than the anterior ; 
body sub-cylindrical, flattened inferiorly; tail longer than the head and body, 
much more compressed, the posterior half especially, quite thin and rounded at 
its extremity. 

Color. Head brownish above, with numerous indistinct yellowish spots pos- 
teriorly : body blackish, presenting many yellowish spots upon the surface, the 
largest about a line in diameter; extremities blackish, mingled with yellow ; 
tail of some dark hue, with numerous yellow spots and markings ; chin, throat 
and abdomen yellowish. 

Habitat. New Mexico. 

Dimensions. Length of head 8 lines ; greatest breadth 8 lines ; length of neck 
and body 2 inches 2 lines ; of tail 2 inches 9 lines ; of anterior extremities 1 
inch 6 lines ; of posterior the same ; total length 5 inches 9 lines. 

Another specimen from the same locality is more uniformly blackish upon the 
upper surface, the yellowish spots being absent; the chin, throat and abdomen 
are also more distinctly marked with black and yellow. 

Remarks. The above species differs from the Proserpine of Baird and Girard 
in the shape of the head and in the coloring; and from Mavortia of Baird in 
the same particulars. The Mavortia, according to Prof. Baird, has " about 
nine broad transverse bands of yellowish on the sides of the body, confluent to 
a certain extent with that of the belly." He describes similar markings upon 
the tail, forming nearly complete ellipses, about twelve in number. The Ma- 
vortia is eight inches in length. 

The Committee on the following paper by Dr. Genth, reported in 
favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

On a probably new element with Iridosmine and Platinum, from California. 

By Dr. F. A. Genth. 

I received from Dr. Charles M. Wetherill a small quantity of white grains, 
which were collected in 1849-50 from California gold by the late Jos. R. Rey- 
nolds, Esq. An examination of these grains furnished me results which are, 
perhaps, worth noticing. 

I. When treated with boiling hydrochloric acid, two grains began to dissolve 
with disengagement of hydrogen. As soon as I observed this reaction I picked 
them out and washed them oS" with water. With a good magnifying glass I 
found that they were mechanically mixed with gold. Their color was between 
a tin-white and steel color ; they were malleable, but harder than tin ; they dis- 
solved in nitric acid, yielding a crystalline salt, the native gold which was mixed 
with them remaining undissolved. They precipitated copper from solutions, but 
slowly. Hydro-sulphuric acid precipitated the solution in nitric acid brown. A 
pure piece of metal before the blowpipe on charcoal fused readily. It was 
soon covered with a black oxide and gave no incrustations. Borax in the 0. 
F. dissolved it and gave a colorless bead, which on cooling became opalescent ; 
the same reaction took place more readily in R. F. 

The quanlity of this metal was too small for further experiment, but these re- 

210 [December, 

actions show that it is neither tin nor any other known element, although it has 
some relations to tin, but it is distinguished from it 

1. By its solubility in nitric acid. 

2. By its brown precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid. 

3. By not being regularly oxydized before the blowpipe into a white 

Oxide, and by its other blowpipe-reactions. 
May not the grains of native tin observed by Hermann in the auriferous sands 
from Siberia be the same substance ? 

II. An examination of the white grains which were insoluble in hydrochloric 
acidj gave (after a few scales of native gold had been extracted by quite diluted 
aqua regia) the following results. 

Of 0-9366 grms. were 0-4625 grms. or 49-4 p. c. Sisserskite (Ir Os4 ) in 
brilliant lead colored scales, some of which were imperfect six-sided prisms. 

The remaining grains and scales (0-4741 grms.) had a tin-white color, and 
were treated with aqua regia, as long as it acted upon them. Three rounded 
grains remained undissolved in aqua regia, which^ I suppose, were Platin-Iridium. 
They weighed 0-0202 grs.=2-2 p. c. 

The balance of 0-4539 grms. or 48-4 p. c. were native Platinum. 
The composition of the sample received by Dr. Chas. M. Wetherill was there- 
fore New Element and gold not estimated. 

Sisserskite == 49-4 p. c. 

Platin-Iridium = 2-2 p. c. 

Native Platinum =48-4p. c. 

This native Platinum is not pure, but contains, like that from other localities, 
other substances, both alloyed and mechanically mixed with it. 

When the 0.4539 grms. were dissolved in aqua regia, 0-0031 grms. or 0.68 p. c. 
of Sisserskite remained undissolved in minute and fine scales. 

The solution was evaporated to dryness in a water-bath, dissolved in alcohol and 
precipitated with chloride of ammonium. The brick-red double salt thus formed 
was washed out with alcohol, then dried and powerfully healed. The ignited 
residue weighed 0-4206 grms. It was treated with weak aqua regia, which left 
undissolved O-OllO grms. of Iridium and Rhodium = 2-42 p. c. (This is of 
course only an approximate estimation of Iridium, etc.) This presence of 
Rhodium and Palladium was also ascertained, but I did not make any quantita- 
tive estimations, because the quantity I had to dispose of was entirely too small 
for the estimation of substances which can be separated only with the greatest 

The filtrate from the double salts of Platinum, etc., precipitated by ammonia 
gave 0-0432 grms. of sexqui-oxide of iron = 6-66 p. c. of iron. 
The composition of this native Platinum is therefore 

Platinum, (with Palladium) = 90-24 
Iridium, (with Rhodium) = 2-42 
Iron, = 6-66 

Sisserskite, = 0-68 


The Committee on a paper by Dr. P. E. Hoy, *' On new Species of 
Owls/' reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of two species of Owls, presumed to he new, which inhabit the State of 

By Philo R. Hoy, M. D., Racine, "Wisconsin. 
1. Nyctale Kirtlandii, nobis. 
The smallest described species of this genus. 

Male. Length 6}, ext. 10, tail extends to the tip of the folded wing. Head 
and entire upper parts brown with a reddish gloss. Plumage around the base 
of the tail and eyebrows white, immediately in front of the eye, intermingled 

1852.] 211 

with black bristles ; from the base of the lower mandible two short stripes of 
white run downwards and backwards. Lores pitch black. Wings brown, infe- 
rior wing coverts, and edge of wing at flexure, white ; primaries with three or four 
narrow spots of silky white on their outer margins, and all the quills with circu- 
lar spots of white on their inner webs. Tail brown, narrowly tipped with white 
and crossed with two bands composed of spots of white, which are wanting on 
the outer webs of the two lateral feathers. Throat and upper part of the breast 
dark chesnut ; all the under parts bright reddish yellow, tarsi and toes thickly 
covered with plumage of the same reddish yellow as the under parts. Bill and 
claws black, irides golden yellow. 

But two specimens of this bird have been taken to my knowledge ; the first was 
captured Oct., 1821, and kept until winter when it made its escape; the second, 
and the one from which the above description was taken, flew into an open shop, 
July, 1852. It is strictly nocturnal, utters a low tremulous note, and is an active 
and efficient mouser. It is different from any other species yet known to inhabit 
North America, and appears to have some general resemblance in color to N. 
Harrisii, Cassin, but not sufficient to render it necessary to state their difference. 

I have named this species as a slight tribute of respect to that zealous Natu- 
ralist, Prof. Jared P. Kirtland, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

2. Bubo subarcticus, nobis. 

A large light colored species. Tail crossed by five bands, wings with the third 
primary longest, second shorter than the fourth, tooth or lobe of the upper man- 
dible remarkably developed. 

Total length 24 inches, wing from flexure 17, tail 9|, and extends 3| beyond 
the folded wings, tarsus 2J, bill over its convexity 1 5-12ths, egrets 3 inches. 

Above white and fawn color, zig-zagged and barred with brown, scapulars 
broadly marked on their outer webs with white. Tail bright fawn, crossed by 
five bars of brown, outer webs of the exterior and tips white, two central feathers 
colored similar to the back. Quills with seven bars of brown. 

Beneath white ; on the breast, sides, and flanks, each feather crossed with bars 
and narrow stripes of deep brown, forming on the breast a wide irregular band 
of the latter color. Lower tail coverts white, each feather with a single narrow 
band of brown. 

Face groyish white, lores tipped with black, egrets with their outer webs and 
tips black, inner webs white, bill dark horn color, lighter at the point, claws 
black, irides yellow. 

The specimen now described was shot in January, 1851, near this city, and 
proved to be a female. I have seen two others which were precisely similar in 
their markings to the present. This species does not agree in many essential 
points with Richardson's description of the Arctic horned Owl, nor dees it agree 
either in color or anatomically with the common great horned owl, which is 
very abundant here, and of which I have kept living specimens for more than a 
year. Of the latter species I have seen some very dark colored specimens, which 
are mostly, but not invariably, male birds. 

Some of my reasons for considering the bird just described as distinct from the 
common species, are as follows : It differs, 1. In color and markings. 2. In 
measurements; it has comparatively greater length of tail, and of wings. Ana- 
tomically; the cranium of a specimen in my possession, shows a greater devel- 
opment of the posterior lobes of the brain and other differences, and a more dis- 
tinct tooth-like lobe of the upper mandible. 4. I have seen three specimens all 
corresponding in every particular, and all occurring only in the depth of winter, 
when the great Cinereous Owl, {Syrnium cinereum,) the Hawk Owl, {Surnia 
funerea.^ and the Snowy Owl, (o. nyctea^) were with us. My conclusion is, 
therefore, that it is like these species, an inhabitant of the Arctic regions of this 
continent, and one of the rarest of the winter visitants in the northern parts of 
the United States, and in Wisconsin is much less common than either of the 
three species mentioned. 

The Committee to which had been referred Dr. WetherilFs paper 
entitled " An Analysis of the Cotton Plant and Seed/' &c.; reported in 

212 [December, 

favor of the publication of the following abstract of the same in the 

proceedings : 

Analysis of the Cotton Plant and Seed. 

By the late Thomas J. Summer, Esq. of South Carolina. Communicated by Dr* 

Charles M. Wetherill. 

In a communication on the analysis of the ash of a cotton stalk by Mr. Judd} 
in the Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
p. 219, surprise is expressed at the absence of published analyses of the 
cotton plant, with the exception of one of the wood and another of the seed, 
by Prof. Shepard. I owe it to the memory of my friend and classmate in 
Giessen,the late Thomas J. Summer, Esq., to communicate the following analy- 
tical results arrived at by him while in the Giessen laboratory, and which have 
not been published, that I am aware of, except in pamphlet form for circulation 
among his friends : 

Analysis of the Ash of the Cotton Plant. 
The analysis was carried on in the usual manner 6.181 grammes were di- 
gested with muriatic acid, and evaporated to dryness by the water bath. After 
moistening with acid and adding water, the insoluble portion was separated, 
which consisted of 0-621 sand and coal, and 0-403 silicia. The filtrate was di- 
vided into three equal parts. In the first, the iron, in combination with phos- 
phoric acid, lime and magnesia, was determined. In the second, sulphuric and 
phosphoric acids. In the third, the alkalies. 
The following are the per centage results : 

6-181 grammes Percentage. 


























Oxide of iron. 




Phosphoric acid, 




Sulphuric acid, 




Chloride of Sodium, 








Carbonic acid, 1-066, ash 




Sand and coal, 





The Ash of the Seed. 

The seeds were burned in a mufile ; only a slight red heat was necessary to 
burn them perfectly white. 

For estimating the amount of water 6.406 grammes of seed, dried at 212, 
lost 0-G4G, or ten per cent, water ; 6.587 of the dried seed left by incineration 
in a platinum crucible, 0.237, or 3-6 per cent. ash. The qualitative analysis 
showed the same constituents as in the ash of the plant, with the exception of 
carbonic acid. The following are the analytical results : 

Potassa, ------- 27.82 

Soda, -------- 2.75 

Lime, -------- 10.88 

Magnesia, __--__- 10.61 

Oxide of iron, ------- 3.43 

Phosphoric acid, ------ 35.43 

Sulphuric acid, -__--- 3.19 

Coal, -------- 1.05 

Traces of Silica, ^ _ _ - 4 84 

Loss and Cholorine, 5 




An inspection of the above analysis of the cotton seed shows that it abounds 
in the phosphates and alkalies. Drs. Will and Fresenius, in their analysis of 
the cereal grains, show that wheat also abounds largely in these constituents. 
The following analysis, as above quoted, will enable the comparison to be 

Red Wheat. White Wheat. 












Oxide of iron, . 



Phosphoric acid, 





Coal and sand, 


'. .' 9.03 

100.00 100.00 

These constituents being derived directly from the soil, plainly indicate the 
reasons why the land in the South is so readily exhausted. The crops extensively 
cultivated there, all require, in a great measure, the same food from the soil ; 
and hence, soils which will not produce cotton are alike incapable of producing 
the cereal crops. The great benefit derived from the application of cotton seed 
as a manure, to these crops, is accounted for from the same causes, in their 
abundance of alkalies and phosphates. In connection with the assimilation of 
alkaline phosphates by plants, the experiments of Dumas on the solution of 
bones by water charged with carbonic acid, as detailed in a memoir " on the 
manner in which phosphate of lime enters organized beings," (Comptes Rendus, 
Nov. 30, 1846,) are interesting. He remarks that the phosphate of lime, though 
insoluble in water, nevertheless penetrates through bones, and is deposited in 
their structure, and that, on the other hand, bones are slowly disaggregated by 
the soil and disappear after a time. This is owing, according to Dumas, to two 
causes, the one, sal-ammoniac acting rarely and feebly, the other, carbonic acid, 
acting constantly and rapidly. Plates of ivory introduced by Dumas into bot- 
tles of Seltzer water, were as much softened after twenty-four hours as if they 
had been acted on by dilute muriatic acid ; and the Seltzer water was found 
loaded with phosphate of lime. I would call attention to this property of car- 
bonic acid as satisfactorily explaining the assimilation of the phosphate of lime 
by plants. The carbonic acid given off in the fermentation of the manure 
greatly facilitates the solution of phosphate of lime when present as 
bone ash. 

It was a matter of surprise to Prof. Liebig that soils not furnished artifi- 
cially with the preponderating constituents of the cotton plant and seed, should 
produce a crop abounding in the phosphates. This leads me to further investi- 
gation, and a rich field of research lies still unexplored in the analytical exam- 
ination of the cotton soils of the South and West. 

Thomas J. Summer. 

South Carolina^ 1848. 

It is indeed a matter of surprise that an article of such world-wide necessity 
should have been hitherto so neglected by agricultural chemists, and indeed I 
am not aware that we have even now an analysis in full of the ash of the whole 
plant. The two best analyses are those of the stalk by Summer and Judd. The 
analysis of the seed by Summer contains an error of loss and Chlorine = 4.84 
p. c. The same analysis (of seed) by Shepard, gives an error of 1.68 p. c. of 
loss. Carbonate of potassa. Sulphates of Lime and Magnesia, Alumina and 
Sesquioxide of Iron ; and Shepard's analyses are calculated with regard to the 
composition of the ash itself, instead of giving the constituents separately, 
which alone renders a comparison between different analyses possible, the com- 
position of ash varying according to the nature and quantity of its constituents, 
and the degree of heat at which it is prepared. I have recalculated Summer's 




analysis of the stalk by Weber's new analytical Tables ; want of data in the 
seed analysis rendered its recalculation impossible. I have also recalculated 
Summer's analysis to the hundred parts, neglecting Sand, Coal and Silica ; and 
having separated the salts in Shepard's analysis, I recalculated the constituents 
in the same manner. The following table will show the comparative nature of 
the constituents of the ash of the plant, seed and wool, as analysed by Shepard, 
Summer and Judd ; the defective analyses above mentioned considered as 
approximative : 




Constituents of the Ash of the 

Cotton Plant. 






Potassa .... 






















Oxide of Iron . 



Alumina . 



Phos. Acid 






Sulph. Acid 






Chloride Sodium 
















The Report of the Corresponding Secretary was read and adopted. 
The Recording Secretary then read the following 


From the 1st of January to the 1st of December, 1852, there have been elected 
thirty-three Members and eight Correspondents ; four Members have died. 

Besides numerous interesting minor and verbal communications, the following 
have been presented, during the past year, and reported on for publication in the 
Journal and Proceedings of the Academy. 

By Audubon and Bachman. Description of a new North American Fox. 

By Spencer F. Baird and Charles Girard, four, to wit : Characteristics of some 
new Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, three papers ; Descrip- 
tions of a new species of Reptiles, collected by the United States Exploring Expe- 

By John L. Burtt, M. D. On the Influence of Sulphuretted Hydrogen, arising 
from the bottom of the bay of Callao, on the fishes inhabiting its waters. 

By Mr. John Ca^sin, two, to wit : Catalogue of the Halcyonidae in the Collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ; Descriptions of new species 
of Birds, specimens of which are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 

By Mr. T. Conrad, three, to wit : Description of the new Fossil shells of the 
United States, (published in the Journal.) Remarks on the Tertiary Strata of 
St. Domingo, and of Vicksburg, Miss.; Notes on shells with Descriptions of new 

By Mr. James D. Dana, three, to wit : Conspectus Crustaceorum quae in Orbis 
Terrarum Circuranavigatione, Carolo Wilkes e Classe Reipublicaj Faederatae 
duce, iexit et descripsit J. D. Dana, three papers. 

1852.] 215 

By James C. Fisher, M. D. On the Aurora of February 19th, 1852. 

By Henry A. Ford, M. D. Characteristics of the Troglodytes gorilla. 

By Fiederick A. Genth, Ph. D., four, to wit : On some Minerals which accom- 
pany gold in California ; On Strontiano-Calcite, a new Mineral ; On Rodophyllite, 
a new Mineral ; On a probably new Element with Irido.smine and Platinum, 
from California. 

By Mr. Charles Girard. Additions to a former paper on the North American 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D., five, to wit: Descriptions of new species of 
Reptiles from Western Africa ; Descriptions of new species of Reptiles inhabit- 
ing North America ; Descriptions of new species of Reptiles from Oregon Ter- 
ritory ; On a new genus and three new species of Reptiles, inhabiting North 
America; On a new genus and two new species of African Serpents. 

By Adolphus L. Heermann, M. D. : Notes on the birds of California, (published 
in the Journal.) 

By P. R. Hoy, M. D. Descriptions of two species of Owls, presumed to be 
new, inhabiting the State of Wisconsin during the winter season. 

By the Rev. Lorenzo L. Langstroth. On the Impregnation of the eggs of the 
Queen Bee. 

By Mr. Isaac Lea, four, to wit : Description of a new species of Symphynote 
Unio ; Description of a Fossil Saurian of the new Red Sandstone of Pennsyl- 
vania, with some account of the formation ; On some new Fossil Molluscs in the 
Carboniferous slates of the Anthracite seams of the Wilkesbarre Coal Forma- 
tion ; Description of a new species of Eschara from the Eocene of Alabama. 

By John L. Le Conte, M. D., fifteen, to wit: Notice of Fossil Dicotyles from 
Missouri ; Notes on some Fossil Suiline Pachyderms from Illinois ; Hints towards 
a natural classification of the Family Histrini of Coleopterous Insects ; Synopsis 
of the Parnidae of the United States ; Synopsis of the Eucnemidae of temperate 
North America ; On the diflFerence between Primordial Races and Introduced 
Races ; Remarks on some Coleopterous Insects collected by S. W. Woodhouse, 
M. D., in Arkansas and New Mexico ; Synopsis of the Anthracites of the United 
States ; Synopsis of the species of Pterosticus Bon. and allied genera, inhabiting 
temperate North America, (published in the Journal.) Remarks on the Coccinel- 
lidae of the United States ; Description of a new species of Trombidium ; Descrip- 
tion of a new species of Sciurus ; Catalogue of the Melyrides of the United 
States, with descriptions of a new species ; Synopsis of the Scydmenidae of the 
United States ; An attempt at a synopsis of the genus Geomys, Raf. 

By Joseph Leidy, M. D. On the Osteology of the Head of the Hippopotamus, 
with a description of the Osteological Characters of a new Genus of Hippopota- 
midse, (published in the Journal.) 

By Col. George A. McCall, U. S. A. Description of a new species of Car- 

By David Dale Owen, M. D. Notice of a Mineral from California, probably 

By Mr. M. Tuomey. Description of some Fossil shells from the Tertiary of 
the Southern States. 

By Charles M. Wetherill, Ph, D., five, to wit : Examination of the Molybdate 
of Lead from the Wheatley Mine, near Phoenixville, Pennsylvania ; Chemical in- 
vestigation of the Mexican Honey Ant; Further examination of the Phoenixville 
Molybdate of Lead; Chemical examination of the Food of the Queen Bee; An- 
alysis of the Cotton Plant and Seed, &c., by the late Thomas J. Summer, with 
additions, by Charles M. Wetherill. 

By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D., six, to wit : Descriptions of new species of Birds 
of the Genera Vireo, Vieill., and Zonotrichia, Swainson; Description of a 
new species of Ectopistes ; Description of a new species of Sciurus ; Descrip- 
tion of a new species of Numenius; Descriptions of two new species of pouched 
Rats ; Description of a new species of Struthus. 

In all sixty-two papers. 



In addition to the above, in accordance with a Resolution, adopted September 
30th, 1851, Dr. Ruschenberger read on the evenings of February 3d and 10th, 
an exceedingly interesting, accurate and elaborate " Notice of the Origin, Pro- 
gress and present condition of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia," which was subsequently published by the Society. 

In conclusion, the Recording Secretary congratulates his fellow members 
upon the continued harmony, activity and prosperity of the Society. In no 
former year has so large a number of communications been presented, the 
number of members has been greatly increased, and the attendance at the 
meetings full, while there has been displayed by those present, every evidence 
of zealous desire to forward the cause of science, cherish the interests and 
sustain the reputation of the Academy. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 

B. Howard Rand, Recording Secretary. 

Fkiladelphia, Dec. 28th, 1852. 

The Librarian presented the following 


Since the 1st of January last, 1Y06 volumes, 889 periodicals, and 291 pam- 
phlets have been added to the Library. The character and variety of the ad- 
ditions, with the number of each under their respective heads, are shown in the 
annexed table : 













































Gen. Nat. History and Mam' 
malogy .... 



Ichthylogy .... 

Entomology and Helminthology 


Botany .... 

Geology and Mineralogy 

Anatomy and Physiology . 

Proceedings, Journals, Annals 
Memoirs, &c. of Societies 

Carried over . 




















Brought over . . . . 
Voyages and Travels 
History and Geography . 
Phys. Science and Chemistry . 
Agriculture . . . . 


Languages and Bibhography . 
Biography . . - . . 
Dictionaries of Arts and Sci- 

Miscellaneous . . . . 



Of the above, 57 have been received from Authors, 34 from Editors, 90 from 
Societies, Corporations, &c., 834 from D. T. B. Wilson, 1767 from Edward 
Wilson, Esq., 98 from other Members and Correspondents, and from miscella- 
neous sources, and 6 from the U. S. Government ; making a total of 2886 addi- 
tions to the Library in 1852. 

From our fellow-member, Mr. Elias Durand, we have also received 109 auto- 
graphs of distinguished scientific and literary men. 

The excess in the increase of volumes this year over that of the last is 631. 
In 1851, the Library was increased 1075 volumes; in 1850, 1719 volumes; in 
1849, 789 volumes ; in 1848, 652 volumes ; and in 1847, 630 volumes ; making a 
total increase in six years of 6571. Many periodicals, also, in course of publi- 
tion during these years, and recorded as such in our lists of donations to the 
Library, have since been bound into volumes, the number of which may be esti- 
mated at about 700 ; and added to the above give a total of nearly 7300 volumes 
contributed to the Society's Library in that short period. 

In the report submitted to the Academy in December, 1850, the number ot 
volumes in the Library at that time, as ascertained by actual enumeration, was 
12,057. If to these be added those since received, with the proportion of 

1852.] 217 

volumes of periodicals bound in that time, the number on our shelves at present 
exceeds 15,000. 

Nearly all the additions in the six years above referred to, have been gifts 
from individuals or Societies, or in exchange for our own publications, very 
little money having been expended. 

The rich and costly collection which surrounds us, like that in our noble 
Museum, affording instruction and delight not to ourselves alone, but to nume- 
rous inquirers after knowledge beyond our own limits, is therefore made up 
almost entirely of spontaneous offerings, prompted by disinterested generosity 
or a love for science. Let us not lose sight of this fact ; it cannot be too often 
referred to, or too strongly impressed upon us. Every means in our power should 
be employed to protect such valuable trusts from abuse and loss. The plausible 
pretender to science, the inconsiderate idler and the pilferer, should find no 
encouragement within these walls. 

The present accommodations for the books have become too limited to admit 
of their proper arrangement, or of easy access to them. For the last few 
months inconvenience has been experienced to an annoying extent from some 
of the cases being crowded to excess. Many plans have been suggested with 
a view to remedy this evil, all of which, however, were of too temporary a 
character to admit of adoption. 

It is now, however, proposed to remove to the Hall above, as soon as appro- 
priate places can be prepared for them, the entire collections in Mineralogy, 
Conchology, Herpetology, &c., at present contained in the basement apartment 
adjoining the Library, and to convert the latter into a library room. The area 
of this apartment is nearly equal to that now occupied for library purposes, and 
may be estimated to be sufficient to accommodate at least 10,000 additional 
volumes. The basement of the building would then, with the exception of one 
room, (which must be retained for the reception and unpacking of parcels, boxes, 
&c.,) be occupied by the library, and the great advantage gained, which has 
been so long desired, of keeping it isolated or distinct from the Museum. 

The statement above presented is in every respect gratifying, and the Society 
may be congratulated, as on every occasion like the present for the last few 
years, on the rapid and steady advancement in this department the most 
important, perhaps, in the Institution affording the best evidence of the favor 
in which the latter is everywhere held, and the unceasing liberality of its 
friends and supporters. The Academy of Natural Sciences may justly boast 
that in this age of progress it has not been left behind. It is, and has been, 
since its origin, with few exceptions, progressive ; partly owing, doubtless, to 
its intrinsic merit, but mainly to a succession of advantageous circumstances 
operating in its favor. Its benefactors have been open-handed to an extent 
heretofore unknown in institutions of this nature in our country. The names 
of Maclure and Wilson, especially, will never be mentioned without regard and 
admiration. Through their instrumentality, in a great measure, the Institution 
now rests upon a firm and solid basis ; its endurance will depend not merely 
upon the intelligence, zeal and industry of those who succeed us here, but also 
upon a proper appreciation by them of the true and legitimate objects of its 
founders. No misgivings, however, need be entertained on this head. At no 
period in its history have the prospects been more encouraging than at present, 
of its high scientific reputation being fully maintained, and of its utility and 
advantages to the community being generally recognised as a great centre for 
the increase of knowledge. 

Wm. S. Zantzinger, Librarian. 

Hall of tht Academy^ Dec. 28, 1852. 

The Annual Report of the Treasurer was read and referred to the 

218 [December, 

The report of the Curators was then read, as follows ; 


Since the last annual report of the Curators was presented to the Academy, 
very considerable additions have been made to its Museum, which, we are happy 
to state, continues in a good state of preservation. Latterly the Cabinet has 
sustained several losses by the abstraction of valuable specimens, but the circum- 
stance having excited the attention of the Curators, means have been resorted 
to, which we hope will prevent further depredation. 

During the year, the different departments of the Museum have received the 
following donations : 

Mammalia. Of this class there have been presented the skins of 35 specimens 
of 25 species, principally from Dr. D. Leasure, Drs. A. L. Heermann, E. K. Kane, 
J. L. Le Conte, S. W. Woodhouse, Mr. J. D. Sergeant and Col. G. A. McCall. 

Aves. Of bird-skins 94 specimens of about 60 species have been received. 
The principal donors are Drs. H. G. Dalton, E. K. Kane, A. A. Henderson, T. 
Carlton Henry, W. S. "W. Ruschenberger, Messrs. E. H. Kern, J. D. Sergeant, G, 
N. Lawrence, J. Lambert, G. A. McCall. Part of the number formed the collec- 
tion made in Lieut. Lynch's Expedition to the Dead Sea, and was presented by 
order of the Secretary of the Navy. 

Besides the above, numerous species have been deposited by Dr. Wilson, of 
which no official record has been given to the Curators. 

Of birds' eggs, a large number of specimens of about 40 species, have been 
presented by Messrs. John Krider, E. Wilson, and A. L. Heermann. 

Reptilia. Of this class 100 specimens have been presented, chiefly by Messrs. 
H. A. Ford, A. L. Heermann, G. Watson, B. F. Shumard, J. Le Conte, G. W. 
Fahnestock, G. A. McCall, J. Krider and E. Harris. The species are from 
different parts of the world, and a number of them from Africa and the 
western part of Nerth America, are new, and have been recently described in 
the Proceedings of the Academy by Dr. Hallowell. 

Pisces. Of fishes 58 specimens of 35 species have been presented by Messrs. 
G. W. Fahnestock, Edw. Wilson, A. A. Henderson, E. Harris, J. Le Conte and 
T. Conrad. Among the number are several specimens of the curious Branchi- 

Mollusca. In this department the Cabinet has received an addition of 
numerous specimens of 80 species of shells, chiefly from Messrs. Edw. Wilson, 
S. Handy, J. Krider and J. L. Burtt. 

Crustacea. In this department we have reaped a rich harvest. 

190 specimens of 54 species of British Crustacea were presented by Edward 
Wilson, Esq. 

282 species of 136 genera, from the collection of M. Guerin Meneville, have 
been received from Dr. T. B. Wilson. This collection is particularly valuable, 
on account of the great number of minute and rare species from all parts of the 
globe, which it contains. 

Besides the above, M. J. Verreaux, of Paris, has presented 36 specimens 
of 14 species, and 112 specimens of about 50 species were received from 
Messrs. Edw. Wilson, S. Ashmead, J. Le Conte, and others. 

Insecta. 600 specimens of the various orders of insects have been presented 
principally by Messrs. A. L. Heermann, H. G. Dalton, S. S. Haldeman. 

Arachnida, Annelida and Myriapoda. Of these 49 species have been received 
from Messrs. Edward Wilson, R. H. Kern, R. E. Peterson, and others. 

Zoophyta. 178 specimens have been presented by Messrs. Edward Wilson, 
T. B. Wilson, W. S. W. Ruschenberger, F. S. Holmes, and others. 

Comparative Anatomy. A magnificent skeleton of the Troglodytes gorilla, 
Savage^ was presented by Dr. Henry A. Ford, of Liberia, and a specimen 

1852.] 219 

believed to be unique, of the skeleton of Chcerodes Liberiensis, Lddy^ has been 
received from Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

Besides the foregoing, 49 crania of mammals, birds and reptiles, 17 skeletons 
of birds, and 58 miscellaneous specimens have been presented by Messrs. J. Ver- 
reaux, De la Berge, A. L. Heermann, G. P. Oliver, B. H. Coates, Amory Edwards, 
"W. Wood, A. Janney, and others. 

Botany. The herbarium has been increased by the addition of a number of 
valuable specimens. 

Major J. Le Conte presented his entire collection of North American plants, 
made through the course of many years. 

Other collections of Phaenerogamous plants have been presented by the Rev. 
M. A. Curtis, of South Carolina, Dr. A. L. Heermann, Mr. R. H. Kern, and 
Dr. Engelmann, of St. Louis. 

Of fruits, lichens, marine algae, &c. we have received 96 specimens from 
Messrs. S. Ashmead, G. W. Fahnestock, J. C. Trautwine, E. K. Kane, and 

PalcBontology . An interesting collection of minute crag fossils of England , 
consisting of 41 species, was presented by Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

Dr. J. L. LeConte has presented the unique fossils upon which were esta- 
blished the Dicotyles depressifrons, D. cristatus, Procyon priscus, Protochcerus 
prismaticus, and Anomodon Snyderi. 

Dr. Isaac Hays presented an interesting specimen, upon which has been pro- 
posed the Tapirus Haysii. 

Besides the above, 219 specimens of organic remains have been presented by 
Messrs. D. D. Owen, Thomas Fisher, A. Jessup, R. Kilvington, C. Wistar, C. 
H. Budd, J. L. Burtt, Leidy, Wetherill, H. W. Kennedy, Spackman, and others. 

Mineralogy . 83 specimens of minerals have been presented by Messrs. W. 
D. Hartmann, S. Ashmead, W. S. Vaux, T. Fisher, G. M. Wheatley and J. L. 
Burtt. Among the specimens is a beautiful piece of crystalline native copper, 
one and a half feet in length, from Lake Superior, the donor of which is Mr. 
B. A. Hoopes. 

In conclusion, the Curators respectfully call upon the members to co-operate 
in the endeavors now being made to raise a fund sufificient to increase the capa- 
city of the Museum to an extent demanded by its collections ; and they hope, 
at the next annual meeting, to be able to report that ample space has been pro- 
vided for the accommodation of any future additions to the Cabinet. 

Joseph Leidy, Chairman of the Curators. 

The Committee on Proceedings presented the following 


The " Proceedings" of the Academy, the publication of which was commenced, 
more than ten years since, has increased gradually in importance, and now 
commands respect abroad, from the value and diversity of its contents. It is 
quoted by kindred journals, and seems to be regarded as authority. 

The members of the Academy are respectfully invited to consider the value 
of this publication. 

To make widely known the labors of the members of the Academy is, in its 
influence on the prosperity of the Institution, and on the increase of knowledge, 
second only to those labors themselves. Discoveries in natural history art- 
valuable in proportion to the number of persons to whom they may be made 
known. While a knowledge of new facts is limited to the discoverer and his 
companions, science gains little and society is scarcely benefited by the toils of 
research. It is not necessary to enlarge on this point ; every one is aware that 

320 [December, 

while sight and hearing place external things in relation with us, it is voice 
which places us in relation with external things. 

The Journal of the Proceedings, and the Journal of the Academy, are the 
vocal organs, the voice of the Institution, through the medium of which all the 
facts it acquires, and all the opinions it forms, are promulgated. These publi- 
cations are a sure means of making known the results ef our investigations and 
studies, and, consequently, our existence as a corporate body. Through them 
alone the Academy is placed in communication with analogous Institutions at 
distant points of our own country and in foreign lands. To these publications 
the Academy is indebted for its reputation, a wide-spread appreciation of its 
importance, and also for much of what is contained in the Library and in the 

While we refer with satisfaction to the quantity and quality of information 
placed on record and printed in the Proceedings, and may be excused, perhaps, 
for believing that this journal is not surpassed, if equalled, by any similar 
publication in the United States, it may be well to disclose the fact that it does 
not receive^ even from members of the Academy, all the substantial support 
and encouragement which are necessary to its prosperity. 

When it is known that the subscription price of a copy of the Proceedings 
for one year is only one dollar, it is hoped this statement will be sufficient to 
cause every member to contribute towards diminishing the charge upon the 
Treasury, by becoming a subscriber himself, and by inducing others to subscribe 
whenever proper opportunity offers. 

The whole is submitted on behalf of the Committee on Proceedings, 


Hall of the Academy^ Dec. 28, 1852. 

Dr. Fisher, from the Committee on Mammalogy, reported that 123 
skins of mammalia had been mounted and added to the collection, 
at an expense of $289, which had been defrayed by the following 
named members : Edward Harris, J. Price Wetherill, Charles D. 
Meigs, John K. Mitchell, George W. Carpenter, William S. Vaux, 
Joseph Carson, Jos. Pancoast, P. B. Goddard, Robert Pearsall, Wm. E. 
Horner, Isaac Lea, Thomas D. Miitter, George B. Wood, Wm. Parker 
Foulke, Charles Lennig, Thos. B. Wilson, W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 
B. H. Ooates, Samuel Ashmead, B. E. Peterson, R. Bridges, Jas. C. 

Dr. Woodhouse requested that the following correction be published 
in the Proceedings : 

Having discovered that the specific name dorsalis, which I applied to 
the squirrel brought by me from New Mexico, and which I described in 
the Proceedings of the Academy for June last (page 110,) has already 
been applied by J. E. Gray to one of the same genus, I propose now 
to call it SciURUS Aberti, after Colonel J. J. Abert, chief of the corps 
of Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army, to whose exertions science is 
much indebted. 



The Academy then went into an election for Officers for 1853 j a 
note from Mr. John Cassin having been first read, declining a re-elec- 
tion as Corresponding Secretary. The following result was announced 
by the Chairman : 

President J 

Vice Presidents, 

Corresponding Secretary/, 

Recording Secretary^ 

Librarian y 

Treasurer J - - . 



Puhlication Committee, 

George Ord. 

J. Price Wetberill, 
Robert Bridges, M.D. 

John L. LeConte, M. D. 

B. Howard Rand, M.D. 
Wm. S. Zantzinger, 

George W. Carpenter. 

Joseph Leidy, M.D. 
William S. Vaux, 
John Cassin, 
Samuel Ashmead, 

Robert Pearsall, 
A. L. Elwyn, 
James C. Fisher. 

William S. V^aux, 
Robert Bridges, 
Thomas B. Wilson, 
Isaac Lea, 
W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 


John D. Wbite, M. D., of Philadelphia, was elected a Member of the 


1853.] 22 


Januarj/ Ath, 1853. 

Mr. OuD, President, in the Chair. ' 

A letter was read from the Hon. J. P. Kennedy, Secretary of the 
Navy, dated Navy Department, Washington, Dec. 25th, 1852, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of a copy of the Preamble and Kesolutions adopted 
by the Academy on the l-lth of that mouth, approving the recom- 
mendations and suggestions contained in his recent report to the Presi- 
dent, and his efforts for 'Hhe encouragement of missions tending to pro- 
mote scientific researches in our own and other countries.'' 

The Secretary also expresses to the Academy " his peculiar pleasure 
in taking advantage of the opportunity to signalize, by an official com- 
mendation, the meritorious labors of tlieir fellow member Dr. Kane, and 
to enable him, with such aid as he could bestow, once more to embark 
upon a sea of adventure, in which his philanthropy and love of science 
have already won him equal and imperishable honor : and also trusted, 
that with the support of the Academy, and the countenance of the Go- 
vernment, he would return, after his second Expedition to the Arctic 
Circle, with new claims to the congratulations of his friends, and the 
applause of his country." 

. A letter was read from jMr. J. P. Lapham, dated Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, Dec. 16, 1852, offering to exchange specimens of objects of 
Natural History for copies of the Journal and Proceedings. Referred 
to the Publication Committee and the Curators, with power to act. 

*t January Wtli. 

Mr. Ord, President, in the Chair. 

A communication was read from the Greological Society of London, 
dated Nov. 4th, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of late numbers of the 

A communication was also read from Prof. Frazer, Chairman of a 
Committee appointed by the American Philosophical Society, '' to act 
in concert with Dr. Kane, and such societies as have determined to act 
in concert with him, in carrying out the scientific objects of the pro- 
jected Arctic Expedition," dated 30th Dec, 1852, expressing the desire 
of the Committee to give their assistance in any plan for forwarding the 
objects of the Expedition, which the Acadenjy might think proper to 
suggest. Keferred to the Committee previously appointed on this sub- 

Dr. Le Conte read a paper intended for publication in the Proceedings 
of the Academy, entitled " Descriptions of twenty new species of Cole- 
optera inhabiting the United States j" which was referred to Dr. Zant- 
zinger. Dr. Pickering and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 


224 [January, 

describing a new species of pouched Eat, of the genus Dipodomys, Gray; 
which was referred to Dr. Bridges, Dr. Le Conte and Mr. Cassin. 

Dr. Le Conte offered some remarks on the genus Dipodomys, and stated that 
he had recently been investigating the specimens of that interesting genus in 
the Collection of the Academy, and had come to the conclusion that it contained 
several species besides those already known. The fortunate arrival of an un- 
doubted specimen of D. Phillipii (Gray) from California, and which, by the 
liberality of Dr. Heermann, is now in the possession of the Academy, has 
enabled him to complete the study of this genus, and the results will soon be 
made known to the Academy in a monograph, now in preparation by himself, 
on the North American Myoxina. 

He exhibited to the members five species of Dipodomys, and pointed out their 
specific characters, which are to be found in the length and color of the tail, and 
in the form of the antitragus of the ears. In other respects, both in form and 
color, the species resemble each other very closely. These differences, he 
stated, could not be the result of age, as the specimens, with one exception, 
were full grown; he stated, moreover, that the specific differences were similar 
to those found in the genus Myoxus, tpw'hich, by the form of the scull, and by 
the absence of the postorbital process, the genera Dipodomys and Perognathus 
show the closest resemblance. With the group of Dipoda, in which the former 
genus is placed by European systematists, these genera have no relation. The 
five species known to him may be thus grouped. 

A. Tail much longer than the head and body, furnished towards the tip with 
a brush of long hairs ; antitragus short, broad and very distinct. 

1. D. Phillipii Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 7,522: Audubon, 
Quadr. of America, pi. 130: Wagner, Schreber's Saiigeth: Suppl. 3, 295. Schintz, 
Syn. Mam. 2, 93. 

Tail brown, with a whitish vitta each side; outer third dark blackish brown ; 
tip pure white. Sacramento Valley; Dr. Heermann. 

2. D. agilis Gambel, Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sc, 4, 77. 

Tail brownish, with an indistinct whitish vitta each side ; outer third to tip 
nearly uniform pale brown. San Diego ; Dr. John L. Le Conte. 

B. Tail as long as the head and body ; hair at the tip scarcely longer ; anti- 
tragus very short, indistinct. 

3. D. Heermanni. Tail brown, becoming black towards the extremity, 
with a broad white vitta each side ; tip pure black. Sierra Nevada; Dr. Heer- 
mann. (Specimen not quite adult.) 

C. Tail shorter than the body ; hairs on the outer third very long ; ears mode- 
rately small ; antitragus obsolete. 

4. D. Ordii Woodhouse. Tail brownish, with a broad white vitta each 
side ; long terminal hairs pale brown, white at the base. El Paso, Texas ; Dr. 

Of the fifth species there is a single specimen labelled " James Read, South 
Carolina ;" this locality seems doubtful, as all the other species are from the 
western part of the continent. It seems to belong to the first division, although, 
as the outer portion of the tail is wanting, we cannot be certain of that fact. 
The length, however, of the individual caudal vertebrae, indicates a tail similar 
to that of D. agilis, with which it agrees in color. The ears are somewhat 
larger than in that species, and the antitragus is large, broad and obtusely 
rounded at its summit. For this species the name D. Wa gner i is proposed. 

Of Perognathus there are now three species known. 

1. P. fasciatus Wied, Nova Act. Leopold Car. Acad. 19, 369, tab. 34 ; 
Wagner, Schreber's Saugeth. Suppl., 3,G12; Schintz, Syn. Mam., 2, 259. Mis- 
souri Territory. 

1853 ] 225 

2. P. penicillatus WooJhouse. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc, 6, 200. New 

3. P. parvus Lee. Cricetodipus parvus Peale. U. S. Exp. Exp. Mam., 
p. 5Z, pi. 13, fig. 2. 

A specimen procured by me in the Desert of the Colorado of Southern Cali- 
fornia, differs only from Peale's original specimen from Oregon in having the 
whiskers partly black; it is apparently a more adult specimen, thouirh not 
larger than the one in the Exp. Exp. Collection. An error occurs in Peale's 
description and measurement, where the tail is stated to be longer than the body; 
it is in reality a little shorter than the head and body, reaching just in front of 
the ears, when laid along the back. 

Dr. Charles M. "Wetherill presented to the notice of the Society speci- 
mens of fused Asphalte from Hillsboro', New Brunswick, which variety 
of Asphalte lie had characterized as Melan- Asphalt, in a paper read be- 
fore the American Philosophical Society in July last. Dr. W. remarked 
that Chemists, who had pronounced this variety of Asphalt infusible, 
had not properly experimented with it. He had recently fused it in a 
Grerman flask ; it flowed with a level surface and was poured out, after 
which it hardened. It is remarkably electric both before and after 

January l^tli. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
dated Washington, Dec. 20, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of late 
numbers of the Proceedings. 

Dr. Hallowell read a paper intended for publication in the Proceed- 
ings, " On some new Reptiles from California ;'' which was referred to 
Dr. Ruschenberger, Dr. Heermann and Dr. Woodhouse. 

Dr. Le Conte called the attention of the members to a description, 
with a plate, by Wesmael, of the Mexican Ant, in the Bulletin de 
TAcad. Royale de Bruxelles. Wesmael considers the characteristics 
Bufliciently well marked to form a new sub-genus, Myrmecocystis. 

Dr. Bridges, on behalf of the Publication Committee, announced the 
publication of Part 3, Vol. 2, New Series of the Journal, 

Dr. Kane asked that an estimate be made of the expense, &c. of ma- 
terials necessary for the preservation of objects of Natural History in 
the proposed Arctic Expedition. Referred to the Committee previously 
appointed to confer with Dr. Kane. 

January 2btJi. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Le Conte's paper, describing new ColeopterE 
of the United States, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

226 [January, 

Descriptions of Tivoity new .species of Cohoptera itihahiting the Uuiled States. 

By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

The following; are a few remarkable species of families which are so small as 
not to be of sufficient importance for a special essay, or else they belong to 
groups which, having already furnished material for synopses or monographs, 
are not sufficiently increased to need revision. Some new genera are proposed, 
the affinities of which, so far as made out, will be detailed below ; the names of 
the families to which the new genera belong are appended to each. Species in- 
dicated from the Mexican Boundary, were collected by Mr. J. H. Clark, under 
Col. J. D. Graham, and were kindly communicated to me by my friend Dr. S. F. 

Amsomera Brulle. (Dytiscidre.) 

Palpi cylindrici, labiales articulo penultimo lon^iore; prosternum non com- 
presso carinatum, postice productum ; tarsi anteriores filiformes articulo ultimo 
elongato, postici parce ciliati, articulis Imo 5toque elongatis, unguiculis binis 
aqualibus mobilibus. 

Having several specimens of a species of this interesting genus from New 
Mexico, I am able to complete the description of Brulle and Aube, which Avere 
taken from a specimen deprived of its posterior feet. These organs are slender; 
the tibice are slightly ciliated internally with long hairs, and armrd at the tip 
with two slender, subequal spurs ; the posterior tarsi are not longer than the 
tibiae, slightly compressed and sparsely ciliated ; the first joint is as long as the 
second and third ; the 2d, od and 4th are nearly equal ; the 5th is a little shorter 
than the 3d and 4th, not narrowed towards the extremity ; the claws are equal 
and moveable In the male, the first three joints of the anterior and middle 
tarsi are sl'ghtly dilated, and furnished beneath with feathery papillae, very 
much as in Platynus. The posterior tibiae of the female are scarcely ciliate. 

This genus appears quite as closely allied to Agabus and Copelatus as they 
are to each oth^r. The form of the thorax would indicate, however, that it 
must be rec^-ived as a distinct genus, but the characters, on close examination, 
appear to be of little value ; the bfst differences are found in the elongation of 
the last joint of the anterior and middle tarsi, the smaller size of the spurs of 
the posterior tibiae, and the more regular form of the posterior tarsi, which are 
not attenuated at the apex. The middle lobe of the mentum in the species here 
described is broad, short, and very obsoletely sinuated, while the mentum of 
Anisomera is described as having the middle lobe slightly prominent in the 
middle; this character must be re-examined with other specimens, as, if it be 
correctly described, the present species cannot be associated with the type of 
the genus; the prosternum is less compressed than in Copelatus. Agabus is 
described as having the prosternum strongly compressed and carinate ; this 
structure is found in A. t a n i a t u s Anhc, and many others, but is hardly to be 
observed in A. s t r i at u s yl/^/;f. I would also observe that Agabus a n- 
g u st u s Lee. (Agassiz. Lake Sup., 213) by having the thorax much rounded 
before, and nearly parallel behind the middle, shows a tendency towards the 
peculiar form seen in Anisomera. 

A. cordata, supra aeneo-picca, elongato-ovalis, depressa, subtilissime re- 
ticulata, thorace brevi, postice angustato, et lateribus sinuato, elytris thorace 
vix latioribus, postice non dilatatis ; subtus nigra, ore antennis pedibusque ru- 
bro-piceis. Long -45. 

Santa Fe, New Mexico. Mr. Fcndler. Varies, with black feet ; the sides of the 
thorax are strongly rounded in front, and subsinuate behind ; the base is as 
wide as the ap^x, the anterior dilatation being produced by the curvature of the 
sides ; the anterior angles are acute, the posteridr angles rectangular. The 
elytra are very little wider than the widest part of the thorax, regularly elongate, 
eiiqitical, with the usual series of punctures becoming irregular towards the tip. 

IS^o.] 227 

Amthizoa Lee. (Fam. nova ?) 

Pedes ambulatorii, tarsi pentameri, articulo ultimo valde elongato ; antennae 
11-articulatae, liliforines, glabrae; palpi breve-; cylindrici ; maxillae lobo interiore 
arcuato acnto, e.vteriore biarticulato, palpifornii ; prosternum postice productum, 
obtusu.r;; coxoej anticE et interriiinliae parv;e, olobosae, postica? transversae ad mar- 
ginem corporis extensnp ; abdomen t>-articulatum, articulis 3 primis connatis. 

After repeated comparisons v^'ith };enera of all the families to which this in- 
sect seems allied, it has been found impossible to place it in any of the pre- 
viously established irrouj)s. A full discussion of the comparative value of the 
characters ottered by it, would involve an examination of the fundamental prin- 
ciples of clas>i(icarion of the terrestrial and aquatic predacious beetles ; the ma- 
terial for such a discussion is not yet available in this country, and it must 
therefore be postponed to a future occasion. For the present, a few observations, 
on some heretofore nesilected relations existing between those families, will be 
sufficient to indicate the position of Amphizoa. 

A large series of penramerous, carniverous Coleoptera, may be characterized 
as having the antenna? neither clavate nor lamellate, but usually filiform, and 
the prothorax with distinct epimera and episterna ; the anterior coxce small, not 
prominent, usually globular ; the trochanters always simple ; the anterior seg- 
ments of the abdomen connate. This series may be divided into two great groups. 

I. In the first the anterior coxae are contained in the prosternum alone ; the 
posterior coxe do not extend to the margin of the body, so that the first ventral 
segment of the abdomen reaches the parapleural, and articulates with them. 
(The antennae are always regular, the basal joints glabrous, the outer ones 
pubescent; the anterior coxae always globular.) This group consists of the 
Cicindelidae and Carabidae. 

II. In the second, the anterior coxae are received between the pro and mesos- 
ternum, the posterior portion of the acetabulum being composed of the latter; 
the posterior coxae extend to the margin of the body, so that the connection 
between the parapleurae and first ventral segment of the abdomen is entirely 
cut off. 'I'his group u composed of the aquatic families Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, 
and Gyrinidae. 

Recurring now to the second group, it will be found that Amphizoa agrees 
with it in the glabrous antennae, and in the form of the head, labrum, maxillae 
and m^ntum ; the latter is large, deeply emarginate, with the lateral lobes 
rounded; in the middle of the emargination is a broad, short, blunt tooth. The 
ligula is large, filling the emargination of the chin, truncate at tip, and promi- 
nent along the middle and appx, so as to present a form like the letter T. The 
maxillae are of the ordinary form seen in Carabidae, but the inner lobe is not 
ciliated. The prosternum is not elevated, it is not lobed in front, but poste- 
riorly is produced in an obtuse spatula-like process, fitting into the mesoster- 
num. which is excavated through its entire length; the anterior coxae are mode- 
rately distant, small and round. The episterna are divided by an oblique suture 
from the humerus to the middle coxae. The parapleurae are slightly triangular, 
not appendiculate, and entirely separated from the ventral portion of the abdo- 
men by the posterior coxre, which are transverse, flat externally, slightly 
elevated and diverging at the insertion of the leg, as in Carabidae ; the diverg- 
ing lobes are obtusely rounded, but not so much elevated as to allow the freedom 
of motion observed in Dytiscidae. The legs are not at all compressed ; the femora 
and tibiae are slender and finely scabrous, with elevated points, the terminal 
spurs of the tibiae are small ; the tarsi are three-fourths as long as the tibiae, 
filiform, glabrous, scarcely rouih or pubescent beneath; the first four joints are 
equal, the last joint is equal to the three preceding united ; the claws are mode- 
rate, equal and simple. 

It will be found in comparing these characters with those of Dytiscus, that 
the only important differences are in the form of the feet, and in the smaller 
size of the posterior coxae. Now, although the Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, which 
are certainly closely related, agree in having natatorial feet, they differ greatly 
in the modification of form, those of Haliplus being much nearer the terrestrial, 

228 [January, 

or ambulatorial type. The posterior coxae also differ greatly in the two fami- 
lies, those of Haliplus being dilated into a broad plate, under -which the poste- 
rior legs can be withdrawn. We must, therefore, conclude that the differences 
between Amphizoa and the two families just mentioned, are not of greater 
valse than the differences between those two families themselves. 

The other relations of this insect from the form of the tarsi, would appear to 
be slightly towards Parnus. The roughness of the surface above and below is 
of a peculiar nature, and resembles very much what is found in certain Bupres- 
tidas ; in fact, from the general appearance of the insect, it would at first sight 
be supposed to have some affinity to the broad Madagascar Buprestidae forming 
the genus Polybothris. Of its habits nothing is known. 

I would therefore divide the group now under consideration into four families, 
thus : 

A. Mesosternum parvum ; (antennae filiformes, oculi duo, coxae intermediae 

1. Pedes ambulatorii, tenues, coxae posticae transversae,mediocres. Amph]zoid;e. 

2. Pedes subnatatorii, tenues, coxae posticae magnae laminatae. HaliplidjE. 

3. Pedes postici natatorii, compressi, coxae posticae magnae, sim- 

plices. Dytiscid-e. 

B. Mesosternum maximum; (antennae breves, perfoliatag, oculi quatuor.) 

4. Pedes posteriores natatorii, valde compressi, coxce intermediae 

triangulares planae. GYRiNiDiE. 

Having now ascertained as far as practicable the position of Amphizoa, we 
may proceed to the specific description of the only species yet obtained. 

A. in s ol e n s, atra, opaca, subvirescens, glabra, thorace scabro, canalicu- 
lato, antrorsum angustato, lateribus subserratis, ad medium subangulatis, 
postice subangustato, angulis posticis acutis, elytris ovalibus, substriatis, 
scabro-punctatis, thorace dupio latioribus. Long. '52. 

Sacramento, California, collected by Mr. J. Childs, and given me by Mr. 
Rathvon. Color dull black, slightly tinged with greenish, without lustre. Head 
irregularly rugous and punctulate, with two shallow impressions between the 
antennae. Labrum covering the obtuse mandibles, slightly and broadly emar- 
ginate in front. Thorax twice as wide as the head, flat, scabrous ; sides sub- 
serrate, strongly narrowed from the middle to the apex, slightly narrowed and 
subsinuate posteriorly ; base very broadly bisinuate, posterior angles acute; 
disc channeled, with a shallow impression each side at the base, and a broad 
transverse one before the middle. Elytra broadly oval, slightly convex, nearly 
twice as wide as the thorax, scarcely one half longer than wide, scabrous with 
shallow punctures, striate with nine slightly impressed grooves, which appear 
coarsely and indistinctly punctured. Scutellum flat, broad, acute at apex. 
Under surface of the body covered with shallow confluent punctures and 
wrinkles. Legs scabrous with fine elevated punctures. No sexual difference 
observed in five specimens examined. 

Stenocohts Lfc. (Atopidae.) 

Tarsi elongati tenues, unguibus simplicibus, paranychio bisetoso ; caput 
clypeo distincto, antice membranaceo ; mandibulac apice integrae ; antennae 
elongatae, serratae, articulo2ndo minuto ; palpi maxillares breviusculi cylindrici. 

This genus resembles in its characters Anchytarsus Giierin., but differs in 
having a distinct transverse suture each side between the antennae ; in the 
middle this suture is not obvious, but the front is slightly elevated, so that the 
guture appears slightly sinuous ; the anterior part of the clypeus is membra- 
neous ; the labrum is transverse and rounded ; the eyes are round, the proster- 
num projects posteriorly, and the mesosternum is concave ; the tarsi are long 
and slender, the first four joints are very slightly pubescent beneath, and 
the first joint is a little elongated; the last joint is as long as the three pre- 
ceding united. The claws are moderate and simple ; the intermediate appen- 
dage is small and terminates in two bristles. 

IS 53.] 229 

The Atopidne seem by this ;eniis and Anchytarsus to show a slight affinity 
towards the Parnidce, through the anomalous genus Eurypalpus Lee. (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. 6, 41.) 

S. sc u te 11 a r is, elongato-oblongus, piceus, fusco pruinosus, thorace ptmc- 
tato, antrorsum angustato, basi bisinuato, angulis posticis acutis, elytris scabro- 
punctatis, scutello albo pubescente. Long. '^5 87. 

One pair, Sacramento, California, from Mr. Rathvon. Body elongate, nar- 
rowed at each end, sides parallel at the middle, piceous, covered with very short 
depressed, dirt colored pubescence. Antennae black, strongly serrate in the 
male, slightly serrate in the female. Thorax nearly three times as wide as the 
head, nearly twice as wide as long, strongly narrowed in front, sides at the 
middle almost angulated, then slightly concave to the posterior angles, which 
are acute ; base bisinuat? ; surface fint'ly punctured, broadly concave along the 
margin behind the middle, and broadly transversely impressed at the base. 
Scutellum round, covered with dense white hair. Elytra scabrous with shallow, 
punctures, spaces between the punctures finely punctulate ; the elevated lines, 
which may be traced in allied genera are slightly visible. Body beneath more 
densely pruinose Vv^ith short cinereous hair. 

The other species of this family known to inhabit the United States are : 

1. Anchytarsus bicolor. Atopa hicolor I Mels. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2, 
221. Anchytvrstux ater Guerin Icon. Anim. Artie, No. 15, (Jan. 1849.) Penn- 
sylvania, S. S. Haldeman. 

2. Odontonyx or n a t a Guerin, loc. cit. No. 14. Atopa oniata ! Mels. Pr. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. 2, 220. Pennsylvania, not rare. 

3. Dascillus melanophthalmus Guerin, loc. cit. No. 13, p. 6. I 
have not seen this species, but learn from my father that it occurs in Georgia. 
Atopa fusca M^-ls. (Proc. Acad. 2, 221) is, as Guerin has already observed, a 
Ptilodactyla, and therefore cannot be placed in this family. 

The singuhr genus Zenoa Say (Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 1, 153,) differs from 
the genera above cited, by its immarginate thorax, prominent mandibles, sub- 
pectinate antennae, and elongate densely hairy paranychia ; these characters 
approximate it to Saiidalus (female) ; from the Rhipiceridae, however, it differs 
in having the anterior coxee more deeply imbedded between the pro- and meso- 
sternum, and also in the absence of lobes on the under surface of the tarsi ; in the 
Atopidae we know already that the latter is a variable character, and there 
appears to me no good reason why the two families, Atopidae and Rhipiciderae 
should not be merged together. The synonymy of the only species of Zenoa 
known to me is : 

Z. p i c e a Lee. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. New Ser. 1, S9. Melasis picea Beau- 
vois, Ins. 7, tab. 7, fig. 1. Sandaltis {Zenoa) picea Say, Bost. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. 1, 152. Zevoa vulnerata Lee. loc. cit. 

Middle and Western States : the last synonym belongs to a variety with the 
thorax partly red. 

Cerophytum is usually placed in the vicinity of these genera, and has been 
bandied about between Eucnemides, Rhipiceridag and Cebrionidae ; it must, 
however, belong to the latter family. The great development of the trochanters 
entirely separates the femora from the coxae ; the same structure is to be found 
in Cebrio bicolor, although the trochanters are not so long ; the indistinct 
labrum and globular anterior coxae also place it with Cebrio, while the whole 
form of the head, as well as the general appearance, would separate it froin the 
Eucnemides, which, as I have already observed,* should be considered as a 
group of Elateridag. The small mandibles and lobed tarsi are certainly very 
different from those of Cebrio, but we know that the latter character is merely 
of generic value in both Elateridae and Atopidag. The description of Haldeman 
is incorrect as regards the posterior feet, in which the coxa, are said to be very 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 6, 45. 

230 [January, 

long, while in reality the troehatiter is meant. The bibliography of our species 
is as follows : 

C. pulsator Plald. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 3, 348. Chorf.a pulsator Hald. 
ibid. 3, 150. 

For the typical female I am indebted to the liberality of Mr. Ilaldeman j and 
for a fine male, found in Ohio, to Dr. Schaum. 

Chal'liog.nathus lleiltz. 

1. C. discus, luteus, antennis pedibus pectorecjue medio nigris, thorace 
elliptico loiigiusculo, lateribus reHexis. Long. -ti. 

Several specimens, from the Mexican Boundary, Prof. Baird ; collected by 
Mr. Clark, under Col. J. D. Graham. Body elongate, parallel, very finely 
pubescent, luteous yellow ; antennae black, 3d joint nearly equal to the 4th; 
head elongate, palpi and mandibles black ; occiput sometimes fuscous ; thorax 
nearly twice as wide as the head, longer than wide, apex very niuch rounded, 
slightly reflexed, base less rounded, mar:iined, sides strongly rellexed, disc 
scarcely uneven, shining, sometimes with a black spot on the little protuberance 
each side of the middle ; elytra opaque, coarsely punctured with two faint ele- 
vated lines ; sometimes each is marked with a black dot at the posterior third. 
Beneath luteous, middle of the pectus and feet black ; trochanters testaceous ; 
anal segment of the male fuscous. 

2. C.scutellaris, elongatus, niger, thorace luteo maculis 2 nigris conflu- 
entibus notato, apice rotundato, lateribus reflexo, elytris luteis macula com- 
muni scutellari posticaque utrinque nigtis, abdomine luteo. Long. -48. 

Several males from the same locality as the preceding. Body slender, black, 
finely pubescent ; head moderately elongated, third joint of the antennae one 
half as long as the 4th; thorax a little longer than wide, rounded at the apex, 
rellxed at the sides, margined and slightly sinuate at base, disc uneven, with- 
out lustre, yellow, with two large confiuent black spots. Elytra without lustre, 
coarsely punctured, yellow, with a large common triangular spot at the base, 
and another elongate one on each behind the middle, black. Abdomen yellow. 

CoLLOPS Erichson. 

C. balteatus, niger, breviter nigro-pilosellus, brevissime argenteo pu- 
bescens, capite antice, thoracis subtiliter punctulati limbo loto, antennarumque 
basi rufis, elytris punctatissimis rufis basi maculaque postica maxima cyaneis. 
Long. '31 

Two specimens from Tampico (Mexico), Lieut. H. Ilaldeman ; and one from 
the Mexican Boundary, collected by Mr. Clark. This is the largest species I 
have seen. Head black, front mouth and base of antennas rufous. Thorax very 
finely punctured, one half wider than long, rounded, rufous, with a large hexa- 
gonal black spot, which is a little emarginate before and behind. Elytra wider 
than the thorax, very densely punctured, rufous with four blue spots, which are 
so large that only a narrow sutural lateral and apical margin and a transverse 
band before the middle remain reddish yellow. Beneath black, with the ante- 
pectus, and margins of the abdominal segments testaceous. Feet black; knees 
obsoletely rufous. 

The outer joints of the antennae of the male are dark colored, though not 
black as in the female. 

Clerus Geoff r. 

C. Spinolnc, niger, pilosus, elytris convexiusculis, rugose punctulatis, coc- 
cineis macula humerali fasciaque ad trientem secundum nigris, abdomine san- 
guineo. Long 'ZS 52. 

Several specimens from the Mexican Boundary. Body black, hairy. Head 
finely but not densely punctured, first joint of antennae red beneath. Thorax 
wider than the head, punctulate, moderately convex, broadly and deeply im- 
pressed anteriorly. Elytra more than one half wider than the head, moderately 
convex, densely rugosely punctulate, pubescent with fine yellow hairs, with a 

1S53.] 2ai 

few black bristles intermixed ; color bright scarlet, with a black humeral spot, 
and a black band at the second third of their length, which almost reaches the 
side and the suture, leaving only the extreme bead of the margins red. Beneath 
black, abdomen sanguineous. 

The posterior band of the elytra is sometimes narrow and more widely inter- 
rupted at the suture ; the elytra are sometimes orange-colored, rather than 

This very beautiful species is dedicated to the Marquis Max. de Spinola, 
author of the finely illustrated " Essai Monographique sur les Clerites." 

TosTEGOPTERA Edtvards. 

T. cribrosa, brevis, inflata, purpureo-picea, supra glabra (?), thorace vario- 
loso, antice medio paulo deplanato, elytris subreticulatis, longitudinaliter 
obsolete sulcatis. Long. .'Bo. 

Two females from the Mexican Boundary, collected as above. The genus 
was founded by M. Milne-Edwards in the " Catalogue de la Collection Entomo- 
logique du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris," p. 149, upon Melolontha 
lanceolata Say, (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 3,242), with which this species agrees 
in form and structure, but differs remarkably by the coarse sculpture of the 
upper surface, and by the absence of all pubescence or scaly appendages. The 
latter may have been removed by the alcohol in which the specimens were pre- 
served, but on very careful examination no trace of them could be found. The 
body beneath is shining, sparsely and finely punctured, with a short hair pro- 
ceeding from each puncture. 

(A male seen in the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, differed in having 
the body more regularly oval, less convex, and not inflated posteriorly.) 

Ceemastochilus Knock. 

1. C.Schaumii, ater, opacus, breviter setosus, thorace confertim punctate, 
lateribus rotundato, angulis anticis foveatis, posticis acutis subelevatis, elytris 
punciis ellipticis minus profundis, mento modice concavo, postice subacuto. 
Long. -6. 

San Diego and Sta Isabel, California. Black, almost without lustre. Head 
finely scabrous ; mentum shallow, moderately concave, rounded in front, ob- 
liquely narrowed behind, so as to be slightly angulated posteriorly. Thorax 
one half wider than long, narrowed in front, rounded on the sides ; disc tolerably 
densely, not deeply punctured, with short bristles from the punctures ; anterior 
angles foveate internally, posterior angles acute, scarcely elevated ; base 
bisinuate, faintly impressed each side. Elytra fl.attened, not uneven, sparsely 
punctured with large elliptical shallow foveae, from which proceed short 

This species is larger than C. canaliculatus Kirhy, and is very different 
in the form of the mentum and thorax, and in the less distinct punctuation of 
the head. There is not a trace of emargination at the posterior part of the 
mentum ; the anterior angles of the thorax appear to be more deeply foveate in 
the male than in the female. The excellent labors of Dr. Schaum in the pre- 
sent tribe are well known to every entomologist. 

2. C. Kn o chii, ater, subnitidus, glaber, thorace parce varioloso canalicu- 
lato, lateribus rotundatis, angulis anticis foveatis, posticis elevatis nitidis, basi 
utrinque impresso, elytris inaequalibus, punctis ellipticis minus profundis, mento 
modice concavo, postice acuto. Long. 45. 

Missouri Territory. Black, with but little lustre. Head densely punctured, 
mentum shallow, moderately concave, rounded in front, obliquely narrowed 
behind, so as to form an angle posteriorly. Thorax almost one half wider than 
long, channelled, narrowed in front, rounded on the sides ; disc sparsely punc- 
tured, punctures large and shallow ; anterior angles with a small fovea, pos- 
terior acute, shining, moderately elevated, base scarcely sinuate, with a broad 
moderately deep impression each side. Elytra flattened, with indications of 
two broad grooves on each side ; surface somewhat irregular, impressed with 


232 [January, 

large shallow elliptical punctures. This and the preceding seem related to C. 
mexicanus Schaii77i (Germ. Zeitschr. 3, 256 ; Am. Ent. Fr. 2d ser. 2, pi. 11, 
fig. 8), but the posterior angles are not tuberculate. 

Two specimens of this species were found by me on the Arkansas River, near 
the Rocky Mountains ; one of them is now in the collection of Dr. Schaum. 
Descriptions of this and the next species were furnished by me four years ago 
to Mr. Westwood, for an anticipated monograph of Cremastochilus, which, how- 
ever, although quoted in Schaum's Catalogue of Oetoniae, appears not to have 
been published ; and therefore considering them as interesting additions to our 
fauna, I take the present opportunity of making them known. 

3. C. n i t e n s, nigro-castaneus, nitidus, breviter setosus, thorace parce vario- 
loso, antrorsum valde angustato, basi subito constricto, angulis posticis auricu- 
latis, anticis foveatis, elytris inaequalibus sat dense punctatis, mento valde 
concavo, rhomboideo. Long. -43. 

Missouri Territory. Brownish black, shining. Head strongly scabrous ; 
mentum deeply concave, subrhomboidal, anteriorly broadly rounded, lateral and 
posterior angles distinct. Thorax one half wider than long, strongly narrowed 
in front, rounded on the sides, very strongly constricted near the base, so that 
the base is not wider than the apex; surface sparsely and deeply punctured, 
with very short yellow bristles proceeding from the punctures ; anterior angles 
not acute, deeply foveate, posterior angles forming a round shining tubercle, 
separated by a deep cut from the body of the thorax ; base very much depressed, 
smooth. Elytra deep red towards the middle, flattened, slightly uneven, covered 
with moderately close rounded shallow punctures, from which proceed short 
yellow hairs. 

These three species seem to belong to Burmeister's genus Psilocnemis, by 
the form of the lower lip, but as there is not a complete resemblance among 
them in this respect, 1 follow Schaum's example in merging the two genera 

Among our previously described Cremastochilus, may also be observed con- 
siderable difl^erence in the form of the lower lip. That organ is only slightly 
emarginate posteriorly in C. variolosus, while it is deeply cleft in C. Harrisii, 
canaliculatus and castanea?. C. junior (Westw.), quoted in Schaum's Catalogue 
of Lamellicornia melitophila, is unknown to me, nor have I in my collection 
any specimens from the Atlantic States, which cannot be referred to the four 
species just mentioned. 

C. p o 1 i t u s Schaum (P.s-/7orf!??i?'.s /e?ico5^/c Burm.) is considered as North 
American on the authority of a single specimen communicated by Mr. Gory to 
Burmeister. The fact that the Western species above described agree in the 
absence of the emargination of the lower lip, induces me to believe that the 
species in question is really Mexican. The distinction of locality in regard to 
North America is very frequently not attended to with sufficient care by Euro- 
pean Naturalists, who possibly have a prophetic eye towards the extension of 
ihe republic ; which event, however desirable for the increase of our fauna, 
cannot alter the preordained laws of distribution of species. 

Alloeocnemis Lee. (Nitidularia?, Peltides.) 

Oculi duo laterales prominuli; aatetmfc 11-articulatae, articulis tribus ultimis 
maioribus, distantibus ; frons concava, apice emarginata ; tibiae posteriores mu- 
ticse ; anticae extus serratae, spina apicali uncata. 

1 have merely given the characters to distinguish this curious genus from the 
genera described by Erichson (Germ. Zeitschr. 5, 445, &c.) ; the only two allied 
to it by the form of the eyes are Egolia and Acalantha, from which it is very 
distinct by having three enlarged antennal joints. Its form is nearly that of 
Nemosoma, but its greater size renders its appearance very singular. The 
pectus and tibine are very hairy ; the two posterior pairs of tibi;p not spinous, 
with two terminal spurs, of which one is so small as to be indistinct; the 
anterior tibiae are slightly compressed, the outer margin serrate, with small 
distant teeth, of which the lowest is most distinct; the apex is obliquely trun- 


1850.1 233 

cate; the terminal spur is tolerably large and curved. The tarsi are filiform, 
the first joint very small, inferior, the 2d equal to the rest united. The antennae 
are slender and not much longer than the head; the first joint is a little longer 
than the 4th, the 3d is a little shorter than the 2d, which is about one half as 
long as the first ; the 4th 8th are nearly equal, and cylindrical ; the 9th and 
10th triangular, a little longer than wide; the 11th oval, about equal to the 
10th ; these last three are compressed, and about twice as wide as those which 

A. Stoutii, nigro-picea, capite magno, scabro, fronte concava, thorace 
punctulato trapezoideo, postice angustato, antice vage impresso, elytris cylin- 
dricis, subtiliter rugosis. Long. 'SB. 

San Francisco, California, given me by my friend Dr. A. B. Stout, to whom 
1 take pleasure in dedicating it. Body dull black ; head large, obtuse, covered 
with coarse granulations, with a few erect black hairs ; front deeply concave ; 
mandibles thick and prominent, apex acute. Thorax narrower than the head 
with the eyes, not wider than long, truncate at base and apex, narrowed behind, 
sides almost straight, deflexed sides scabrous, with erect black hairs ; 
disc finely punctnlate, broadly transversely impressed before the middle ; 
ww^h a very obsolete longitudinal line extending from base to apex. Elytra as 
wide as the head and eyes, elongate, cylindrical, finely punctulate and rugous=, 
with small confluent wrinkles, which are less dense and more distinct towards 
the base. Scutellum very small, impressed. Beneath finely and densely punc- 
tulate, pectus covered with long yellow hair. 

Derobrachl'S Serv. 

D. geminatus, piceus, nitidus, thorace valde transverse, antice non angus- 
tato, parce punctulato, lateribus quadrispinoso, spina antica minore, elytris 
lasvigatis, margine angustiore reflexo. Long. 2*9. 

This very large species was collected by Dr. Henry, U. S. A., at Albu- 
querque, New Mexico, and kindly sent to me. It is easily distinguished from 
all the other species, by having in addition to the three usual large spines, a 
smaller one formed by the anterior angle being produced outwards. The elytra 
are entirely smooth, except at the base, where a few indistinct rugae are visible; 
the lateral reflexed margin is much narrower than in the other species ; the 
suture presents scarcely a trace of the spine at the apex ; the abdomen is smooth, 
the pectus is covered with short yellow hair. The antennas (of the female) are 
scarcely half as long as the body, slender, with the three first joints polished 
and sparsely punctured ; the third joint is feebly sulcate longitudinally. The 
legs are precisely as in the other species. 

Callichroma Latr. 

C. plicatum, viridi-aeneum, sericeum, thorace inaequali transversim plieato, 
abdomine rufo, antennis pedibusque nigris, femoribus rufis apice nigris. Long. 

Mexican Boundary, collected by Mr. Clark; another specimen found in 
Texas by Lieut. Haldeman. In size and form exactly resembles C. splendidum 
ic., but differs very much in the sculpture of the thorax and uniform green 
color of the upper surface. 

Eburia Serv. 

E. muti c a, picea, fusco pubescens, thorace subcylindrico, lateribus paulo 
rotundatis, ad medium vix spinosis, tuberculis 4 atris nitidis ante medium 
ornato (exterioribus in latere sitis), elytris sat dense punctatis, callo basali 
exteriore, posticoque interiore minoribus, apice truncatis. Long. '67 -SS. 

This interesting species was first found by Lieut. Haldeman at Tampico, and 
I have recently obtained a specimen collected at New Braunfels in Texas, by 
Mr. Lindheimer. The thorax is scarcely longer than wide, and slightly rounded 
on the sides ; the lateral spine is represented by a mere elevated point ; the disc 
is sparsely punctured, but the hair obscures the punctures ; before the middle 
there are two shining black tubercles, and on each side, nearer the ante- 

234 [January, 

rior angle is another similar tubercle. The elytra are coarsely punctured, 
slightly truncate, but not armed at tip ; they hjiVe each four small polished lines 
associated by pairs, but not united, the outer basal one is very small ; the inner 
one of the posterior pair, which is placed about the middle, is smaller than the 

Physocnemum Huld. 

P. araethystinum, nigrum, thorace transverso, lateribus valde rotun- 
datis, basi brevissime tubulato, disco confluenter punctato, irregulariter calloso, 
elytris laBte violaceis, nitidis, confertim punctatis, femoribus non clavatis. 
Long. '75. 

This species has a general resemblance in appearance to P. Proteus, but differs 
from all the species known to me in having the anterior as well as the posterior 
thighs simple ; the thorax is narrowed in front, rounded on the sides, suddenly 
narrowed towards the base, which is slightly tubulate; the sides are very 
densely and confluently punctured, the disc less densely so, with three indistinct 
smooth longitudinal elevations. The elytra are shining violet blue, finely and 
densely punctured, the punctures becoming larger and less dense towards the 

One specimen was found at Sacramento, California, by Mr. J. Childs, and 
given me by Mr. Rathvon. 

A Callidium from the same collection is very similar to the female of C an- 
tennatum, but the thorax is more densely punctured; I can otherwise discover 
no difference. 

Cacoplia Lee. 

Having, since the publication of my essay on Longicornia, obtained, through 
the kindness of Mr. Haldeman, the original specimen of his Saperda 'ptdlata, I 
have convinced myself that it must be referred to this genus, proposed by me in 
the Journal of the Academy (New Ser. 2, 149.) The following diagnoses will 
enable the two species at once to be distinguished : 

1. C. pull at a, fusco-testacea, brevissime densius sordide pubescens, thorace 
parce punctato, linea dorsali postice glabi-a, elytris thorace latioribus cylin- 
dricis parce minus distincte punctatis. Long. -68. 

Saperda pullata Hald., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 10, 55; Lee. Journ. Acad. Sc. 
2,163. Alabama, Haldeman. One specimen. 

2. C. p ruin OS a, testacea, brevissime cinereo pubescens, thorace obscu- 
riore, sat dense punctato, linea dorsali postica glabra, elytris thorace latioribus, 
cylindricis, distinctius parce punctatis. Long. '47. 

Lee. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2, 149. 

Hebestola nehiilosaX Haldeman, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. 10, 54. 

New York. One specimen. 

MoNiLEMA Say, 

i\. M. a r m a t u m, elongatum, nigrum, thorace laevi, lateribus acute spinosis, 
apice et basi punctis marginato, elytris subrugosis, parce grosse punctatis, apice 
Isevibus, dorso convexis, lateribus subito declivibus. Long. 1-25. 

Mexican Boundary, collected as before mentioned. This species is similar to 
M. semipunctatum Lee (Journ. Acad. Nat, Sc. 2, 2, 167,) but the form is 
more elongate, the thorax is smooth on the disc, and the elytra are more punc- 
tured and rugous. 

2. M. c r a s s u m, breviusculum, nigrum, thorace lateribus subtuberculato, 
disco opaco parce punctato, margine postico punctato, elytris convexis, subru- 
gosis minus dense variolosis, apice laevibus. Long. '8. 

With the preceding. This species is similar to M. a n n u 1 a t u m Say, but is 
stouter in its form. The elytra are much more coarsely punctured, the punc- 
tures extend further along the epipleurae and suture, than along the disc ; the 
elytra are very convex, the sides descend more abruptly than in M. annulatum, 
but less so than in M. armatum. 

1853.] 235 

There are now five species 'of this genus known to me; they appear to be 
quite limited in their distribution, and are by no means common in the locality 
where they occur. It is very probable that further investigation in the interior 
of the continent will show that the Dorcadidae of North America are quite 
numerous, although thus far they exhibit a lamentable uniformity of color, 
which will render the determination of species somewhat difficult, without 
actual comparison of specimens. 

NosoDER3iA Solier. 

N. porcatum, depressum, sordide fuscum, thorace latitudine non longiore, 
postice angustato, valde inaequali, elytris sutura costisque 3 elevatis, intermedia 
utrinquc abbreviata, interstitiis irregulariter biseriatim punctatis ; apice tuber- 
culatis. Long. '57. 

Sacramento, Mr. Rathvon. Bears a strong resemblance to N. obcordatum, 
but is darker colored, the inequalities of the thorax are smaller and more nume- 
rous, and the punctures and elevations of the elytra much more regular ; the 
outer and inner costae end about one sixth of the length of the elytra from the 
tip, in moderate dilatations ; the intermediate costa commences about one fifth 
from the base, and ends about one fourth from the tip ; near the tip on each 
elytron is a large rough tubercle. The under surface of the body appears black, 
and is more distinctly punctured than in N. obcordatum. 

There are now three species of this genus known to me as inhabiting the 
United States, viz. N. di abo 1 ic u m Lee. (Ann. Lye. 5, 130) ; N. obcor- 
datum Lee. (iV. inaquale[ Dej. Cat. ; Boletophagns ohcordaUis Kirby, Faun. 
Bor. Am. 236) ; and N. porcatum Lee, just described. 

Mycterds OHv. 

M. concolor, fusco-niger, subtiliter cinereo-pubescens, capite thoraceque 
confertissime subtilius punctatis, elytris alutaceis minus dense subtiliter punc- 
tatis, subtus argenteo-pubescens, tibiis tarsisque vix rufescentibus. Long. -3. 

Sta Fe, New ^Mexico, Mr. Fendler. The antennae are entirely black, and a 
little longer than the head and thorax. The following diagnosis will distinguish 
the previously described North American species : 

M. s caber, fusco-niger, luteo-pubescens, capite thoraceque confertissime 
punctulatis, elytris grosse sat dense punctatis, antennis pedibusque rufo-testa- 
ceis. Long. -15 23. 

Haldeman, Pr. Acad. Nat. Sc. 1, 303. 

Southern States, abundant ; Pennsylvania, rare. The pubescence of the under 
surface is somewhat silvery ; the antennae are a little darker externally than 
at base. 

The only other member of this group of insects yet known from our coun- 
try is, Sphaeriestes virescens Lee. ( Agassiz' Lake Superior, 232.) 

The Committee on Dr. Woodhouse's description of a new species 
of DipodomyS; reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Description of a new species of Pouched Rat, of the Genus DipodomyS^ Gray. 

By S. W. WooDHousE. 
DiPODOMYs Ordii. 

Charact. Essent, Light reddish brown above, beneath white ; tail short, and 
penecillate at the end. 

Description. A little smaller than the D. Phillipii, Gray; head and tail 
shorter, nose long and pointed, extending some distance beyond the incisors; 
ears somewhat round, the anterior portion almost naked, posteriorly covered 
with short fine hair. 

23G [January, 

Color. Dark reddish brown above ; sides light reddish brown ; fur ash color 
at base ; side of the nose, half of the cheek, spot behind the ear, band across 
the thigh and beneath pure white ; a black spot at the base of the long whiskers ; 
a superciliary ridge of white on either side; the penecillated portion of the 
tail is formed of long white hairs, with bright brown tips. 


Total length from tip of nose to root of tail, . . .5 

" *' of vertebra of tail, 4 3-lOths. 

*' " of tail, including hair at tip, . . . 5 5-lOths. 
*' " of OS calcis, including middle toe and tail, . 1 5-lOths. 
*' " of ear, 4i-10ths. 

Habitat. Western Texas. 

Obs. This animal I procured at El Paso on the Rio Grande, on my way to 
Santa Fe, whilst attached to the party under the command of Captain L. 
Sitgreaves, [J. S. Army. I have named it in honor of Mr. Ord, President of this 

The Committee on Dr. HalloweJl's descriptions of new Reptiles from 
California, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

0)1 some New Rejitiles from California. 


By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 
PITYOPHIS, Holbrook. 


Specific characters. Head small, the two middle of the four posterior frontals 
much broader in front than behind ; yellow above, a narrow black band between 
the orbits ; occipital plates marked with black ; a narrow oblique band of black 
passing from the posterior margin of the orbit, to the angle of the jaw; body 
yellowish, with about fifty distinct subquadrate black spots, emarginate in front 
and posteriorly ; emarginations less distinct toward tail ; interspaces between 
these large spots, presenting smaller ones, forming a continuous row on each 
side of the back ; about sixteen transverse black spots upon the tail ; intermediate 
spaces yellowish ; chin and throat straw color, the lateral extremities of many 
of the scuta with black spots ; thirty rows of scales, those upon the back small, 
and distinctly carinated; the four or five inferior rows on each side much larger 
than the others, and smooth ; tail short. 

Dimensions. Length of head, 8 lines ; greatest breadth, 5 lines ; length of 
body 1 foot, of tail 2 inches 3 lines ; total length, 1 foot 2 inches 11 lines ; cir- 
cumference 14 lines. 

Remarks. Abundant in California ; grows to a much larger size. The spe- 
cimen in the Museum of the Academy came from the mines, in the vicinity of 
the Cosumnes river ; one specimen was found under a log, and Dr. Heermann 
found several basking in the sun, during the middle of the day, on the banks of 
streams, in sandy and gravelly places. 

CORONELLA, Laure?iti. 


Specific characters. Head small and stout, outline oval, depressed above, 
covered with nine plates ; eyes projecting, anterior frontals smaller than poste- 
rior, nostrils between two plates ; a very small frenal ; one large antocular, two 
posterior oculars, seven superior labials on each side ; neck contracted, body 
slender, cylindrical, somewhat thicker near the middle ; tail rather short and 
tapering gradually to a point ; twenty-three rows of smooth hexagonal scales ; 
a series of about thirty narrow yellowish-white fasciae, alternating with as 

1853.] 287 


many dark colored blotches, which are continuous with similarly colored mark- 
ings upon the abdomen ; the markings of the tail resemble those upon the body, 
but have the form of bands, the black spots being somewhat more regularly 
disposed. Abdom. scut. 234 ; subcaud. 51. 

Dimensions Length of head, 9 lines ; greatest breadth, 5i ; length of 
body 1 foot 7 inches 3 lines ; length of tail, 2 inches 9 lines ; total length 1 
foot 10 inches 9 lines; greatest circumference, 1 inch 6 lines. 

Dimensions of a larger specimen. Length of head, 8 lines ; greatest breadth, 
6i ; length of body, 2 feet 4 inches ; of tail, 4 inches 4^ lines ; total length, 
feet 9 inches Ah lines ; circumference, 2 inches 3 lines. Abdom. scut. 225 ; sub- 
caud. 57. 

Kf-marks. Found in the valleys in the open prairies ; grows to a much larger 
size than either of the specimens, 4 feet in length ; very abundant, often killed 
by travellers, and found lying on the road side ; disposition timid, always 
endeavoring to escape its pursuers. 

Tropidonotus tri-vittatus. 

Sjyecijic characters. Head rather small, outline above triangular ; de- 
pressed posteriorly, cheeks tumid, eyes slightly projecting, nostrils between 
two plates ; a quadrilateral frenal plate ; one large antorbitar, two pos- 
terior orbitars ; eight superior labials on each side, the sixth the largest ; 
neck slightly contracted, abdomen flattened, body of moderate size, covered 
above with nineteen rows of carinated scales ; tail of moderate length, tapering 
to a point ; body jet black above, with three narrow vittae extending from 
the head to the extremity of the tail ; the lateral ones become indistinct 
the dorsal vitta is orange colored, and occupies one row, and a half of each 
of the adjoining rows of scales ; abdomen and under part of tail olive colored, 
immaculate ; upper surface of head black. Abdom. scuta 146; subcau-d. 72. 

Dimensions. Length of head 9 lines ; greatest breadth 6 lines ; length of 
body about 1 foot 7 inches; of tail 5 inches 7 lines, (body broken.) 

Remarks. Resembles Tropidonotus concinnus, but wants the orange colored 
spots, and the lateral vittae. Very abundant about ponds and on the banks of 
the Cosumnes and other rivers in California. On being approached quickly dives 
to the bottom of the stream, or makes its appearance on the opposite side, 
keeping its head above water. One of the most common snakes in California. 

Leptophis lateralis. 

Specific characters. Head small, rather long and slender, covered above with 
nine plates ; the posterior frontals are larger than the anterior, passing down 
upon the sides of the head ; vertical very long and narrow, broader in front ; 
nostrils between two nasal plates ; a small quadrilateral frenal ; a large antocu- 
lar, its upper portion forming part of the lateral surface of the head ; below it a 
minute supplementary plate intercalated between the third and fourth labials ; 
two posterior oculars ; eye large and projectina:, space between it and the nostril 
grooved ; eight superior labials, the fourth and fifth forming the inferior margin 
of the orbit ; body long and slender ; tail rather long ; color brown above, with 
two narrow yellow vittae, one on each side, extending from the head to the root 
of the tail ; abdomen and under surface of tail straw color, immaculate ; a con- 
siderable number of very minute black points upon the chin and throat. 
Abdom. scuta. 196 ; sub-caud. 122. 

Dimensions. Length of head 8 lines ; greatest breadth 3 lines ; length of 
body 1 foot 5 lines ; of tail 5 inches 1 line; total length 1 foot 6 inches 2 lines ; 
circumference 9 lines. 17 rows of smooth scales. 

Remarks. Abundant in the neighborhood of ponds, lakes and banks of rivers ; 
very timid, escaping to the water for protection the moment it is approached. 
Grows somewhat larger. 

The following are from the same locality, viz. : 

238 [Jantjari, 

GERRHONOTrs MULTiCARixATus, BlainviUe. Nouv. Annal. du Mus., tome iv., 
1835, pi. 25, fig. 2. 

Tropidonotus ordinatus, Linn. Length of head and body 1 foot 8 inches ; 
tail? inches. Abdom. scuta, 170; sub-caud. 85. 19 21 rows of carinated scales. 

Coluber PUNCTATus,t Linn. The abdomen and under parts of the tail 
are innmaculate, the back and upper part of the tail are light brown ; 
resembling the Coluber atratus, Hall., found in South America, but the latter 
has carinated scales. Length of head and body 8^ inches ; of tail 3 inches. 
Abdominal scuta 156; sub-caudal 60. 15 rows of smooth scales. 

Crotaias Lecontei, Hall. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. vi. p. 180. 

Rana , Young. Green, wdth blackish spots. 

Sai.amandra lugubris. Hall. Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. iv. p. 126. 
Found in the spring season under logs. 

Five specimens of Triton torosus, Eschscholtz/* (Triton granulosa, Skillton, 
Sill. Journ. v. vii.) These amphibians are very abundant on the edges of rivers 
toward the spring ; those found by Dr. Heermann were in a mountainous coun- 
try. The river Calaveres having overflowed its banks, had left small basins of 
water in the rocks, in one of which about thirty were seen together. Their 
habits appeared to be indolent ; when disturbed, they swam away in a sluggish 
manner, moving the tail chiefly, the anterior extremities lying closely in con- 
tact with the body. A hundred might be seen in the course of a day, after a 
slight rain, the ground being moist, disappearing slowly when approached. 
Belly of a deep bright vermillion saff"ron, as well as the under part of tail and 
extremities ; above very dark brown, appearing almost black during life. 

The reptiles above described were presented to the Academy by Adolphus 
L. Heermann, M. D., who has recently returned to Philadelphia, after a journey 
of three years' duration, spent, for the most part, in Natural History pursuits, in 
California and in various parts of S. America. Through his zeal and liberality, 
the Museum of our Institution has been greatly enriched in the departments of Or- 
nithology, Mammalogy, Mineralogy and Herpetology, thus presenting a useful 
and honorable example of leisure and wealth devoted to the noblest of human 
pursuits, the study of the phenomena and laws of the material universe. 

The Committee appointed under a Resolution of the Academy, 
adopted Dec. 30, 1851, to collect subscriptions for the purpose of 
enlarging and improving the Hall, 

Reported^ That the condition of the Eesolution had been complied 
with, and that six thousand five hundred dollars, the amount required 
to carry out the plan of enlargement then approved of by the Academy, 
had been secured. 

Further improvements had, however, since the above date, been found 
necessary by the Committee, and the plan had been extended, the addi- 
tional estimated cost of which would be about $2000. Part of this 
additional sum had already been subscribed. 

The Report was adopted, and the Committee continued. 

The following members were appointed a Building Committee : viz. 
Dr. T. B. Wilson, Dr. Robert Bridges and Mr. W. S. Vaux. 

The Report of the Publication Committee for 1852 was read and 

Dr. Leidy offered the following Preamble and Resolutions, which 
were adopted : 

* Zoologische Atlas, Berlin, 1829. 
t Holbrook, Herpetol., vol. iii. p. 81. 

1853.] 239 

The Academy being informed that the Commissioners of the General Land 
Office, in Washington, in their estimates for the land surveys of the coming season, 
have inserted an item for the geological survey of Oregon and the Mauvaises 
Terres of Nebraska, in which previous surveys have shown there exists the 
most remarkable and interesting fresh M-ater tertiary geological formation yet 
discovered iu this country, therefore it is 

Resolved, That the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia earnestly 
recommends the prosecution of these surveys, believing as it does that the 
district proposed to be surveyed embraces a portion of the most interesting 
geological region in this country, and that the result must be of the highest 
importance to science, and is destined to throw a new light upon the natural 
history of this continent previous to the period when the mammoth and mas- 
todon lived. 

Resolved, That the Academy would respectfully urge and request Congress 
not to permit the opportunity to pass to make the necessary appropriation to 
accomplish the desirable objects above stated, and have the s'irveys carried out 
according to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the General Land 

Resolved, That this preamble and series of resolutions be signed by the officers 
of the Academy, and sent by the Corresponding Secretary to the Commissioners 
of the Land Office at Washington. 

On motion of Dr. Elwyn, copies of the foregoinof were directed to be 
sent to the Senators from Pennsylvania, and the Representatives from 
the city and county of Philadelphia. 

The Society then proceeded to an election for Standing Committees 
for 1853, with the subjoined result : 

Ethnolog}/, John S. Phillips, S. S. Haldeman, Robert Pearsall ; 
Cortiparative Anatomy and General Zoology, Joseph Leidy, Edward 
Hallowell, John Neill; Mammalogy, John L. Le Conte, James C. 
Fisher, S. W. Woodhouse; Ornithology, John Cassin, Edward Harris, 
A. L. Heermann ; Ilerpetology and Ichthyology, Edward Hallowell, 
John Cassin, Gavin Watson; Conchology, Isaac Lea, Thomas B. V\ il- 
son, W. S. W. Ruschenberger ; Entomology and Crustacea, S, S. Hal- 
deman, R. Bridges, Wm. S. Zantzinger; Botany, R. Bridges, Wm. 
S. Zantzinger, Elias Durand ; Palseontology , T. A. Conrad, Joseph 
Leidy, T. B. Wilson; Geology, J. Price Wetherill, Aubrey H. Smith, 
Charles E. Smith ; Mineralogy , Wm. S. Vaux, Samuel Ashmead, F. 
A. Genth ; Physics, James C. Fisher, B. H. Coates, B. Howard Rand; 
Library, Thomas B. Wilson, R. Bridges, R. E. Peterson ; Proceedings^ 
Wm. S. Zantzinger, Joseph Leidy, W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 


Prof. Robley Dunglison, Dr.Wm. V. Keating, and Dr. Addinell Hew- 
son, of Philadelphia, were elected Members ; and Lieut. M. F. Maury, 
U. S. Navy, Superintendent of the National Observatory at Washington, 
was elected a Correspondent. 


240 [February, 

February \st. 
Professor Frazer in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, dated 20th Nov. 
1852, acknowledginor the receipt of a copy of Dr. Ruschenberger's 
*^ Notice of the Academy." 

From the Corresponding Secretary of the Albany Institute, dated 
January 11, 1853, transmitting Vol. 2 of the Transactions of the 
Institute; and also acknowledging the receipt of late Nos. of the 

Dr. Woodhouse presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 
entitled " Description of a new species of Hesperomys." Referred to 
Dr. Leidy, Dr. Le Conte and Mr. Cassin. 

Mr. Cassin presented a paper from Dr. P. K. Hoy, of Wisconsin, en- 
titled, " Notes on the Ornithology of Wisconsin." Referred to Mr. 
Cassin, Dr. Heermann and Dr. "Wilson. 

A letter was read from Dr. William Blanding, addressed to Dr. Hal- 
lowell, OH the habits of the Kinixis denticulata. 

February Sth. 
Vice-President Bridges in the Chair. 

Letters were read 

From the Secretary of the Trustees of the New York State Library, 
dated Albany, Feb. 2, 1853, acknowledging the receipt of the Proceed- 
ings, Vol. 6, No. 6. 

From M. Nees Von Esenbeck, President of the Acad. C. L. C. Na- 
turse Curiosorum, dated Breslau, 10th Nov. 1852, acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of the Journal and Proceedings, and also of copies of Dr. Ruschen- 
berger's ^' Notice of the Academy," and Dr. Meigs' Memoir of Dr. 

From the Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, dated 
Philadelphia, Feb. 7, 1853, acknowledging the receipt of the Journal, 
Vol. 2, N. S., part 3, and of the Proceedings, Vol. 6, Nos. 5 and 6. 

From Prof. Dunglison, dated Jan. 28, 1853, acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of his notice of election as a member of the Academy. 

Major Le Conte presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 
entitled, ^' An enumeration of the Vines of North America," which 
was referred to Dr. Zantziuger, Dr. Bridges and Dr. Pickering. 

Dr. Le Conte presented a paper intended for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings, entitled '' Synopsis of the Silphales of America, North of 
Mexico,'' and a second paper entitled " Synopsis of the Scaphidilia of 
the United States ;" both of which were referred to Dr. Ruschenberger, 
Dr. Heermann and Dr. Zantzinger. 

Mr. Conrad presented tlie following for publication in the Proceedings : 
^' Synopsis of the North American Naiades, by T. A. Conrad." Refer- 
red to the following Committee: Dr. Wilson, Dr. Pickering and Dr. 

1853.] 241 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the members to several fossil teeth, as 
follow : 

1. Two superior molar teeth of Ejuus Amerieanus ; one from Texas, the other 
from Ashley River, South Carolina, both sent by Prof. Holmes, of Charleston. 

2. Two superior molar teeth of a species of Hlpparioyi, discovered by Prof. 
Holmes, on Ashley River, South Carolina. It is the first time this genus has 
been found in America. For the species the name H.venustnm was proposed. 

3. A Irairment of an incisor of a large Rodent animal, probably, from its ap- 
pearance, allied to Hydrochoencs capybara. It belonged to an animal interme- 
diate in size to the latter and the C isteroides Okioeusis. The specimen was 
found by Prof. Holmes on the Ashley River. For the species the name of Oromys 
JEsopi was proposed. 

4. A fragment of a molar tooth of a giant sloth, differing from any of the 
known genera, found by Prof. Holmes on the Ashley River. To the species 
supposed to be indicated by the specimen, Eiibradys antiqtius was given. 

5. A molar of a giant sloth, differing from the last and other known genera, 
found near Natchez, Mississippi. For the animal the name Ereptodon prisciis was 

February \bth. 
The President, Mr. Ord, in the Chair. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety, dated London, Oct. 14, 1852, acknowledging the receipt of a 
copy of the " Notice of the Academy," by Dr. Ruschenberger. 

Also a letter from Dr. R. C. Chambers, dated Redgrove, Elk Co., 
Penn., Feb. 6, 1853, offering to the Academy crania of Mammalia, 
found in that portion of the State. Referred to the Curators. 

Dr. Francis Greene read a communication entitled, " Chemical 
investigation of the remains of fossil Mammalia/' which was referred to 
Dr. Grenth, Dr. Bridges and Dr. Camac. 

Dr. Grenth presented two papers, for publication in the Proceedings, 
viz. " On a new variety of Grey Copper, perhaps a new mineral,'^ and 
"OnOwenite, a new Mineral;" both of which were referred to Dr. 
Bridges, Dr. Rand and Dr. Wetherill. 

Dr. Le Conte presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 
entitled, " Synopsis of the species of the Histeroid genus Abrseus, in- 
habiting the United States," which was referred to Dr. Zantzinger, Mr. 
Cassin and Dr. Rand. 

Prof. Baird presented a list of Reptiles collected in California by Dr. 
John L. Le Conte, with descriptions of new species. Referred to Dr. 
Bridges, Dr. Hallowell and Dr. Leidy. 

Dr. Heermann presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 
entitled, " A Catalogue of the Oological collection of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia;" which was referred to Mr. Cassin, 
Col. M'Call and Dr. Le Conte. 

Mr. Cassin presented a paper for publication in the Proceedings, 
describing a new species of the genus Scalops, from Oregon, from the 
collection of the U. S. Exploring Expedition. Referred to Dr. Bridges, 
Dr. Leidy and Dr. Le Conte. 

A communication intended for publication in the Journal, from the 



Kev. M. J. Berkeley, F. L. S., and the Rev. M. A. Curtis, " On the 
Exotic Fungi from the Schweinitzian Herbarium in the Acad. Nat. Sci. 
of Philadelphia," was presented and referred to Dr. Zantzinger, Mr. 
E. Durand and Dr. Bridges. 

Mr. Cassin exhibited the specimen of Scalops, described by him, 
under the name of Scalops m.etallescens, in the paper presented this 
evening. This specimen was collected in Oregon by the Naturalists 
attached to the Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. 
Wilkes, U. S N., and is one of the most remarkable species of the 
family to which it belongs. 

February lid. 

Vice President Bridges in the Chair. 

The Committee to which was referred the following paper by Dr. 
Woodhouse, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

Description of a new species of Mui'set of the genus Hesperomys^ Waterkouse. 

By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. 

Hesperomys Texana. 

CJiar. Essent. Smaller than the H. leucopus, head shorter and more blunt, 
ears smaller and more round, brown above, and white, inclining to yellowish, 

Description. Head large, blunt. Eyes prominent, and dark brown. Ears 
large, erect, roundish, oval, blunt, sparsely covered outwardly with short ap- 
pressed brown hairs, inwardly with grey. Thumb of fore feet a tubercle, fur- 
nished with a long blunt nail, two middle toes the longest, subequal. Hind feet 
furred, with the exception of the sole. Whiskers long. 

Color. Hair dark cinereous, above tipped with pale brown, and dusky, so as 
to have rather a mottled appearance ; beneath white inclining to yellowish ; the 
two colors, that is to say above and beneath, tolerably distinctly separated 
from each other in a straight line. Tail above brown, beneath white ; nose 
mixed brown and grey, or pale brown. Whiskers black and grey ; legs white on 
their inner surface only, feet white, the hairs projecting over the nails. 

Habitat. Western Texas. 


Total length from tip of nose to root of tail, 

" " of tail, 

" of head, 
Height of ear. 
Breadth of ear, 
Fore legs. 
Hind legs. 

Observations. I procured this little animal on the Rio Grande near El Paso, 
whilst attached to the party under the command of Captain L. Sitgreaves, U. S. 
Topographical Engineers, on our way to explore the Zuni and Colorado rivers. 
Of its habits I know nothing. My attention was called to this animal by Major 
Le Conte, who has been for some time engaged in the study of the mice of our 

2 1-10 


2 1-10 

1 1-10 




1 6-10 

The Committee on Mr. Conrad's " Synopsis of the North American 
Naiades/' reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings : 

1853.] 243 

A Synopsis of the Faintly of Naiades of North Americay with Notes, and a Table 
of some of the genera and sub-gniera of the Family, according to their geogra- 
phical distribution, and descriptions of ganera and sicb-genera. 

By T. a. Conrad. 

The present attempt to give a synonymy of the North American Naiades, 
has originated from the absence of datt^s and references in Mr. Lea's menfioirs. 
To reader strict justice to every authoraccording to date of publication, is not 
only the duty of the naturalist, but a necessity of science. The difficulty in 
the attempt is to ascertain with precision the date of publication of each species, 
and when this cannot otherwise be obtained, perhaps it would be right to refer 
to the date on the title-page of the volume wherein the species maybe described. 
Mr. Lea never refers to the date of publication, but says, " my memoir bears 
date," &c., which means, the day it was read before a meeting of a Society, 
though not published in some instances until two years afterwards. In adopting 
the names given by Rafinesque, the rule will be observed to quote no species 
without a mark of doubt, which is not clearly borne out by the description, 
assisted by reference to Rafinesque's shells marked by his own hand, and now 
placed in the noble collection of Charles A. Poulson, Esq. 

It is true Rafinesque's descriptions are brief and many of them obscure, and 
his figures rude. Others again are better characterized than some of Lamarck's. 
Mr. Lea complains that Say has not left him one species in his very short and 
incomplete ' Synonymy of Western Unios ;" but on the other hand, Mr. Lea 
credits Rafinesque with only two species of the sixty or seventy he has named 
and described. 

Every man must work according to his means and his abilities. Rafinesque, 
in his day, was destitute of the advantages many naturalists now enjoy, and 
could not publish expensive plates ; and, unfortunately, he had the examples of 
Linne and Lamarck for short and indefinite descriptions. If Rafinesque's 
names should be rejected, there seems no reason why Lamarck's should not 
share the same fate. 

Of late years, Comparative Anatomy has shown that genera can readily be 
founded on differences in organisation of the animal inhabitants of shells vary- 
ing little in external character, whilst among the Nafades there are divisions so 
well marked by the external character as well as the hinge, that generic differ- 
ences can be safely predicted to exist among the animals which inhabit them. 
These various genera are moreover not indiscriminately placed in every quarter 
of the globe, but some are peculiar to one country and some to another, as Paxy- 
ODON and Prisodon to tropical South America ; Pleiodon to tropical Africa, &c., 
and yet an author, even in the present day, is content to arrange the Naiades in 
a singularly artificial system, embracing one genus and seven subgenera. Mr, 
Gray's arrangement is far more natural and useful, but he does not subdivide 
to the extent that Mr. Swainson did, who was the first to give a philosophical 
view of the subject, and to have an idea of geographical distribution of genera. 
Mr. Swainson, speaking of the tuberculated Unios of North America, observes, 
"Where we find a character, however trivial it may appear, pervading a whole 
group, we may be perfectly assured that it is a natural character, althoujjh it may 
not be the only one." And if this is true of the exterior, a similar uniformity of 
character in the hinge is still more important ; and how strongly marked it is 
in Paxyodon, Pleiodon and others ! 

It is supposed that this family existed at as early a period as the Carboni- 
ferous, but it is doubtful if the shells usually referred to Uxio were members of 
this group. Certainly none of the existing genera are represented in the bivalves 
of that era, nor is there any even in the Lower Tertiary ; but in the Crag or 
Middle Tertiary, the two genera, U:<io and Anodonta make their first 

It is worthy of remark that a genus so nearly related to Unio as Trigonia, 
abounded in numerous species in the Oolitic and Cretaceous eras, and then 
ceasing to exist during the long Tertiary periods, reappeared in a solitary species 
of the present day. Is not this long interval between the fossil and recent 

244 [February^ 

species, presumptive evidence that the animal of the living shell is generically 
different from that of the extinct species ? The hinge of a bivalve shell will 
not always serve to determine a genus, else Platyodon, w^ould be a Mya, and 
Mycetopus an Anodonta ; but when a material difference exists in the hinge, 
some important variation may be expected to exist in the animal organization. 
By means of Comparative Anatomy, Agassiz has discovered differences in the 
animals of the North American Unios, which he considers sufficient to warrant 
the construction of several genera, and when these are fully determined and 
compared with those of Asia, Africa, &c., it will very likely ha found that the 
various genera are restricted to narrower geographical limits than the mere 
external characters of the shells would lead us to suppose. 

I have at present not ventured to do more than indicate subgenera^ except 
among a few distinct groups. In Complanaria, Swai?is., the hinge is so pecu- 
liar and different from the other genera, that it is fully as well entitled to a 
generic distinction as Alasmodonta or Barbala. There is another small group 
which is somewhat isolated, the plicated shells, having bold and distinctive 
characters. This has been separated from Unio under the name of Pleotomerus. 
The only aberrant form in the genus is U. crassidetis, Lam., which, however, 
has no affinity with any other group. JJ. infucatus, though somewhat plicated, 
has a very different character, and belongs to a distinct group. The Z7. rotun- 
datu^. Lam., is an isolated shell, with the cardinal teeth more like those of Naia, 
Swainson, an Asian subgenus, than the other North American Unios. 


Lra. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Second Series. 

Synopsis of the Family of Naiades, 1852. 
Con. Monogjraphy of the Family Unionidae. 

Proceedings and Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Second Series. 

New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1S34. 
Chentt. Illustrations Conchologiques, &c. 
CttEMN. Chemnitz (Martini) Neues Syac. Conchyl. 
Barnes. American Journal of Sciences and Arts, vol. vi, 18. 
HiLDRETH. lb. ib. ib. xiv. la. 

De5H. Deshayes, New Ed. of Lamarck's Anim. sans Vertebres. 
Ferussac, in Guerin's Mag. de Zoologie, 1835. 
L\M Lamarck, Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertebres. 
Raf Rafinesque, f^es Annales general des Sciences Physiques, 1820. 
Sat. Nicholson's Encyclopedia, American edition, article (Jonciiology, vol. 4, 1819. 

American Conchologv, with a Synonymy of Western Unios. ' 

Transylvania Journal of Medicine. 

New Harmony Disseminator. 
Swains. Swainson, Exotic Conchulogy ; Zoological Illustrations; Malacology. 

Note. The Roman numerals refer to the vtdume, and the fieures following indicate the page, 
pldte and figure;. An asterisk (*; indicates the doubtful species. 


Unio abacus, Hald., Journ. A. N. S. viii. 202. 
Lea^ Synopsis, 24. 

Aberti, Con., Proceed. A. N. S., March, 1850, v. 10. 
U. Lamarckianus, Lea, 1852, x. 22, 17, 20. 

acutissimus, Lea, Aug. 1834, iv. 89, 10, IS. 
Con. Monog. 86,47, 2. 
Chemt, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. 3. 

affinis. Lea, 1852, x. 271, 19, 26, Synopsis 27. 

amoenus. Lea, 1841, viii. 200, 10, 12, Synopsis 29. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 5. 

amygdalum, Lea^ 1846, ix. 275, 39, 1. Synopsis 39, 

altilis. Con., New F. W. Shells, 43, 2, 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 27. 

1853.] 24.5 

Unio angustatus, Lea^ 1832, v. 114, 17 , 43. Synopsis 23. 
Con. Monog. 98, 54, 2. 
Chenu, pi. 14, fig. 1. 

, apiculatus, Say, New Harm. Dissem., 1829, Amer. Conch, pi. 22. 
Con. Monog. 78, 44, 1. 
hea, Synopsis, 22. 
U. asper. Jay, not Lea, Jay's Catalogue, 55. 

approxinnus, Lea, 1845, x. 74, 5, 13. Synopsis 28. 

arctior. Lea, 1838, vi. 10, 4, 10, Synopsis, 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, 21, 2. 

arctatHs, Con., Sill. Jour., xxv. 340, 1, 9; New F. W. Shells, 36, 5, 4. 

Leoy Synopsis, 38. 
arcus, Con., Sillinn. Jour. 1834, xxv. 340 1, 8. 

Lea, Synopsis, 38. 
argenteus, iea, 1841, viii. 242, 25, 57, Synopsis, 26. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 2. 
asper, Lea, (o) 1832, iv. 85, 9, 15, Synopsis, 22. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 4. 

U. apiculatus, var. Jay, Catalogue, No. 1496, 55. 

Barrattii, Lea, 1852, x. 256, 13, Synopsis, 37. 
Barnesianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 31, 10, 26, Synopsis, 24. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 2. 

*biangulatus, Lea, 1841, viii. 197, 9, 8, Synopsis 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 7. 

Bighyensis, Lea, 1841, viii. 237, 22, 51, Synopsis 24. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 26, fig. 5. 

Binneyi, Lea, 1845, x. 77, 6, 18, Synopsis 29. 

Blandiniiianus, Lea, Aug. 18^, v. 101, 15, 44, Synopsis 33. 

Con. Monog. 46, 23, 3. 

Kust., Chemn. Unio, 36, 6, 2. 

Bournianus, Lea, 1841, Synopsis 25, viii. 213, 15, 28. 
CheniL, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 2. 

Brumbyanus, Lea, 1841, viii. 245, 26, 62, Synopsis 31. 

Boydianus, Lea^ 1841, viii. 216, 16, 32, Synopsis 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 2. 

Buckleyi, Lea, 1846, ix. 276, 39, 2, Synopsis 30. 

Buddianus, Lea, 1846, ix. 277, 40, 4, Synopsis 32. 

buxeus, Lea, 1852, x. 261, 15, 13, Synopsis 29. 

bullatus,* Raf. Ann., Sept. 1820, v. 41. Poulson's Trans., 23. 
Con., Monog. 82, 45, 2. 
Ferussac, Guerin's Mag. 28. 

U. verrucosus albus, Hildreth, Sillim. Journ. xiv. 289. 
U. pustulosus, Lea, 1832, iv. 76, 7, 7. Synopsis, 22. 
Chena, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 18, fig. 2. 

capax. Green, Cab. of Nat. Hist. 1832, ii. 290. 
Con., Monog. 75, 42. 
Ferussac, Guerin's Mag. 1835, 26. 
Symphynota globosa. Lea, 1834, iv. 153, 4, 12. 
U. capax, Kust, Chemn. Unio, 21, 15, 3. 
Lea, Synopsis, 27. 

caelatus. Con., Sillim. Journ. 1834, xxv. 338, 1, 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 20. 

* Say makes this species the same as Mya modulosa, Wood, which is very 
different, and evidently not an American species. 

246 [February, 

Unio caliginosus, Lea, 1845, x. 79, 7, 21, Synopsis 29. 

callosus. Lea, 1841, viii. 239, 23, ,'54, Synopsis 33. 

camptodon, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 42. 
Ferussac, Guerin's Mag. 26. 
U. Sayi, Lea, (not Tappan), Synopsis, 32. 

capsaeformis, Lea, 1834, iv. 143, 2, 4, Synopsis 33. 
Con. Monog. 72, 40, 2, 3. 

cardium, Raf. Ann. 1820, 32, Poulson's Trans. 27. 
Say^ Amer. Conch. 32, Synonym, of Unio, No. 11. 
U. ventricosus, Baryies, Sillim. Journ. vi. 267, 13, 14. 
U. occidens. Lea, 1832 (?) iii. 435, 10, 16. 

Synopsis, 26. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 13, fig. 5. 
U. suhovatus, Lea, 1832, iv. 118, 18, 46. 
Chemc, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 12, fig. 6. 
U. ovata, var. b. ? Lam. An. vi. 75. 

cariosus, Say, {b) Nicholson's Ency., article Conch., pi. 3, fig. 2. 
Lam. Desh. An. sans Vert. vi. 545. 
U. ovata, Vahn. 

U. cariosus, Kust., Chem. Unio, 24, 1, 2, 3. 
Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 271. 
Co?i., Monog., 40, 19. 
Gould, Invertebrata of Mass., 107. 
Dekay, Zool. of New York, 193. 
Lea, Synopsis, 27. 
Lampsilis cariosa, Agas. MSS. Stimpson's Shells of New Eng. 14. 

Carolinanus, Bosc. Fer. Guerin's Mag. 26. 

U. abesus. Lea, 1832, iv. 96, 13, 26, Synopsis, 32. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio^ pi. 18, fig. 4^ 
castaneus, Lta, 1832, iv. 91, ] 1, 21, Synopsis 26. 

Ferussac, Guerin's Mag. 28. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 11, fig. 5. 

catillus, Con., Monog. 1836, 30, 13, 2. 
Kust., Chemn. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 2. 

cerinus. Con., (c) Monog. 1838, 95, 52. 
U. flavus, Lea, (not Raf.) Synopsis, 24. 

cicatricosus. Say, Disseminator, 1829. 
Co., Monog., 115,64. 
Ferr., Guerin's Mag., 28. 

U. varicosus, Lea, 1832, iv. 100, 11, 20, Synopsis, 23. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 2, fig. 6. 

Cincinnatiensis, Lea, 1841, viii. 194, 8, 4, Synopsis, 22. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 3. 

Claibornensis, Lea, 1838, (young shell,) vi. 105, 24, 115, Synopsis, 28. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 3. 
U. obtusus (?) iea, viii. 201, 11, 13. 

Clarkianus, Lea, 1852, x. 273, 21, 30, Synopsis, 28. 

clava, Lam. An. sans Vert, vi.74. Desh. ed. of Lam. vi. 537. 
Fernssac, Guerin's Mag. 28. 
Con., Monog. 5, 3. 

U. mytiloides, Raf. v. 47, Poulson's Trans., 47. 
U. scalenia, Raf. Ann. v. 43, Poulson's Trans. 47. 
U. cuneatus, Raf. Ann. v. 47. Poulson's Trans. 53. 
Say^ Amer. Conch. Syn. No. 35. 
U. modioliformis, Say, (not Lea.) 
U. clavus. Lea, Synopsis, 26. 
Kust. Chemn. Unio, 39, 7, 2. 

1853.] 247 

Unio coccineus, Hildrcthf MSS. 

Con., Monog., 1836, 29, 13, 1. 

Leay 1838, Synopsis, 35, vi. 12, 5, 12. 

coUinus, Con., Monog., 65, 36, 2, and 159, 60, 3. 
Lea, Synopsis, 23. 

connplanatus, Soland. Lea, (e) 

Mya complanata, Soland. Portland Catalogue, 100. 

Dillwyn, Catalogue, i. 51. 

IT. connplanatus, hea. Synopsis, 32. 

violaceus, S-peng., Ferrus, Guerin's Mag. 26. 
coarctata, Lam., Anim. vi. 75. 
Desk. ed. of Lam. vi. 535. 
Enc. Method, ii. 581. 
purpurascens. Lam., Desh. ed. vi. 536. 























rarisulcata ? 




aurata. Raf., Ann. Poulson's trans. 27. 
jejunus ? Lea, vi. 9, 4, 9. 

Chenu, pi. 20, fig. 1. 
Roanokensis ? Lea, vi. 27, 8, 21, Synopsis, 32. 

Belassert, Recueil. de Conchyl. pi. 12, fig. 3. 

Chenu, pi. 12, fig. 5. 
complanatus, Gould, Invert, of Mass. 107, 68, 69, 70. 

Bekay, Zool. of New York, 188, 22, 246. 

Agas., Stimpson's Shells of N. Eng. 13. 
purpureus. Say, Nicholson's Enc. fig. 3. 

Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 264. 

concavus. Lea, 1852, x. 260, 15, 1,1, Synopsis 29. 
Congaraeus, Lea, 1832, iv. 62, 6, 4, Synopsis, 27. 

Con., Monog., pi. 12, fig. 1. 

Chemc, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. 5. 

compressissimus, Lea, 1845, x. 81, 8, 23. Synopsis, 24. 

Conradicus, Lea, 1834, Synopsis, 21, v. 63, 9,2. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, 87, 47, 3. 

contrarius. Con., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. 276, 37, 7. 

constrictus, Con., Monog., pi. 49, fig. 4. 
Lea, Synopsis, 29. 

Cooperianus, Lea, 1834, v. 61, 8, 21, Synopsis 22. 

cor, Con., New F. W. Shells, 28, 3, 3. 
Lea, Synopsis, 26. 

cordatus, Raf. (Obovaria,) Ann., v. 46, Poulson's trans. 52. 
Con., Monog., 48, 25. 
Kust., Chemn. Unio, pi. 13, flg. 1. 

creperus, Lea, vi. 33, 10, 28, Synopsis, 31. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 5. 

crocatus, Lea, 1841, Synopsis 27, viii. 238, 22, 52. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 1. 

Cumberlandianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 25, 7, 19, Synopsis 30. 

U. Cumberlandicus, Chenu, pi. 24, fig. 1. 

U. glaber \ Lea. 
cuneolus. Lea, 1842, viii. 193, 7, 3, Synopsis 24. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 2. 


248 [February, 

Unio Cuvierianus, Lea^ 1852, x. 263, 16, 16, Synopsis 32. 

cyphius, Raf.y Poulson's Trans. 39, v. 59. 

Co7i. Mouog. 113,63. 

U. ^sopus, Green, Contributions to Maclurian Lyceum, i. 46, 3. 

Lea, Synopsis, 23. 
Cylindricus, Say, Nicholson's Enc. pi. 4, fig. 3. 

U. naviformis. Lam., An. vi. 75, Desk. ed. 537. 

Elliptio solenoides, Raf., Ann. v. 32, Poulson's trans. 26. 

Theliderma cylindrica. Swains., Malac pi. 271, iig. 54. 

U. cylindricus, Hildreth, Silliman's Journ. xiv. 283, fig. 13. 
Lea, Synopsis, 23. 

Cyrenoides, Phillipi, Conchyl. 1848, 11, 5, 1. . 

Lea, Synopsis, 25. 

dactylus, Lea, 1841, viii. 196, 7, 7, Synopsis 36. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 5. 
Dariensis, Lea, 1841, viii. 246, 26, 61, Synopsis 33. 

Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 6. 

decisus, Lea, 1832, iv. 92, 12, 23, Synopsis 26. 
Con. Monog. 3, 2, 6. 
Kust. Chem. Unio pi. 7, fig. 3. 
Chenu. Conch. Unio pi. 18, fig. 3. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 28. 

declivis, Say.^ Transylvania Journ., Dec. 1831, iv. 527. 
American Conch, pi. 35. 
U. geometricus, Lea, 1834, v. 38, 4, 10, Synopsis 33. 
Desk. Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 556. 

delumbis. Con., New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1834, 35, 5, 3. 

U. modioliformis. Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 97, 13, 40. 
decoratus. Lea, 1852, x. 257, 13, 6, Synopsis 19. 
dilatatus, Raf.y (Elliptio) Ann., v. 31, Poulson's Trans. 25. 
Con. Monog. 42, 21. 

U. cuprea, Raf., (young) Ann. 38, 81, 8, 9. 

U. atroviolacea, Raf., (obiiquaria) Ann. v. 55. Poulson's trans. 69. 
U. nasutus, Lavn. not Say, An. sans Vert. vi. 538. 

Illustrated ed. Cuvier's Regne Animal. Moll. 92, 2. 
U. gibbosus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. 1823, vi. 262. 
U. arctior ? Lea, (young) Synopsis, 38, vi. 10, 4, 10. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, 33, 2. 
discus, Lea, 1838, vi. 74, 18, 57. Synopsis 31, 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 6. 
dolabraetormis, Lea, 183S, vi. 103, 24, 113, Synopsis 27. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 6. 
*dolabelloides. Lea, 1842, viii. 215, 15, 31, Synopsis 35. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 29,fi^. 4. 
Dorfeuillianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 73, 17, 54, Synopsis 22. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 25, fig. 5. 

dromas. Lea, 1834, v. 70, 10, 29, Synopsis 23. 

Con. Monog. 84, 46, 2. 

U. caperatus. Lea, 1845, x. 75, 5, 14. 
Duttonianus, Lea, 1841, viii. 236, 22, 50, Synopsis 35. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 4. 
Edgarianus, Lea, 1841, viii. 214, 15, 30, Synopsis 25. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 29, fig. 5. 
Eastbrookianus, Lea, 1845, x. 77, 6, 17. Synopsis 40. 
exiguus. Lea, 1842, viii. 191, 7, 1, Synopsis 27. 

C/te/m. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 1. 


Unio excultus, Co7i., Monog. 99,55,1. 

U. declivis, Lea, (not Say,) Synopsis 33. 

famelicus, Gould., Lea, Synopsis 31. 

fasciolaris, Raf., Ann. v. 37, Poulson's Trans. 36. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 

Say. Amer. Conch. Syn. No. 20. 

U. phaseoius, Hildretk, Sillim. Journ, xiv. 283. 

Lea. Synopsis, 38. 

U. sinuatus, i2a/., (very old) Ann. v. 55. 

U. nn uc ronatus, i?arwes Sillim. Journ. vi. 266, 13, 13. 

U. planulatus, Lea. iii. 431, 9, 13. 

Ckemc. Conchy 1. (Jnio, pi. 13, fig. 1. 

U. cuneatus, Barnes, (white var.) Fresh Water Shells, Sillim. 

Journ. note to Hildreth, xiv. 283. 
U. phaseoius. Say., Amer. Conch, pi. 22. 
U. planulata, jDe.5/i., Lam. vi. 549. 
[J. camelus. Lea, (old) 1834, v. 102, 15, 45. 

fasciatus, Ann., Poulson's Trans 28. 

Say. Amer. Conch. Syn. of Unio, No. 6. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 

Con. Monog. 3, 1. 

U. Crassiis ? Say, Nicholson's Encyc. pi. 1, fig. 3. 

U. carinatus, Barnes, Silliman's Journ. vi. 126. 

U. ellipticus, " " 259, 13, 19. 

Hildreth, " xiv. 278. 

fasciolus, Raf., Ann. v. 33, Poulson's Trans. 28. 

U. subangulatiis. Lea, x. 209, 13, 23. 

fatuus, Lea, viii. 201, 11, 14, Synopsis, 38. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fig. 4. 
Fisherianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 8, 4, 8, Synopsis 37. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 20, fig. 4. 

U. nasutus, var. Con., not Say, Monog. 38, 18, 1. 
flavescens. Lea, 1845, x. 72, 3, 9, Synopsis 27. 
flavus, Raf., Ann. v. 39, Poulson's Trans. 38. 

Co7i. Monog. 74, 41, 2. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 

Say. Amer. Conch. Syn., No. 22. 

U. rubiginosus. Lea, 1832, iii. 427, 8, 10, Synopsis 24. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 13, fig. 4. 
flexuosus, il/. Ann. v. 40, Poulson's Trans. 41. 

Con. Monog. 8, 4, 2. 

Say. Amer. Conch. Syn., No. 27. 

U. foliatus, Hildreth, Sillim. Journ. xiv. 284, 16. 

Lea. Synopsis, 20. 
Floridensis, Lea, 1852, x. 274, 21, 31, Synopsis 39. 
foUiculatus, Lea, 1838, vi. 38, U, 33, Synopsis 35. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 4. 
Forbesianus, Lea, 1852, x. 264, 16, 17, Synopsis 24. 

U. congaraeus ? Lea. 
Foremanianus, Lea, 1841, viii. 247, 27, 64, Synopsis, 23. 

Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 26, fig. 1. 

fragosus, Con., Monog. 12, 6, 2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 22. 
fraternus. Lea, 1852, x. 263, 16, 15, Synopsis, 32. 
fulgidus. Lea, 1845, x. 73, 4, 10, Synopsis, 25. 


250 [February 

Unio furvus, Co?i., New F. W. Shells, 39, 6, 3. 

Lea, Synopsis, 40. 

U. Hanleyanus ? x. 279, 23, 37. 

U. Troschelianus ? x. 286, 23, 39. 
fuliginosus. Lea, 1845, x. 280, 23, 37, Synopsis, 33. 
fuscatus. Lea, 1846, ix. 277, 40, 4, Synopsis, 30. 
Geddingsianus, Lea, 1841, viii. 202, U, 15, Synopsis 33. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fig. 3. 

Georgianus, Lea, 1841, viii. 235, 21, 49. Synopsis 27. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 3. 

gibber. Lea, vi. 35, 10, 30. Synopsis, 24. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 2. 

Gibbesianus, Lea, 1852, x. 254, 12, 2, Synopsis 33. 

glaber. Lea, 1838, vi. 34, 10,29, Synopsis 31. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 24, fig. 3. 

glans, Lea, 1832, iv. 82, 8, 12, Synopsis 31. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. S. fig. 9. 
U. Brumbyanus, Lea, 1841, viii. 245,26. 62. 

Gouldii, Lea, 1845, x. 76, 6, 16, Synopsis 29. 

graniferus, Lea, vi. 69, 19, 60, Synopsis 22. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 25, fig. 3. 

Greenii, Con., New Fresh Water Shells, 1834. 32, 4, 1. 
Monog. 69,38,2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 27. 
U. simplex, Lea, 1845, x. 76, 5, 15, Synopsis 27. 

Griffithianus, Lea, 1834, v. 103, 15, 46, Synopsis 33. 

Haleianus, Lea, 1842, viii. 247, 27, 63, Synopsis 31. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 26, fig. 6. 
Hayesianus, Lea, 1834, v. 35, 3, 7, Synopsis 26. 

hebes. Lea, 1852, x. 267, 18, 21, Synopsis 26. 

heterodon, Lea, 1833, iii. 428, 8, 11, Synopsis 24 . 
Con. Monog. 90, 49, 3. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag., 1835, 26. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 16, fig. 2. 

Holstonensis, Lm, 1841, viii. 212, 15,27, Synopsis 25. 

Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 1. y 

hyalinus. Lea, 1845, x. 69, 2, 4, Synopsis 39. 

Hydianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 14, 6, 14, Synopsis, 28. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 3. 
U. Claibornensis ? Lea. 

icterinus, Con. New Fresh Water Shells, May 1834, 41, 6, 5. 
Monog. 39, 18, 2. 
U. fulvus, Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 96, 13, 39. 

ineptus. Lea, 1852, x. 261, 15, 12, Synopsis, 31. 

infucatus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 45, 3, 2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 20. 

U. securiformis ? Con. 
intermedius. Con. Monog. 63, 35, 1. 

Lea, Synopsis, 22. 

interruptiis, Raf. Ann. v. 36, Poulson's trans. 33. 
Con. Monog. 88, 48. 
Fer. Guerin, Mag. 28. 
I ^ay, Amer. Conch, syn. No. 26. 

U. brevidensj'icff, vi. 15, 6, 15, Synopsis, 32. 
Chenii, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. G. 

1853.] 261 

Unio Jayensis, Lea, 1838, vi. 28, 9, 23, Synopsis, 37. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 22, 4. 

*jejunus, Lea, 1838, vi. 9,4, 9, Synopsis, 32. 

Keinerianus, Lea, (Kienerianus ?) 1852, x. 281, 23, 40, Synopsis, 22. 

Kirtlandianus, Lea, 1834, v. 98, 14, 41, Synopsis, 35. 

Kleinianus, Lea, 1852, x. 265, 17, 18, Synopsis, 20. 

lanceolatus, Lea, 1832, iii. 266, 3, 2. Synopsis, 36. 
Co7i. Monou;. 32, 14, 2. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, (ig. 1. 

lapillns. Say, Trans. Journ. 1831, iv. 528, An:ier. Conch. 41. 
Con. Monog. 54, 29, 2. 

U. fabalis, Lea, 1832, iv. 96, 10, 16, Synopsis, 31. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. 4. 

laevigatus, Raf. Ann. (Elliptio) v. 50, SO, U, 12,13, Poulson's trans. 24. 
U. lens. Lea, 1832, iv. 80, 8, 10. Synopsis, 34. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 4. 

latiradiatus, Con., iNIonog. 96, 53. 

U. interruptus, Lea, 1838. vi. 15. 6, 15. Synopsis, 27. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 4. 

lazarus, Lea, 1852, x. 259, 14, 9, Synopsis, 39. 

Lecontianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 40, 12, 35. Synopsis, 26. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 24, fig. 6. 

lenior, Lea, 1841, viii. 204, 12, 18. Synopsis, 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 27, fig. 4. 

Leseurianus, Lea, 1842, viii. 195, 8, 6. Synopsis, 35. 
Chemc, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 4. 

lineatus. Lea, 1841, viii. 206, 12, 20, Synopsis, 27. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 1. 

lienosus, Con., Sillim. Journ. ^xxv. 339, 1, 4; Monog. 91, 49, 4. 
Lea, Synopsis, 29. 
U. obscurus. Lea, vi. 7, 3, 7. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 1. 

ligamentinus. Lam. Ann. sans Vert Desh. ed. vi. 533. 
U. fasciolus. Con. (not Raf.) Monog. 26, 11, 2. 
U. multiradiatus. Lea, 1832, iii. 48, 9, 15, Synopsis, 27. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 13, fig. 2. 

limatulus. Con. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. 1849, i. 276, 37, 9- 
Lea, Synopsis, 32. 
U. Tuomeyi, Lea, 1832, x. 256, 13, 4. Synopsis, 33. 

lineolatus, Raf. (obliquaria) Ann. 37, Poulson's trans. 35. 
Say, American Conch, pi. 68. 

Synonym, of Unio, No. 18. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 
U. depressa, Raf. (not Lam.) Ann. v. 
U. securis. Lea, 1832, iii. 437, 11, 17. Synopsis, 24. 
Chenit, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 16, fig. 4. 

luridus. Lea, x. 273, 20, 29. Synopsis, 30. 
luteolus, Lam. Desh. An. sans Vert. vi. 544. 
Dtfy^ay, Zool. of New York, 190,20,241. 
Lea, Synopsis, 28. 
U. siliquoideus. Con. Monog. 22, 10, 1. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 
U. siliquoideus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 267. 
^ U. inflatus, ib. ib. 267. 

Lampsilis siliquoideus, Stimpson, Shells of New England, 14. 

252 [February, 

Unio lugubris, Lea, vi. 30, 9, 25, Synopsis, 38. 
Chemt, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 20, fig. 3. 

maculatus, Con. New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1834, 30, 4, 4. 
Lea, Synopsis, 24. 
U. Ravenelianus, Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 32, 3, 5. 

Masoni, Con. Monog. 28, 12, 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 34. 
Kust. Chem. Unio, pi. 5, fig. 6. 

mcestus. Lea, 1841, viii. 244, 26, 60. Synopsis, 31. 
Clieiiu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 3. 

merus, Lea, 1852, x. 260, 15, 10. Synopsis, 33. 

Menkianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 76, 19, 59, Synopsis, 27. 
Chenii, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 4. 

Metallicus, Say, Dissem. 1830. 

Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 51. 
U. cuprinus. Lea, 1834, iv. 94, 12, 24. Synopsis, 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 11, fig. 3. 

metanever, Raf. Ann. v. 39. Poulson's Trans. 39. 
Fer., Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 

U. metanevrus, Say^ Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, 24. 
Con., Monog. 10, 5, 2. 
Kusl. Chemn. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 4. 
U. nodosus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 124, 6, 7. 
U. rugosus, (?) ib. ib. vi. 126, 8, 9. 

U. metanever, Lea, Synopsis, 22. 

minor, Lea, 1846, ix. 276, 39, 2. Synopsis, 31. 

Mississipiensis, Co?^., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. ii. 277, 38, 11. 
Lea, Synopsis, 29. 

Mortoni, Con., Monog. Dec. 1835, 11, 6, 1. 
Kust. Chemn. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 11. fig. 1. 
U. turgidus, Lea, 1837, vi. 11, 5, 11. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 25, fig. 1. 

Miihlfeldianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 41, 12, 36. Synopsis, 30. 
Cheiiu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 5. 

Monroensis, Lea, 1841, ix. 279, 41, 8. Synopsis, 29. 

Moussianus, Lea, 1852, x. 268, 18, 22. Synopsis, 29. 

Nashvillianus, Lea, 1834, v. 100, 14, 43. Synopsis, 29. 

nasutus. Say, Nicholson's Ency. article Conch, pi. 4, fig. 1. 
ListerKi Conch., t. 151, fig. 6. 
Con. Monog. 38, 18, 1. 
Gould, Invert, of Mass. 109. 
Dekay, Zool. of New York, 191, 20, 239. 
Lea, Synopsis, 37. 

Mya nasuta, Wood., Index Test. Sup. pi. 1, fig. 4. 
U. rostratus, Valenc Humb. and Bonpl., ii. 223, 53, 3. 
Eurinea nasuta, Agas. Stlmpson's Shells of New England, 13. 

nebulosus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 28, 3, 7. 

neglectus, Lea, 1846, ix. 280,42, 10. Synopsis, 33. 

nexus, Say, Transyl. Journ. 1831, fv. 527. 
Amer. Conch, pi. 51. 
Con. Monog. 68, 38, 1. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 

U. arcaeformis, Lea, 1832, iv. 116, 17, 44. Synopsis, 13. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 12, fig. 3. 

1853.] - 253 

Unio nervosus, Raf. Ann. v. 30. Poulson's Trans. 22. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 6. 
U. zigzag, Lea, iii. 440, 12, 19. Synopsis, 24. 
U. Donaciformis, iii. 267, 4, 3. Synopsis, 24. 

nigellus, Lea, x. 283, 24, 42. Synopsis, 30. 

niger, Raf. Ann. v. 2f). (Elliptio,) Poulson's Trans. 15. 
Co7i. Monog. 49, 26. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 
Li. tier's Conch, pi. 150, fig. 5. 
U. incrassatus, Z/^a, 1842, viii. 217, 16, 34. Synopsis, 24. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fig. 5. 
U. gibber, (?) Lea. 

nigerrimus, Lea, 1852, x. 268, 18, 23. Synopsis, 31. 

nigrinus, Lea^ x. 284, 24, 44, Synopsis, 39. 

nitens. Lea, viii. 205, 12, 19. Synopsis, 29. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 5. 

nodiferus. Con., (g) Journ. Acad. Nat. So. second ser. i. 277, 38, 4, 8. 
U. prasinus, Lea, (not Co?i.) Synopsis, 22. 

nodulatus, Raf. Ann. v. 41,81, 17, 18- Poulson's Trans. 42. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 6. 
Fer., Guerin's Mag. 1835,28. 

U. pustulatus. Lea, 1832, iv. 79,7, 9. Synopsis, 22. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 8. 

notatus, Lea, 1838, vi. 28, 8, 22, Synopsis, 29. 

Novi-tboraci, Lea, 1838, vi. 104, 24, 114, Synopsis, 27. 
Dehay, Zool. of New York, 194, 20, 240. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 5. 

nucleopsis, Cori.., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. i. 276, 37, 8. 
Lea, Synopsis, 35. 

nexus, )Sy, Transylvania Journ. 1831, iv. 527. Amer. Conch. 51. 
Con. xMonog. 68, 38, 1 . 
Ferussac, Guerin's p. Mag. 28. 
U. arcaeformis. Lea, 1832, iv. 116, 17,44, Synopsis, 23. 

notatus, Lea, 1838, vi. 28, 8, 22, Synopsis, 29. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 21, fig. 3. 
U. simus, Lea, vi. 26, 8,20. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 21, fig. 4. 

obliquus, Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 72. 
Con. Monog. 77, 43, 2. 
U. obliquus, Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835. 
U. ebenus. Lea, 1832, iv. 84, 9, 14. Synopsis, 35 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 7. 
U. undatus, Desh. (not Barnes) Desh. ed. of Lam. vi. 534. 
U. mytiloides, (.?) Swain, {not Raf.) 43, Malac 270, fig. 53. 

obliquatus, i2/. (obliquaria) Ann. v. Poulson's Trans. 46. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym of Unio, No. 33. 
U. ridibundus. Say, Disseminator. 
U. sulcatus. Lea, iii. 430, 8, 12, Synopsis, 26. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 13, fig. 3. 

obovalis, J2(7/. v. 45, Poulson's Trans. 49. 
U. solidus, Lra, vi. 13, 5, 13, Synopsis, 25. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 25, fig. 2. 

*obtusus. Lea, viii. 201, 11, 13, Synopsis, 39. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fig. 2. 

occidentalis. Con. Monog. 64, 36, 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 33. 

254 [February, 

Unio ochraceus, Say, (Ji) Nicholson's Encyclopedia, iv. 4, 2, 8. 
Pectunculus fluviatilus, List. Conch, pi. 157, fig. 12. 
Mytilus fluviatilus, Gmel. Dillvvyn Cat. 316. 
Symphynota ochracea. Lea, iii. 69. 
U. ochraceus. Con. Monog. 37, 17, 2. 

(row/^, Invert, of Mass. 112, 71. 

Dekay, Zool. of New York, 193, 19, 137, 138. 
U. rosaceus, (?) Con. (not Dekay) Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. 275, 37, 5. 

Olivarius, Raf. Ann. v. Poulson's Trans. 28. 
jper. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 
U. ellipsis, Lea, iii. 268, 4, 4. Synopsis, 26. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

Ogeecheensis, Con. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. i. 275, 37, 3. 

oratus, Con. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. 276, 37, 6. 

orbiculatus, Hild. 1828, Sillim. Journ. xiv. 284, fig. 15. 
Lea, Synopsis, 28. 

U. abruptus, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 17. 
U. crassus, Con. Monog. 34, 16. 

ovatus, Say, Nicholson's Encyclopedia, iv. 7, 2. 

Lam. Anim. sans Vert. vi. 75. 

Con. MonOfH'. 4, 2. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 26: 

Kust. Chemn. Unio, 22, 3,2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 24. 

U. ventricosns. Desk, (not Barnes), Desh. ed. of Lam. vi. 538. 

U. subovatus, ib. (notXea.) 

U. occidens, (?) ib. ib. 528. 

oviformis, Con., New Fresh Water Shells, 46, 3, 6. 

Lea, Synopsis, 26. 

pallescens. Lea, 1845, x. 79, 7, 20, Synopsis, 27. 

paliatus. Lea, 1845, x. 79, 7, 20, Synopsis, 33. 

paludicolor, Gcnld, Proceed. Bost. S. N. H. ii. 63. 
Lsa, Synopsis, 33. 

papyraceus, GoiUd, Proceed. Bost. S. N. H. ii. 53. 

Lea, Synopsis, 38. 
parvus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 174. 

Con. Monog. 20, 9, 1. 

Philippi, Conchyl. 19, 1, 2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 31. 

paulus. Lea, viii. 213, 15, 29, Synopsis, 31. 
ChemL, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 27, fig. 5. 

pectorosus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1834, 37, 6, I. 
Monog. 25, 11, 1. 
Kust. Chemn. Unio, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

U. perdix. Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 72, 11, 31, Synopsis, 26. 
U. biangulatus. Lea, viii. 197, 9, 8. 

pellucidus. Lea, 1845, x. 70, 2, 6, Synopsis, 39. 

penitus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 33, 5, 1. 

Lea, Synopsis, 24. 
perovatus, Sillim. Journ. xxv. 338, 1, 3. 

Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 47, 2, 3, 

Lea, Synopsis, 27. 

U. nux, Lea, x. 283, 24, 43. 

perovalis,'Co?^. New Fresh Water Shells, 43, 2, 2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 27. 
pernodosusj Lea, 1845, x. 71, 3, 8, Synopsis, 

1853.] 255 

Unio pectitusj Con., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. iii. 2d series. 

personatus, Say, (female) Disseminator, 1829, 309. 

Con. Monog. 47, 24. 

Kust. Chemn. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 1. 

U. capillaris. Lea, 1834, v. 29, 2, 2, Synopsis, 35. 

17. pileus. Lea, (male) 1832, iv. 119, 18, 47, Synopsis, 24. 

ChenUi Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 2. 
perstriatus, Z,a, 1852, x. 255, 12, 3, Synopsis, 36. 
Phillipsii, Co7i. Monog. 9, 5, 1. 

Lea, Synopsis, 22. 

Kust. Chemn. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 3. 

pictus. Lea, 1834, v. 73, U, 32, Synopsis, 27. 

pilaris. Lea, viii. 209, 14, 24, Synopsis, 35. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 29, fig. 3. 

placitus, Zrea, 1852, x. 279,23, 38, Synopsis, 29. 

planilateris, Con. Monog. 103, 57, 1. 

plenus. Lea, 1842, viii. 211, 14, 26, Synopsis, 25. 

plexus. Con. (j) Monog. 1836, 89, 49, 1. 

U. pliciferus, Lea, 1838, vi. 61, 17, 53, Synopsis, 20, 

Chejiu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 22, fig. 5. 
U. subtrapezius, PAt7ij3j[?i, Conchyl. 1847, 12, 5, 2. 
U. carbonarius, Lea, (old shell) vi. 37, 11, 32, Synopsis, 20. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 23, fig. 1. 

Powellii, Lea, 1852, x. 270, 19, 25, Synopsis, 28. 

politus. Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 6. 
U. brevialis, ? Lam. An. sans Vert. 1819, vi. 73. 
U. olivarius, var. 2, Raf. 

U. brevialis, Crouch, Illustrated Lamarck, 1827, 16, 9, 3. 
U. subrotundus, Lea, (not Raf.) 1832, iv. 117, 18,45, Synopsis, 26. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 1. 
U. politus, Con. Monog. 67,37, 2. 

Pre^ostianus, Lea, 1852, x. 269, 19,24, Synopsis, 29. 

prasinus, Con. (Z) New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1834, 44. 
Monog. 79, 44, 2. 
U. Schoolcraftensis, Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 37, 3, 9. 
U. nodiferus. Lea, (not Con.) Synopsis, 22. 

productus, Con., Monog. 44. 

Kust. Chemn. Unio, pi. 16, fig. 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 37. 

proximus, Lea, 1852, x. 271, 20, 27, Synopsis, 29. 

pullus, Con. Monog. 100, 55, 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 31. 

pulvinulus, Lea, 1845, x. 81, 8, 24, Synopsis, 26. 

pumilis, Lea, 1838, vi. 23, 7, 17, Synopsis, 24. 
Ckeiuc, Conc\iy\. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 1. 

puniceus, Haldeman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. viii. 201. 

purpuralus, Lam. {I) Desh. An. sans Vert. vi. 533. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 26. 
U. ater, Lea, iii. 426, 7, 9. 
U. lugubris, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 43. 
U. atra, Desh. Enc. Method. Vers. ii. 528. 
U. purpuratus, Lea, Synopsis, 38. 

Mya ventricosa, Soland. Humph. Catalogue, No. 1084, 59. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 1. 


256 [February, 

Unio purpiiriatus, Sayy Disseminator, 1829. 

U. Medellinus, Lea, 1838, vi. 39, 12, 34, Synopsis, 29. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 6. 

pusillus. Lea, viii. 220, 18, 36, Synopsis, 31. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 5. 

pygmcEUs, Lea, x. 262, 15, 14, Synopsis, 31. 

quadrulus, (w) Raf. Ann. v. 41, Poulson's Translation, 42. 
Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 53. 
Con. Monog. 112,62. 

U. asperrimus. Lea, iv. 71, 5, 3, Synopsis, 21. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 9, fig. 2. 

U. lachrymosus. Lea, iii. 272, 6, 8, (young) pi. 15, fig. 6, Synop. 21. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 6. 

radiatus, Lam. Desk. An. sans Vert. vi. 535. 
Mya radiata, Gmel. vide Lam. 
Mya, Schrot. Eil. 614. 
Mya radiata, Dillwyn, Cat. 1. 51. 
Mya pictorum tenuis, Chemn. vi. 23, 2, 7. 
U. Virginiana, Lam. Desk. An. sans Vert. vi. 544. 
Delassert, Recueil de Coquilles, pi. 13, fig. 4. 
Mya oblongata, Wood. Supplement to Index Test. pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Conchyl. pi. 12, fig. 4. 
U. ochraceus. Desk, (not Say,) ed. Lam. vi. 536. 
U. radiatus, Con. Monog. 24, 10, 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 29. 

DeJ^ay, Zool. of New York, 189, 18, 236. 
Gould, Invert, of Mass. 110. 
Lampsilis radiata, ^^a^.MSS. Stimpson's Shells of New Eng. 13. 

*Rangianus, Lea, 1838, vi. 85, 18, 56, Synopsis, 2C. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 24, fig. 5. 
Raveneli, Con. New Fresh Water Shells, May, 1834, 39, 6, 4. 

U. confertus. Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 103, 16, 47, Synopsis, 30. 

U. Watereensis, Lea, Aug. 1838, v. i. 130, note, Synopsis, 33. 

rectus. Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 74, Desh. ed. 537. 
Con. Monog. 33, 15. 

U. latissima, (Elliptic,) iSa/. Ann. v. 31, Poulson's Trans. 25. 
U. praelongus, Bariies, Sillim. Journ. vi. 261. 
U. rectus, Kust. Chemn. Conchyl. 35, 6, 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 35. 
Eurinea praelonga, Agas. MSS. Stimpson^s Shells of New Eng. 13. 

Reevianus, Lea, 1852, x. 272, 20, 28, Synopsis, 28. 

reflexus, Raf. Ann. v. 40, Poulson's Trans. 40. 

Con. Monog. 7,4, 1. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 

Soy, Synonym, of Unio, No. 25. 

Ktist. C\iexnn. Unio, pi. 11, fig. 2. 

U. cornutus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 122. 

Lea, Synopsis, 22. 
regularis, Lea, 1841, viii. 243, 25, 59, Synopsis, 29. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 3. 

retusus. Lam. Desh. An. sans Vert. vi. 534. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 26. 
Con. Monog. 1, 19, 8. 
Lea, Synopsis, 35. 

U. torsa, Raf. Ann. v. 45, 82, 1, 2, 3, Poulson's Trans. 40. 
Kust. Chemn. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 13, fig. 2. 
U. obtusa, Cuv. Regne Animal, illust. edit. pi. 92, fig. 1. 

1853.] 257 

Unio rivularis, Con. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 1853, iii. 2d series. 
U. declivis, Con. (not Say) Monog. 45, 23, 1. 
Kttst. Chemn. Unio, pi. 14, fig. 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 33. 

Roanokensis, Lea, 1838, vi. 27, 8, 21, Synopsis, 32. 

rosaceus, Behay, Zool. of New York, 192, 39, 355, 356, and pl.40, fig.357. 

rotundatus, Lam. An..sans Vert. Desh. ed. vi. 538. 
U. snborbiculata, Xaw. Desh. ib. 546. 

decorticata, Raf. Ann. v. 36, Poulson's Trans. 33. 
glebulus, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 34. 
subglobosus. Lea, v. 30, 2, 3. 
rotundatus. Lea, Synopsis, 34. 

rubellus, Co7i. New Fresh Water Shells, 38, 6, 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 34. 

Ruber, Raf. v. 48, Poulson's Trans. 55. 

U. pyramidatus, Lea, iv. 109, 16, 39, Synopsis, 25. 

Chen7i,Conc\iy\. Unio, pi. 16, fig. 5. 

U. coccineus. Jay, (not Hildreth,) Catalogue, 66. 

rndis, Co7i. Monog. 76, 43, 1. 
U. Ravenelianus, Lea, v. 32, 3, 5, Synopsis, 26. 

rufusculus, Lea, 1852, x. 258, 14, 7, Synopsis, 33. 

Rumphianus, Lea, 1852, x. 276, 22, 34. 

sagittiformis, ieo;, 1852, x. 277, 22,35, Synopsis, 37. 

Sapotalensis, Lea., viii. 233, 21, 47, Synopsis, 29. 

CAe/m, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 33, fig. 4. 
saxeus. Con. Monograpby of North American Unionidae, 109, 60, 1. , 

satur. Lea, 1852, x. 265, 17, 19, Synopsis, 24. 

Lea, Synopsis, 27. 

seeuriformis, Con. Journ. A. N. S. i. 275, 37, 1. 

semigranosus, V. d. Btisch. 

Phillippi, Conchyl. Unio, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3. 
Lea, Synopsis, 20. 

Shepardianus, Lea, 1834, v. 95, 13, 38, Synopsis, 35.. 
Con. Monog. 70, 39. 

simns, Lea, 1838, vi. 26, 8, 20, Synopsis, 31. 
sintoxia,* Raf. v. 44, Poulson's Trans, v. 48. 
sordidus. Lea, 1852, x. 254, 12, 1. Synopsis, 33. 
Sowerbianus, Lea, 1834, v. 68, 10, 28, Synopsis, 25. 

Con. Monog. 66, 37, 1. 
sparsus, Lea, 1841, viii. 242, 25,58, Synopsis, 22. 

Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 26, fig. 2. 

spatulatus, Lea, 1845, x. 80, 8, 22. 

spinosus. Lea, vi. 57, 16, 50, Synopsis, 23. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 22, fig. 6. 

splendidus. Lea, vi. 70, 19, 61, Synopsis, 27. 

Cheyiu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 17, fig. 7. 
stagnalis. Con. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. i. 275, 37, 2. 

Lea, Synopsis, 27. 

* The specimen in Mr. Poulson's cabinet labelled sintoxia by Rafinesque is 
a large compressed shell, similar in outline to U. coceineus. Length 3| inches j 
height 3 inches. 

258 [Feeruaky, 

Unio stapes, Lea, 1832, iv. 77, 7, 8, Synopsis, 22, 
Co7i. Monog. 83, 46, 1. 
Fer, Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 
Cheyniy Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 5. 

stegarius, Raf. Ann. v. 46, Poulson's Trans. 51. 

Con. Monog. 83, 46, 1. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 28. 

U. irroratus. Lea, 1852, iji. 269, 5, 5, Synopsis, 22. 

Che7iu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 10, fig. 3. 

Stewardsonii, Lea, 1852, x. 278, 23, 36, Synopsis, 20. 

Stonensis, Lea, viii. 195, 8, 5, Synopsis, 27. 

stramineus, Co7i. Sillim. Journ. xxv.339, 1, 6. 
Monog. 91, 50, 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 28. 

striatus. Lea, 1841, viii. 203, 12, 16, Synopsis, 26. 

strigosus. Lea, 1841, viii. 198, 9, 9, Synopsis, 36. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 30, fig. 6. 

subinflatus. Con, New Fresh Water Shells, Appendix, 1835, 5. 
Monog. 97, 54, 1. 
U. Hopetonensis ? iea,lS38, vi. 29, 9, 24, Synopsis, 32. 
CAe?i7, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 20, 5. 

subplanus. Con, Monog. 73, 41, 1. 
Lea, Synopsis, 33. 
subrotundus, Faf, (young) Ann. 42, Poulson's Trans. 44. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 32. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. p. 28. 
U. striatus, Faf. (old) Ann. v. 45, Poulson's Trans. 50. 

circulus, Lea, iii. 433, 9, 14, Synopsis, 34. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 16, fig. 1. 

subtentus, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. v. 130, Amer. Conch, pi. 15. 
Con. Sillim. Jour. xxv. 339, 1, 4, Monog. 85, 47, 1. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835. 
Lea, Synopsis, 21. 

subrostratus, Sy, Disseminator, 1830. 

U. iris. Lea, iii. 439, 11, 18, Synopsis, 38. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. 7. 

symmetricus. Lea, 1845, x. 73, 4, 11, Synopsis, 32. 

Tampicoensis, iga, vi. 24, 7, 18, Synopsis, 26. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 21, fig. 5. 

taeniatus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 26, 4, 2. 
U. pulcher. Lea, vi. 6, 3, 6, Synopsis, 28. 
Cltenu, ConchyL Unio, pi. 17, fig. 2. 

Taitianus,*^ ica, 39,4,11, Synopsis, 25. 
Tecomatensis, Lea, 1841, viii. 234, 21, 48, Synopsis, 27. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fig. 6. 

Tennesseensis, Lea, 1842, viii. 199, 10, 11, Synopsis, 27. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 27, fig. 1. 

tener. Lea, 1842, viii. 198, 10, 10. Synopsis, 28. 
Chetiu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 31, fii. 1. 

tenerus, Ravenel, Lea, 1834, v. 63, 9,2. Synopsis, 39. 
U. tenebrosus. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 42, 7, 1. 

tetralasmus, Sni/, Amer. Conch, pi. 23. 
Lea, Synopsis, 32. 

1863.] 259 

Unio teres, Raf. Ann., v. 55, Poulson's trans. 68. 
Con. Monog. 52, 28. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 27. 
Say, Synonym, of Unio, No. 42. 
U. Anodontoides, Lea, iv. 86, 8, 11, Synopsis, 36. 
Cheuu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 14, 3. 

trabalis. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, Mav, 1834, 27, 3, 5. 
Monog., 110, 60, 2. 
U. Troostensis, Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 71, 10, 30, Synopsis, 25. 

trigonus. Lea, 1832, iv. 110, 16, 40, Synopsis 25. 

tortivus. Lea, 1812, viii. 204, 12, 17, Synopii.- 24. ( 

Chenity Conchyl. Unio, pi. 29, fig. 6. 

torulosus, Raf. (obliquaria) Ann. v. 48, Poul son's Trans. 56. 
Fer., Guerin's Mag. 1835, p. 28. 
Kast., Chemn. Unio, 28, 4, 3, 4. 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 40. 
U. gibbosus, Raf., Con. Monog. 50, 27. 
Kitst. Chemn. Unio, 28, 4, 3, 4. 
U. perplexus, Lea, iv. 122, 17, 42, Synopsis, 23. 
Chenu, pi. 18, fig. 5. 

triqueter, Raf. Ann. v. 34, Poulson's Trans. 31. 
IT. triangularis, Barnes, vi. 272, fig. 17. 
U. formosus, Z/i?, iv. Ill, 16,41. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 8, fig. 12. 
U. triangularis. Lea, Synopsis, 22. 

truncatus, Raf. Ann. v. 35, Poulson's Trans. 31. 
Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, ' 
Say, Amer. Conch. Synonym, of Unio, No. 
U. elegans, Lea, iv. 83, 9, 13, Synopsis, 23. 
Chemc, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 15, fig. 3. 

trossulus. Lea, ix. 278, 40, 6, Synopsis, 25. 

tuberosus. Lea, 1842, viii. 210, 14, 25, Synopsis, 22. 
Che7itc, pi. 28, fig. 7. 

tumescens, Lea, 1845, x. 71, 3, 7. Synopsis, 25. 

undatus, {n) Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 121, 4, 4. 

unicolor. Lea, 1845, x. 74, 4, 12, Synopsis, 34. 
utriculus. Lea, 1845, x. 69, 1, 3, Synopsis, 

Vanuxemiensis, Lea, 1838, vi. 36, 11, 31, Synopsis, 29. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 19, fig. 3. 

Vaughnianus, Lea, vi. 5, 3, 5, Synopsis, 38. 
Chemc, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 21, fig. 1. 

velatus. Con., 1853, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. iii. 2d series. 

venustus, Lea, 1838, vi. 4, 2, 4, Synopsis, 27. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 22, fig. 1. 

verrucosus, Raf. Ann. v. 42, Poulson's Trans. 44. 
U. tuberculatus, J5a;-e.5, Sillim. Journ. vi. 
Hildreth, Sillim. Jour. xiv. 281, fig. 8. Lea, Synopsis, 23. 

viridis, (o) Raf. Ann. v. 27, Poulson's Trans. 19. 
Con., Monog., 36, 17, 1. 

U. Tappanianus, Lea, vi. 62, 17, 55, Synopsis, 39. 
Delay, Zool. of New York, part i. 194, 20, 242. 
Chemi, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 20, fig. 2. 

260 [February, 

Unio vibex, Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 31, 4, 3. 
icff, Synopsis, 30. 

Whiteanus, Lea^ 1852, x. 258, 14, 8, Synopsis 33. 

Zeiglerianus, "Lea, 1838 (Zieglerianus ?) vi. 32, 10, 27. Synopsis, 29. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 24, fig. 2. 

Metaptera, Raf., Agas. 

Metap. alata. 

U. alata. Say, Nicholson's Encyclopedia, iv. pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 1819, vi. 76. Desk. ed. of Lam. vi. 539. 

Symphynota alata, iea^, iii. 448. U. alatus. Synopsis, 19. 

Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 260. 

Co7i.y Monog., 5Q, 31. 

Metaptera megaptera. Raf., Ann. v. 34, 80, 20, Poulson's Trans. 29. 

Symphynota alata, Lea, iii. 448. U. alatus, Synopsis, 19. 

Lymnadia alata. Swains. Malac. 265, 48. 

U. alatus, Kust. Chemn. Unio. 15, 1, 1. 


Elliptio fragilis, Raf. Ann. v. 29. Poulson's Trans. 22. 

U. fragilis. Swains., Zool. Illust. 1st ser. pi. 171. 

U. fragilis. Say, Amer. Conch. Syn. No. 6. 

Kust. Chemn. Unio, 19, 3, 1. 

U. gracilis, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 174. 

Symphynota gracilis. Lea, iii. 452. U. gracilis. Synopsis, 19. 


Symphynota inflata, Lea, iv. 99, 14, 28. 

U. inflatus, Oo?^. Monog. 57,32. 

Lea, Synopsis, in. 

Kust. Chem. Unio, 17, 2, 1. 

U. Alabamensis, Con., New Fresh Water Shells, p. 67. 


Lastena Ohiensis, Kaf. Ann. v. 50, Poulson's Trans. 60. 
U. laevissimus. Lea, iii. 444, 13, 23, Synopsis, 19. 

Plectomerus, Con. 

Shell subalated, obliquely plicated; cardinal teeth very thick, sulcated, the 
posterior lobe directed towards the posterior extremity of the shell ; posterior 
muscular impressions scarcely impressed, confluent. 

Plect. atromarginatus. 

U. atromarginatus, Lea, viii. 207, 13, 21, Synopsis, 19. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 6. 


U. Boykianus, Lea, viii. 208, 13, 22, Synopsis, 19. 
Ghena, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 27, fig. 2. 

costal us. 

U. costatus, Raf. Ann. v. 49, Poulson's Trans. 57. 

Con. Monog. 17, 7. 
U. undulatus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 120, pi. 2. 
Lea, Synopsis, 20. 
U. latecostatus, Lea, 1845, x. 68, 1, 2. 

* I have not quoted Stimpson for this species, because he says that the Ohio 
species is different from the shell usually regarded as the same, which inhabits 
Lake Champlain, and he refers only to the latter. Rafinesque described the 
Western shell. As Say's IT. alatus was found in Lake Erie, I do not know 
whether Agassiz considers it the same as the Ohio river species, or as that of 
Lake Champlain. 

1853.] 261 

Plect. craasidens. 

U. crassidenSj* (a) Lam., An. sans V^ert. vi. 71. 

interruptus, Say., Transylvania Journ., 1831, iv. 525. 

Amer. Conch, pi. 33. 
trapezoides. Lea, 1838, vi. 69, 3, 1, Synopsis, 21. 
Che?iu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 28, fig. 6. 


U. Nicklinianus, Lea, v. 28, 1, 1, Synopsis, 19. 

perplicatus, Co7i. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 2d ser. i. 19. 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. ii. 276, 38, 2. 
U. atrocostatus, Lea, Aug. 1845, x. 70, 2, 15, Synopsis, 20. 

*plectophorus, Con. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. i. 2d ser. 277, 38, 7. 


U. plicatus, Say, Nicholson's Enc, article Conch, iv. 
Barfies, Sillim. Journ. vi. 120, 3, 3. 
Lea, Synopsis, 20. 
[J. Peruviana, Lam., An. sans Vert. vi. 71. 

Enc. Method, pi. 248, fig. 7. 
U. rariplicata. Lam., vi. 71. Desk. ed. of Lam. v. 533. 
Dombeyanus, Valenc. 

undulatus, Desk, (not Barnes) ed. of Lam. vi. 533. 
multiplicatus. Desk, (not Lea) ib. vi. 533. 

crassus, Bar?ies, Sillim. Journ. vi. 118, 1, 1. 
plicata. Swains., Malac. 271, 54, e. 
Hippopaeus, Lea, 1845, x. 68, 1, 1. 


U. Sloatianus, Lea, viii. 217, 16, 33, Synopsis, 21. 

Ckeuu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 32, fig. 7. 
U. plectophorus ? Con. 

CoMPLANARiA, Swains., Agas. 

Coiiip. complanata. 

Alas, complanata, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 278, 13, 22. 

mid. ibid. xiv. 289. 

Symphynota complanata. Lea, iii. 448. 
U. complanata, Desk. ed. of Lam. vi. 559. 
Katherina, Lea, Synopsis, 42. 

Alasmidonta costata, Raf., Ann. v. 52, 82, 15, Poulson's Trans. 63. 
Alasraodonta rugosa, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 278, 13,21. 
Complanaria rugosa, Agas. Stimpson's Shells of New Eng. 14. 


Symphynota compressa, Lea, 1832, iii. 450, 12, 22. 
U. compressus, Co7i. Monog. 71, 40, 1. 
Dekay, Zool. of New York, 191, 21, 245. 
Lea, Synopsis, 19. 
Complanaria alasmodontina, Stimpson, Shells of New Eng. 14. 

* This species is identical with the interruptus of Say and trapezoides of Lea. 
The description antice binis ternisve subsinuosa," can apply to no other 
species which could be compared with Say's interruptus. This description 
applies to (a) of Lam., which Mr. Lea acknowledges to be his trapezoides, 
and is the type of crassidens. How, then, can he set it aside, and take up h 
as the type of that species, especially as it does not agree with the description? 

262 ^ [Februauy, 

Margaritana, Schumacher. 

Marg. arcuata. 

Alasmodonta arcuata, Barnes^ Sillim. Journ. vi. 277, 12, 20. 

Gould, Invert, of Mass. 114, fig. 75. 

Behay, Zool. of New York, 197, 14, 224. 
Margaritana margaritifera, ie, (not Lui.) Synopsis, 43. 
M. arcuata, Stimpsoiif Shells of New England, 15. 

falcata, Gould. 


Unio nnonodontus, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 6. 

Desk. ed. of Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 553. 
Alas, monodonta, Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, note 8, 31. 
U. Soleniformis, Lea, iv. 86, 10, 16, Synopsis, 39. 
Chenu, Conchyl. Unio, pi. 14, fig. 4. 

Alasmodonta, Say. 

arcula, Lea, 1838, vi. 71,22, 69, Synopsis, 42. 

confragosa. Say. Amer. Conch, pi. 21. 

U. confragosa, Desk. ed. of Lam. vi. 553. 
Marg. confragosa, Lea, Synopsis, 42. 

marginata. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. i. 459. 
Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 279. 

U. varicosa. Lam. An. sans. Vert. vi. 78, Desh. ed. 513. 
Mya rugulosa. Wood. Index, Sup. pi. 1, fig. 7. 
Margaritana marginata, Lea, Synopsis, 42. 
Alas, nnarginata, Delay, Zool. of New York, 196, 14, 226. 

truncata. Say, MSS. Gould, Invert. 117. 
Alas, marginata, Auc. (Western var.) 

Leptodea, 22<z/*.. 

Lept. lata, Uaf., Ann. v. 51, 82, 17, Poulson's Trans. 61. 
U. dehiscens, Say, Disseminator, ii. 308. 

Amer. Conch, pi. 24. 
Desh. ed. of Lam. 554. 
U. oriens. Lea, v. 4, 6, 5, Synopsis, 43. 
U. dehiscens, Lea, Synopsis, 43. 
Chenu. Conchyl. Unio, pi. 14, fig. 2. 
Anodonta lata, Fer. Guerin's Mag. 1835, 2.5. 
U. latus, Say, Amer. Conch. Syn. of Unio, No. 44. 

leptodon, Raf., Ann. v. Poulson's Trans. 21. 

U. leptodon. Say. Amer. Conch. Syn. of Unio, No. 6. 

Fer. Guerin's Mag. 25. 

Con., Monog. 59, 33. 
U. planus, Barnes, Sillim. Journ. vi. 272. 

Anodonta purpurascens, Swain., Zool. Illust. 1st ser. iii. pi. 160. 
Symphynota tenuissima. Lea, iii. 453, 11, 21. 
Unio tenuissima. Lea, Synopsis, 38. 

Stropuitus, Raf. Hemiodon, Swains. 


Anod. argentea, Lea, 223, 19, 41. 


Anod. Arkansensis, Lea, x. 293, 29, 56. 


U. calceola. Lea, iii. 265, 3, 1. 

Desk. ed. of Lam. An. sans Vert. 546. 
Margaritana calceola. Lea, Synopsis, 43. 

1853.] 26a 

Stroph. Curreyanus. 

Margaritana Curreyana, Lea, viii. 223, 18, 40, Synopsis, 43. 

Marg. deltoidea, Lea, vi. 43, 13, 38, Synopsis, 42. 


Alas, edentula. Say, Disseminator. 

Anodonta edentula, Dekay, Zool. of New York, 201, 15, 231. 

A. edentula. Lea, Synopsis, 49. 

A. areolata, Sivaiiis.^ Zool. Illust. 2d ser. i. pi. 1. 

Etowaosis, Co7i. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc.#849, iv. 154. 

Marg. fabula, Lea, vi. 44, 13, 39, Synopsis, 44. 


Marg. Hildrethiana, Lea, v. 36, 3, 8. Synopsis, 43 

Holstonia ? 

Marg. Holstonia, Lea, vi. 42, 13, 37, Synopsis, 44. 


Marg. minor. Lea, x. 82, 8, 26, Synopsis, 42. 

radiatus, Con. 
Alas, radiata, Sillim. Journ. xxv. 34, 1, 10. 
Marg. radiata, Lea, Synopsis, 43. 


Marg. Ravenelianus, Lea, v. 106, 17, 50, Synopsis, 42. 


Anod. Shaefferiana, Lea, x. pi- 26, fig. 50. 


Anod. tetragona, Lea, 1846, x. 82, 8, 25. 

*unadilla. Belay, Zool. of New York, part i. 199, 15, 228. 


Anod. undulata, Say, Nicholson's Ency. iv. pi. 3, fig. 6. 
Go/f/, Invert, of Mass. 120. 

Anod. rugosa. Swains., Zool. Illust. ist series, ii. 96. 
A. Penusylvanica, Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 86. 
Strophitus undulatus, Stimp. Shells of New England, 15. 

virgatus, Con. Monog. cover of No. 6, June, 1836. 
Anod. Wardiana, Lea, 1838, vi. 46, 14, 42. 

Anodonta, Cuvier, Lam. 

Anod. angulata. Lea, vi. 97, 16, 52. 

Benedictensis, Lea, vi. 104, 16, 48. 

Buchanensis, Lea, vi. 47, 16, 43. 

Californiensis, Lea, x. 286, 25, 47. 

cataracta, (a) Say, Nicholson's Encyc. iv. pi. 3, fig. 4. 
Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 85. 
A. fluviatilis. Lea, vi. 138, Synopsis, 
Goicld, Invert. 117. 
Belay, Zool. of New York, 203, 18, 234. 
Kust. Chemn. Unio, 33, 7, 2. 

cognata, Gould. 

Couperiana, Lea, viii. 227, 20, 46. 

cylindracea, Lea, vi. 45, 13, 40. 

decora. Lea, vi. 64, 20, 63. 

declivis, Con. Sillim. Journ., July, 1834, xxv. 341, 1, 11 
A. plana, Lea, Aug. 1834, v. 48, 7, IS. 


264 [February, 

Anod. denigrata, Lea^ 1852, x. 285, 25, 45. 

excurvata, Dekay, Zool. of New York, 202, 17, 233. 

fragilis. Lam. An. sans Vert. vi. 85. 

ferruginea, Lea, viii. 225, 19, 43. 

Ferussaciana, v. 45, 6, 15. 

Footiana, Lea, viii. 226, 20, 44. 

gibbosa. Say, Long's Ex. to St. Peter's, 1824, ii. 265. Lea, Synopsis, 50. 

gigantea. Lea. vi. 1, 1, 1. 

glauca, Yalen. Lea, Synapsis, 50. 

Delassert, Recueil de Coquilles, pi. 13, fig. 3. 

grandis. Say, Dissem. 1829, 341. 
Lea, Synopsis, 51. 
corpulenta, Cooper, MSS. 

Harpenthis, Lea, viii. 224, 19, 42. 

imbecilis. Say, Dissem. 1829. 
incerta, Lea^ 1834, v. 46, 6, 16. 

implicata, Say, Dissem. 350. 

(ro?J^, Invert, of Mass. 118, 78. 
A. Newtonensis, Lea, vi. 79. 21, 66. 

impura. Say, Dissem. 1829. Lea, Synopsis, 53. 
Linneana, Lea, x. 289, 27, 51. 
lugubris. Say, Disseminator, 1829, 340. 
Marryattana, Lea, viii. 226, 20, 45. 

marginata, {b) Say, Nicholson's Encyclop. iv. pi. 3. fig. 1. 
Nuttalliana, Lea, vi. 77, 20, 62. 
* oblita. Lea, 1852, x. 290, 28, 52. 
opaca. Lea, 1852, x. 285, 25, 46. 
Oregonensis, Lea, vi. 80, 21, 67. 
ovata. Lea, vi. 2, 2, 2. 
pavonia. Lea, vi. 78, 21, 45. 
Pepiniana, Lea, vi. 96, 16, 51. 
plicata, Hald, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. viii. 202. 
salmonia, Lea, vi. 45, 14, 41. 
Stewartiana, Lea, v. 47, 6, 17. 
suborbiculata, Say, Amer. Conch, pi. 11. 
subcylindracea. Lea, vi. 106, 24, 117. 
subvexa, Con., Sillim. Journ. xxv. 341, 1, 12. 
teres. Con. New Fresh Water Shells, 47, 7, 2. 
virens, Lea, x. pi. 28. fig. 53. 
"Wahlamatensis, Lea, vi. 68, 20, 64. 


(a.) XJnio asper. Ferussac considered this species and Say's apiculatus the 
same; but there is a strongly marked difference in the arrangement of the 
tubercles and in the form of the shells posteriorly. (Guerin's Mag. 1835.) 

(5.) U. cariosns. In my Monograph I followed Ferussac in referring U. 
luteola. Lam!, to this species, but his description does not apply. It very well 
describes U. stliquoidens, Barnes, in an early stage of growth. 

1853.] 265 

(e.) U. cerinus. This species cannot be confounded 'w\\}ci flavtis ; it has much 
less prominent beaks, more compressed disks, is proportionally longer, with the 
hinge and basal margins more nearly parallel, while the color of the epidermis 
and of nacre are very different. Mr. Lea seems to have hastily made them one 
species, probably without having time or inclination to compare them. 

(fi.) TJ. complauatus^ Soland. There has been some controversy respecting 
the original name of this species, but it seems clear that Solander had Say's 
purpnreus in view when he described his species. He not only remarks that it 
inhabits rivers in Maryland and New Jersey, but his description, " ovate, com- 
pressed, with the front (posterior) margin straight, obliquely truncated towards 
the cardinal slope, hinge with the primary teeth three-sided and striated," applies 
very well to a common variety of Say's purpureifs. If Solander's name had 
been founded alone on the figure in Lister, t. 150, fig. 5, it could not be retained, 
because the species intended to be represented by that figure will probably ever 
be disputed; and it represents U. niger, Rdif., much better than the shell in 
question. Lamarck even quotes it for crasside?is, (Lea's trapezoides,) which it 
certainly does not resemble. The words " admodum crassus," engraved on 
Lister's plate, prove that it was an exceedingly thick shell, and a Western 

(/.) Z7. clava. Kuster has quoted Rafinesque's figures 23 and 24 for his gibbosa, 
w-hich is a nodulosus species not figured on any of his plates. Those figures 
represent U. scaleuia. 

(g.) TJ. nodiferus, Con. Mr. Lea considers this identical with prasinux. 
Since I have compared several specimens with a fine series of the latter species, 
I see little resemblance between them. The nodiferus is a smaller, more ven- 
tricose and inequilateral shell, and the large tubercles grouped together about 
the middle of the disc, are never seen vd prasiniis. The latter has the slightly 
prominent tear-shaped tubercles like the young qiiadrulus, very dissimilar in 
number, shape and prominence to those of the nodiferus. Three specimens of 
the latter, from Alabama, are in the collection of the Academy. 

(Ji.) U. ockraceus, Say. T. 157, fig. 12, in Lister's Conch., is usually referred to 
A}wdo7ita cataracta of Say, but it much better agrees with the Southern variety 
of U. ochraceus. The color, ' subruber," does not agree with any of our Ano- 
dontas^ and, moreover, Lister names it Pectunculus, under which general term 
he includes Galathea, Paxyodon and Cyclas, w'hich is sufficient evidence that 
his Pectunculus fluviatilis had well defined teeth. The cardinal teeth of the 
Southern ochraceus being distinctly striated, would account for the name of 
Pectunculus being applied to it. Besides, it will be observed that Lister com- 
mences the Auodontas with the heading of " Section 2d, De musculis cardine 
laevi," which includes three species. His Section 3d then commences under 
the heading of " Pectunculus." This is proof positive that his t. 157, fig. 12, 
is not an Anodonta. 

(t.) U, oUiquus, Lam. Mr. Lea has referred Barnes' k?z^<2;^?,s to this species, 
but Lamarck's description is wholly inapplicable to xindatus^ which is not 
oblique, and certainly not " ovate-rotundate." The error probably originated 
in Barnes' citation of Lamarck's species with a mark of doubt, as synonymous 
with iindat^is. 

(j.) U. plexus, Con. There is a variety of this species, more elliptical, and 
with the umbo and upper part of the disc covered with closely-arranged granu- 
lations. It is possible that this may prove to be a distinct species. U. semi- 
granosusy some conchologists think the same species with U. plexus, but it 
certainly cannot be, if von dem Busch's species is represented in Phillippi's 
Conchyi. pi. 1, fig. 1. That is a far larger shell, and of a totally different 

(/t.) TJ. prasinus, Con. Mr. Lea observes that Prof. Kirtland thinks this 
may prove to be a variety of pustulosus^ {hullatus, Raf.) They are, however. 

266 [liEBKUAKX, 

very distinct species, the prasinus being much longer comparatively, with 
fewer and less-prominent tubercles, and arranged in a very different manner. 
The cardinal plate under the beaks is not dilated ; in the nodulatus^ it is pro- 
f Hindi y dilated, a very important difference, which it is strange should have 
b -en overlooked. Young shells of prasimis and bidlatus, when compared, are 
strikingly dissimilar. 

(/.) U. purpurattis, Lam. There is no doubt that Solander named this species 
ventricosa, as Humphreys terms it " La Ventrue rouge," and gives the habitat 
of "Mississippi river," where it abounds, and where no other species has beer 
found which agrees with the description. 

(7.) Z7. qicadndus is not 11. rugosus, Barnes. Mr. Lea remarks that some of 
our best Western conchologists think Z7. mgosus identical with 77. fragosus. 
Barnes' figure certainly has little resemblance to the latter, and the " broad 
nodulous, somewhat dotible ridge," wholly inapplicable to quadmlus. Mr. Lea 
says, *' two specimens referred to by Mr. B. as rugosus, were under my inspec- 
tion, and proved to be, the one a flat metaiievery and the other a plicatus.^^ Now 
the rugosus may be the metaiieurus , Raf., but Barnes' figure was never intended 
for any variety of the TJ. plicatics, 

Mr. Say has unfortunately copied Barnes' description of Z7. rugosus , and 
applied it to U. quadrulus, Raf. 

(.) JJ. undatus. It has been supposed that this was the shell described by 
Mr. Lea as trigonus^ but it is distinct. There is a fine specimen of tmdatus in 
the collection of the Academy, which agrees perfectly with Barnes' figure, and 
is much more ventricose anteriorly and over the umbo, than trigomis ; has more 
elevated beaks, and is very inequilateral, whilst the latter is nearly equila- 
teral. The uiidatics is equallyj^distinct from cordatus, Raf., which is compara- 
tively compressed. 

Compare Barnes* description, " subtriangular, very tumid, waved," with La- 
marck's description of U, obliqua, *' ovato-rofundate, oblique," and the discre- 
pancy must strike every one ; yet both Lea and Deshayes make them one 

Z7. tcndulat2is, Barnes. The old specimens of this species have so much 
resemblance to Say's heros, as even to have deceived Say himself, who aban- 
doned his species, and referred it to Barnes's undulaUis ; but it is a very 
distinct species, the young shell having little resemblance to that of the latter. 
There can be no doubt that Barnes figured the species now known as the 
eostatus of Raf. 

(o.) U. viridis, Raf. Mr. Lea gives another name to this shell, because he 
says it is not Rafinesque's species, which it certainly is ; yet he does not 
acknowledge Rafinesque as authority, for he applies his specific names, as in 
the case of Z7. interruptus, to a species of his own ; consequently the shell in 
question should have been quoted by him as TJ. viridis. Con., unless he has one 
rule applicable to himself and another referable to other authors. The shell 
labelled viridis by Rafinesque himself in Mr. Poulson's cabinet, is the same as 
Lea's Tappianus. 


(a.) A. cataractay Say. The Mytilus jiicviatilis of Gmel. and Dillwyn, and 
the M. illitus of Solander, appear to be merely names given to the JJnio ochra- 
ceus in Lister's work, t. 157, fig. 12. The two AuodoiUa.'i figured by Lister, t. 
154, 155, and having Virg. inscribed upon the plates, I cannot refer to any of 
our species. 

(5.) A. marginata^ Say. Dekay regarded this shell as the young oi implicatay 
and it is not unlikely his opinion was correct. It certainly is not Say's 



Supplementary Notes. 

TJ. cuneatns, Haf. Having examined several specimens of this shell, it is 
found to be a form between U. paUUus and U. clav2is, and may be a distinct 

TJ. fasrioliis^ Raf. Mr. Poulson's specimen labelled by Rafinesque, is not U. 
mulliradiatits, but certainly TJ. suhangulatus. Lea. 

Z7. simplexy Lea. It is strange that Mr. Lea should compare this shell with 
TI. Hydiatins, to w^hich it bears no resemblance, and at the same time overlook 
U. Greeiiii, Con. His figure might almost answer for a copy of mine. 

77. triangularis, Raf. Mr. Poulson's cabinet contains no authentic specimen 
of this species, which is one I have never identified. Pachostea, Cliffordiana 
and lateralis are also uncertain species. Lamjpsilis rosea and pallida are pro- 
bably varieties of TJ. ochracetcs. 

Table shoioing the geograpJiical range of the Families Unionid^, Muteladje and 
Mycetopodid^, and some of the genera and sub-genera. 


Family TJnionidtz. 

Naia, Sicains. 
Lanceolaria,* Con. 
Monodontina, Con. 

Barbala, Humph. 
Hyriopsis,f Con. 
Nodularia,J Con. 


Mysca, Turton. 
Potamida, Sicains. 


Family Mnteladce. 
Mutela, Scoj)oli. 
Iridella, Con. 
Pleiodon, Con., Gray. 
Calliscapha, Swains. 
Sjiatha, Lea. 

Family TJnio7iidce. 

Caelatura, Coji. 


Family TJnionidce. 
Hyridella, Swains. 
Parreysia, Con. 

U. m^dtidentatus , Parreyss. 
Cucumaria,i| Con. 

North America. 

Fam,ily Tlnionidce. 


Eurinea, Raf., Agas. 
Lampsilis, Raf. Agas. 
Canthyria, Swains. 
Theliderma, Swains. 
Cunicula, Swains, 

Metaptera, Raf., Agas. 
Strophitus, Raf. 
Lastena, Raf. 

Complanaria, Stvains., Agas. 
Alasmodonta, Say, Agas, 

South America. 

Fam,ily Micteladce. 

Leila, Gray. 
Paxyodon, Schum. 
Prisodon, ib. 

Iridea, Swai?is. 

Family Mycetopodidce. 
Mycetopus, D'Orb. 

Fam,ily JJnionidcE. 
Lamproscapha, Stvains. 
Monocondylaea, D'Orb. 
Byssodonta, ib. 

Sub-genus . 
Corrugaria, Co7i. 

* U. Grayanus, Lea. f U Delphinus, Gruner. X U. Douglasiae, Gray. 

U. Egyptiacus. || U. cucnmoides, Lf:a. 

26$ [February, 

Buh-genera of TJnio. 


Shell nodose; cardinal teeth robust, single in the right valve ; in each valve 
the principal cardinal tooth is parallel with the lateral teeth, or directed towards 
the posterior extremity of the shell. 

Unio Douglasice, Gray. 

Iridea, Swains. South America. 

Shell with corrugated radiating folds on the beak or umbo ; cardinal teeth 
granulated, senerally curved, elongated. Third muscular impression distinct, 
not confluent, situated under the anterior portion of the cardinal tooth. 

Ufiio grauosics, Lam. To this subgenus I would refer Z7. so/istatia, D'Orb., 
U. ParaJiensis, Lea, TJ. rMiacoica, D'Orb., U. Fontainiana^ D'Orb., JJ. hylcea, 
D'Orb., Z7. Gaaraniana^ D'Orb., JJ. Mato)ua?iaiD'Oi'b., U. Psammotca, D'Orb., 
Z7. charruana^ D'Orb. 

This sub-genus is very distinct from any of those existing in North America, 
nor, indeed, does there appear to be any sub-genus in South America identical 
with a Northern group. 

Mysca, Tnrton. Europe. 
The type of this sub-genus, U. pictortim, has the third anterior muscular im- 
pression deep, and more distinct from the large one, than occurs in any American 
species of Unio. 

Lanceolaria, Cu7i. China. 

Shell elongated ; cardinal teeth widely bifid ; third muscular impression 
situated at the base of the anterior lobe of the cardinal tooth, not confluent, 
and very profoundly impressed; accessory impression small and confluent with 
the superior margin of the large impression ; pallial impression slightly 
deflected anteriorly. 

Tf. Grayanicsy Lea. 

Ccelatura, Con. Africa. 

Shell thin, not elongated ; beaks corrugated or subnodular ; cardinal teeth 
laminar, greatly elongated, parallel with the anterior hinge margin ; anterior 
accessory muscular impressions confluent with the lower part of the larger one ; 
pallial impression slightly deflected. 

U. ^gyptiacusy Caill. 

CuNicuLA, Swains. North America. 

Shell compressed, thick, lateral teeth robust and receding from the dorsal 
margin, posterior accessory muscular impression not confluent, and placed at 
the extremity of the lateral teeth. 

JJ. fasciolaris^ lineolatus , EasthrooJclanus ^ sultentnSi ccelatus, arcus^ &c. 

I have founded this subgenus on other characters than those given by 

Glebula, Con. Lousiana. 

Shell with the cardinal teeth granulated and profoundly sulcated or divided 
into 4 or 5 lobes, irregular, diverging, somewhat resembling those of Paxyodon; 
posterior muscular impression very large and confluent with the accessory, 
which is obsolete. 

JJ. rotundatiis^ Lam. 

Uniomerus, Con. 

Shell elongated, not thick, with parallel dorsal and basal margins ; beaks 
with obliquely concentric plicae. 

U. declivis, camptodon, subcroceus, Sayii, rivularis, perrectus, symmetricus, 
and excultus. 

The members of this group inhabit almost exclusively the small streams and 
ponds in the Southern States. 

1853.] 269 

Theliderma, Hiffains. 
This embraces all the tuberculated species, as U. Phillipsea, fragosus, nobilis, 
quadrulus, apiculatus, &c. The animal appears to agree with that of the my- 
tiloid species, as U. ruber, coccineus, obliquus, cordatus, &c. 

Lampsilis, Kaf. 
This includes U. ochraceus, ovatus, cardium, capax, dolabraeformis, &c. 


This includes U. nasutus, rectus, productus, Jayensis, lanceolatus, &c- 

Proposed New Genera. 
CucuMARiA, Ccn. Australia, 

Shell elongated, plicate ; cardinal teeth robust, little prominent, obtuse, 
slightly lobed, transversely sulcated ; lateral teeth compressed, not prominent? 
third anterior muscular impression profound, not confluent, situated immediately 
under, and near the extremity of the cardinal teeth. 

U". cucumoides, Lea. 

Hyeiopsis, Con. Asia. 

Shell elongated, posteriorly winged ; cardinal teeth elongated, very oblique, 
not prominent, and marked with transverse granulated lines; lateral teeth gra- 
nulated on the margins ; third anterior muscular impression large, not confluent, 
situated remote from the extremity of the cardinal teeth ; anterior accessory 
muscular impression rather small and more distant from the large impression 
than in any other sub-genus. 

We know only one species, JJ. delphinus^ Gruner. 


Hinge with an obtuse rounded tooth immediately under the beak. 
Margaritana Yondenhuschiana^ Lea. (ilf. Busclilanay Con.) 


U. angustatus, Lm, 1832, vi. &c. 

U. capax. Green, (Symphynota globosa,) iea, 1834, v. 41, &c. 

U. capsaeformis. Lea, 1834, v. 31, &c. 

U. metanever, read U. metaneurus. 

The Committee on Major Le Conte's paper on the Vines of North 
America, reported in favor of publication in the ProceediDgs. 

An emimeration of the Vines of North America. 
By John Le Conte, F. L. S. 

In attempting to give some account of the vines of our country, a very con- 
siderable difficulty arises, even at the outset, from the great similarity of the 
diff"erent species. A family resemblance almost amounting to identity runs 
through the whole of them. Hence, characters which are taken as distinctive, 
may appear too slight to warrant us in separating as distinct species what at 
first sight might appear to be mere varieties. But setting aside the shape and 
appearance of the leaves, the nature of the fruit and the method of its growth, 
in most cases, furnish a good criterion for distinguishing closely allied species 
from each other, which might in vain be sought for elsewhere. 

Some years ago, when there existed a mania for the cultivation of the vine, 

270 [February, 

there was much written about our native grapes, which only tended to involve 
in obscurity a rather plain and easily developed subject. Men unacquainted 
with botany, gardeners and others, remarkable only for their ignorance, folly 
and bad faith, gave names to various kinds of grapes, and frequently made a 
dozen species out of one. These names, barbarous and unmeaning as 
they are, were never bestowed on the same variety by any two writers ; they 
saw differences where none existed, and endeavored to account for them by 
supposing impossibilities. Thus, a variety of V. labrusca, which has been called 
the Isabella and Catawba grape, and received several other as ridiculous appel- 
lations, has been considered as a hybrid between a European and one of our 
native species. This variety has always been said to have been first found in 
South Carolina, a country where the V. vinifera had at that time seldom or never 
been cultivated, and where it by no means flourishes, and where likewise the 
labrusca is not found. Although among some families of plants hybrids occur 
naturally or may be formed artificially, yet it is difficult to understand how this 
ever can be the case in the genus Vitis. In forming a hybrid, it is necessary 
to emasculate the flower which we wish to produce fruit, and to impregnate 
its pistil with the pollen of some other species; this is impossible in the 
present instance, on account of the minuteness of the flower and the parts of 
fructification. If the hybrid be supposed to be formed naturally, how could the 
anther dust of a cultivated plant be carried in a sufficient quantity from a garden 
to produce any effect in the thick woods of the Southern States ? 

Botanists have hitherto been able to detect but few species of Vitis in the 
United States. Michaux, Elliot and others, reckon but four or five in the whole 
extent of our country. Rafinesque, by believing in the various follies of the day, 
and led aside by writings which fell into his hands and by the false statements 
which he collected from different quarters, made forty-one species of this genus, 
the most of which he had never seen. Although able to investigate and 
describe as well as any naturalist of his day, he was led astray by an in- 
satiable desire of making new species, and appropriating to himself every thing 
that he saw or even heard of in Natural Science, he gave names to many things 
which never existed, and furnished accounts of them as if he had had them in 
his possession. Although his lucubrations are little worthy of notice, I have 
endeavored to identify as many of these numerous species as possible, and to 
reduce them to some degree of certainty ; guided as well by what I remember 
to have seen in his possession, as by the short, and, in many instances, very im- 
perfect descriptions found in his American Manual of Grape Vines ; some I have 
not been able to determine, but scarcely think them different from others already 
well known. The number of species now recognized in systematic works is 
not more than five or six. I have increased this number considerably ; with 
what propriety is for others to judge. 

In my wanderings through our country, I have, I think, seen two more species, 
but have no memoranda of their characteristics which allow me to say more 
than that one was observed in the middle regions of Georgia, which bore grapes 
of a tolerably large size, in clusters of such density that the berries were pressed 
into a cubic form. The other was a small grape, of which the inhabitants of 
the upper part of North Carolina made a considerable quantity of pale red wine. 
This may be the V. cordifolia of Michaux, which species I have not been able 
to determine. The description of the last species, V. palmata, is taken in a 
great measure from recollection, and not from a late examination. 

By the word racemus or raceme, I wish to be always understood to mean the 
bunches of mature fruit, the true and legitimate meaning of the Latin word. 

1. Vitis labrusca. Foliis lato-cordatis, sublobato-angulatis, aut quinque- 
lobatis acuminatis, irregulariter eroso-dentatis, supra glabris, subtus irregulari- 
ter reticulatis, dense tomentosis aut velutinis, pube incana aut rufescente, 
baccis magnis rotundis aut ovalibus. 

Hab. In the Northern and Middle States. V. sylvestris, occidentalis, et vul- 
pina, Bartram, in New York Medical Repository, Hexade II, vol. I. V. lati- 
folia, canina, luteola, rugosa, ferruginea, labruscoides. blanda, prolifera and obo- 

1853.J ^ 271 

vata, Rafinesque's American Manual of Grape Vines. Vulg. Fox grape, Isa- 
bella and Catawba grape. 

Stem large and tall. Leaves widely cordate, sublobately-angled or distinctly 
three or five lobed ; acuminate, irregularly eroso-dentate, above smooth, beneath 
irregularly reticulate, beneath densely tomentose or velvety ; the pubescence 
of various length, hoary or rufescent. Berries large, ? of an inch in diameter, 
round or oval. 

The commonest form of this species has thick leaves, with a rather long 
pubescence beneath ; the racemes are small, rarely with more than five or six 
berries on each; these are round, often oblate, black or red colored, acid and 
austere, frequently occasioning soreness of the lips and fauces of those who eat 
them. Another variety much cultivated under the names of Isabella, Catawba, 
and twenty other unmeaning names, has the leaves thinner, the pubescence un- 
derneath much shorter and more velvety, the racemes large, long and dense, the 
berries more or less oval, red or black, very sweet and agreeable to the taste, 
with a peculiar flavor, by some called musky. This is much cultivated in sonne 
parts of the Union, and wine of a fine quality is made from it. But like all the 
grapes of America the fruit is so watery that it is thought necessary to add sugar 
to the must, not considering that the must before fermentation can be made of 
any strength with regard to the sugar contained in it, by boiling, as is done in 
some parts of the country with apple and pear juice. 

The best of all the varieties of this species is the w'hite fruited, which does 
not differ in its leaf from that first described ; the rncennes are, however, large, 
long and dense, the berries white or green with a slight coppery tinge on the 
side exposed to the sun. It is, perhaps, the best grape indigenous to America 
which has been found in the Northern States. It is very sweet, and has but 
little of the peculiar flavor which almost all the others have, and is entirely free 
from all acridity. 

2. V. TENUiFOLiA. Foliis tenuibus, lato-cordatis simplicibus, trilobis aut 
quinquelobis acuminatis irregulariter dentatis, glabris interdum siibtus arach- 
noideo-villosis, nervis rufo-pubescentibus. Racemis parvis,baccis magnis, rotun- 
dis, viridibus paulo glaucescentibus, ingratis acidis. 

Hah. In New Jersey, formerly very common in the vicinity of Trenton, but 
now not to be found. 

Stem tolerably large and tall; leaves thin, widely cordate, simple or three or 
five lobed: acuminate, irregularly dentate, smooth, sometimes arachnoideo- 
villous beneath ; the nerves and veins always furnished with a rufous pubescence. 
Racemes small, berries large, '8 of an inch in diameter, green, a little glaucous, 
disagreeably acid. 

3. V. jESTiVALis. Foliis lato-cordatis sublobato-angulatis, tri vel quinquelobis, 
acuminatis irregulariter serratis aut dentatis, dentibus mucronatis, supra glabris 
aut paulo arachnoideis, subtus arachnoideo-villosis plus minus fuscis, interdum 
subglabris, junioribus densius villosis. Racemis parvis, baccis parvulis nigris 

Hub. In Carolina and Georgia. V. aestivalis, Michaux and Rafinesque. V. 
labrusca, Walter and Elliot. Vulg. Fox grape. 

Stem large and lofty; leaves widely cordate, sublobately angled, sometimes 
distinctly and deeply three and five lobed ; acuminate irregularly dentate or ser- 
rate, with the teeth mucronate, above smooth or a little arachnoidal, especially 
in the younger state, beneath more or less fuscous, arachnoideo-villous, some- 
times subglabrous, the youngest one more densely villous. Racemes rather small; 
berries rather small, '4 of an inch in diame'er, black, generally very acid. 

These three species have a general resemblance to each other, but, as appears 
from the descriptions, are sufliciently distinct. 

4. V. BRACTEATA. Foliis cordatis, acuminatis, quinquelobis, sinubis latis 
profundis, irregnlariter dentatis dentibus acutis muticis, supra glabris, subtns 
nervis rufo-pubescentibus. Florum fasciculis bracteatis. Racemis longis com- 
positis laxis, baccis parvis nigris. 


272 [February, 

Hah. In Carolina and Georgia in swamps. V. bracteata, Raf. V. aestivalis, 
Elliot. Vulg. Duck shot or Swamp grape. 

Stem'very large, climbing to the Tops of the loftiest trees ; leaves broad-cor- 
date, acuminate, five-lobed, sinuses wide and deep, the lobes irregularly dentate ; 
the teeth without any mucronate point, above smooth, beneath with the nerves 
rufo-pubescent. Fascicles of the flowers with a short leaf or bract at the base 
of each; racemes long, loose, and compound; berries very small, '15 of an inch 
in diameter, very acid. 

5. V. vuLPiNA. Foliis glabris, cordatis acuminatis, simplicibus, trilobis aut 
interdum profunde quinquelobis, dentatis, dentibus subabrupte-acurainatis, sub- 
tus plus minus sparse villosiusculis aut etiam glabris. ^acemis densis baccis 

Hah. In the Northern and Middle States. V. vulpina, Willd. V. aestivalis, 
Emerson's Report on the Trees, &c., of Massachusetts. V. cordifolia of many 
authors, but not of Michaux. V. callosa, byemalis, cordifolia, Raf. Vulg. Winter 

Stem moderately large, very branching, the younger shoots for the most part 
purplish. Leaves always smooth above, and generally so on both sides ; be- 
neath sometimes, particularly in the younger ones, a little villous ; cordate 
acuminate dentate, the teeth abruptly acuminate, always more or less tri-lobate, 
sometimes profoundly so, and often five-lobed. Racemes tolerably large, very 
dense, so as even to change the form of the berries ; berries -35 of an inch in 
diameter, black, acid. 

The name of cordifolia is occasionally given improperly to another species, 
the V. rotundifolia Mx. Willdenow's description is not very full, but suffi- 
ciently so to remove all doubt of his meaning this species ; there is no other 
so well deserving the name of Vulpina, as the grapes have a strong smell much 
resembling that of a fox. 

The older leaves are without any villosity beneath except on the nerves, 
which with the veins are very prominent. They frequently become glaucous 

6. V. ARA.NE0SUS. Foliis lato-cordatis, sublobato-angulatis, integris, trilobis aut 
quinquelobis, lobis acuminatis, dentatis, dentibus submucronatis, supra glabris, 
subtus arachnoideo-villosis, villositate plus minus ferruginea. Racemis subden- 
sis, baccis majoribus nigris. 

Hab. In the upper parts of Georgia. Vulg. Fox grape. 

Stem moderately large and high. Leaves broad, cordate, sublobately angled, 
entire and three or five lobed, acuminate dentate ; the teeth submucronate, above 
glabrous, beneath arachnoideo-villous, more or less ferruginous ; in the older 
leaves this villosity forms into small tufts or knots, and in the very oldest 
almost entirely vanishes, although in the youngest it is very thick and close. 
Racemes dense; berries of a middling size, -5 of an inch in diameter, black, often 
very sweet and agreeable. The leaves are sometimes 8 inches long and as 
many wide. 

This species is well worth cultivating. 

7. V. BicoLOR. Foliis lato-cordatis sublobato-angulatis acuminatis subintegris 
et tri aut quinquelobis irregulariter dentatis, dentibus acuminatis aut mucronatis 
supra glabris subtus paliidioribus, in junioribus sparse arachnoideo-villosis. 
Racemis laxis, baccis parvis nigris. 

Hab. From Pennsylvania to Virginia. V. aestivalis Darlington, Florula 

Stem moderately large and high. Leaves broad-cordate, sublobately angled 
acuminate, subentire, and three or five-lobed, irregularly dentate ; the teeth 
acuminate or mucronate, above smooth ; beneath paler in the younger leaves, 
sparsely arachnoideo-villous, the villosity entirely vanishing with age. Ra- 
cemes long, loose and compound ; berries small, black, -3 of an inch in diameter, 
sweet and agreeable. 

1853.] 273 

8. V. PULLARiA. Foliis elabris, ovatis cordatis acuminatis, ut plurimum 
versus apicem obscure aut profunde trilobatis rarius quinque lobatis saepe inte- 
gris, inaequaliter gross dentatis, dentibus acuminatis. Racemis longis ramosis 

Hab. In Virginia and Maryland. Vulg. Ctiicken grape. 

Stem miderately large and tall. Leaves thin, smooth on both sides, polished, 
ovate cordate abruptly acuminate, beyond the middle more or less tri-lobed, 
sometimes five-lobed, often entire, unequally dentate ; teeth large, acuminate ; 
petioles and nerves beneath conspicuouslypubescent. Racemes long, compound 
and loose ; berries small, -3 of an inch in diameter. 

9. V. RiPARiA. Foliis elabris ovatis cordatis acuminatis ante medium plus 
minus trilobis, saepe integris dentatis, dentibus latis depressis, brevi-mucronatis. 
Racemis laxis baccis parvis. 

Hab. In Georgia and Mississippi on the banks of rivers in overflov\'ed places. 
V. riparia Mx. V. dimidiata Rafinesque. 

Stem lariie and tall. Leaves thin, smooth on both sides, polished ovate, cor- 
date, acuminate, more or less tri-lobed beyond the middle, often entire, sub- 
crenato-dentate ; teeth broad, flat, with a short point; the youngest leaves with 
a slight arachnoid pubescence beneath, petioles, nerves and margin pubescent. 
The leaves are sometimes five-lobed, the upper lobes with deep spathuliform 
sinuses, the margin but little dentate. Racemes loose; berries small, -3 of an 
inch in diameter, black and acid. 

This species, confounded by most authors with the next (if it has ever been 
seen by them,) is found only in the southernmost States on the margins of 
rivers, in places frequently subject to inundation, whence its name among the 
inhabitants of the banks of the Mississippi, Vigne de battures ; it very much re- 
sembles the next, but is easily distinguished by its thinner leaves and the 
arachnoid pubescence on the under side of them in their younger state. 

10. V. oDORATissiMA. FoUis glabris ovatis cordatis acuminatis inaequaliter 
crenato-dentatis dentibus' mucronatis, ut plurimum versus apicem obscure trilobis. 
Racemis laxis, baccis parvis. 

Hab. In the Northern States, in dry situations, generally on the sides of rocky 
hills. V. odoratissima Donn. V. riparia Pursh, Torrey and Gray, &c. V. 
serotina Bartram, 1. c seems to be V. cordifolia of Emerson, &c. V. montana, 
concolor, columbina, populifoka, odoratissima and amara Rafinesque. 

Stem large and high. Leaves smooth on both sides, broad-ovate, cordate, 
acuminate, unequally crenato-dentate, teeth mucronate ; generally obscurely trilo- 
bate beyond the middle, nerves beneath very prominent, margin, nerves beneath 
and petioles pubescent ; a small pubescent tuft on the axillae of the nerves of the 
under side of the leaves. Racemes long and loose, berries small, '2 of an inch 
in diameter, black, very acid and austere, ripening in November, 

This species is much cultivated in gardens on account of its fragrant flowers, 
the perfume of which is exactly that of Reseda odorata. It very rarely pro- 
duces fruit. I have found fertile individuals only on the rocky hills north of 
Hoboken, New Jersey. I have been informed that the Indians formerly used 
the juice of this grape for dyeing blue. 

11. V. ROTUNDiFOLiA. FoUis glabris nitidis rotundo-cordatis, acuminatis 
nunquam lobatis grosse dentatis, dentibus acutis subaequalibus, racemis parvis 
baccis magnis nigris, rubescentibus vel albis. 

Hab. From Virginia to Florida. V. rotundifolia Mx. V. vulpina Walter. 
V. acerifolia, vulpina, angulata, and veruccosa Rafinesque. Vulgo, BuUace 
grape, from its resemblance to the bullace or wild plum of Europe, corrupted into 
Bull grape. In Virginia and North Carolina, it is called Muscadine and 
Scuppernon grape. 

Stem moderately large, unlike every other species perfectly smooth even in 
the oldest vines. Leaves thin, smooth on both sides, polished, shining, most so 
beneath, round cordate, never lobed, acuminate dentate ; teeth large, subequal, 
acute, axillae of the nerves beneath sometimes furnished with a small tuft of 

274 [February, 

pubescence. Racemes small, simple ; berries large, -2 of an inch in diameter, 
round, black, reddish or white. 

This vine most frequently produces fruit of a delicious flavor and very sweet. 
In North Carolina much wine is made from the grapes, but generally it is spoilt by 
mixing it with peach brandy or whiskey to increase its strength. Among the 
ignorant it is commonly thought that no fermented juice of fruit can be kept for 
any length of time, unless it is adulterated with alcoholic spirit. 

In the pine forests of Georgia the V. rotundifolia is found prostrate, with stems 
scarcely three feet long. 

12. V. PALAiATA. Foliis ovato-cordatis utrinque glabris, profunde quinque 
lobatis palmatis, laciniis sublanceolatis, inaequaliter lateque crenatis vel incisis. 
Racemis subdensis subsimplicibus baccis magiiis albis gena cupraea. 

Hab. In North Carolina and oil the banks of the Ohio. V. palmata Vahl. 
V. virginiana Poiret. 

This grape, which is the true Bland's grape of former years, was once (30 
years ago,) extensively cultivated in the gardens of this city, but has since been 
utterly lost. I cannot now find a single plant of it. It was perfectly hardy, 
bore profusely and ripened before the frosts. 

The above description is made from memory assisted by Vahl's and Poiret's 
descriptions. I have seen it growing wild in the mountains of North Carolina 
and have been informed that it was once common on the banks of the Ohio 
river. There is certainly no grape found in America that can be compared 
with it ; in every respect it is equal to any variety of the V. vinifera, being 
very sweet and perfectly free from pulp, and without that peculiar flavor which 
is more or less common to all other American species. 

The V. cordifolia Mx. I have never met with, at least a species correspond- 
ing with his description has never fallen in my way either in the North or South. 
It is said to extend from Pennsylvania to Florida. There is another small and 
sweet grape called the Orwigsburg which I have omitted, although said to be 
native ; I could never satisfy myself that it was so. It has much the appearance 
of foreign varieties. 

Of the foregoing species, those most worthy of cultivation are of No. 1, the 
white variety, and the Isabella or Catawba, which would probably flourish in the 
coldest parts of Europe; No. 6 and No. 11 and No. 12, all of which are sweet and 
agreeable and furnish good wine. 

The Committee on Dr. Le Conte's "Synopsis of the N. Ameri- 
can Siphales," and '^ Synopsis of the Scaphidilia of the United States," 
reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

Synopsis of the Silphales of America^ North of Mexico, 
By John L. Le Conte, M. D. 

In the following synopsis, I have included also the Coleoptera which form 
Erichson's family Ariisotomini, as the characters of that group appear to be by 
no means sufficient to entitle it to rank as a distinct family. Schiodte has al- 
ready* made similar remarks, detailing at the same time, strong reasons in sup- 
port of his opinion. 

The genus Silpha presents among its species peculiarities which would furnish 
abundant material for reflection to the philosophic naturalist; the species found 
in this country, diff'er among themselves, by such variations of structure that 
each becomes the type of a separate group. Several authors have already 
designated many of these groups by generic names, yet the diff"erences between 
them appear in value so much less than those which distinguish the genera, 

* Specimen Fauna; Subterranean : translated in the Transactions of the Ento- 
mological Society of London, New Series, vol. 1, p. 134, et seq. 

1853.] ^^ 275 

which have an appearance of being truly natural, that 1 ha^6t considered it 
prudent to adopt their views. ^^'rv^rrifSr?^*^ ' 

Among some of these groups, (e. g. S. lapponica, S. americana and S. ramosa,) 
appear several forms, which are undeniably distinct in their origin and distribu- 
tion and yet do not present characters sufficiently definite for their perfect 
separation. Many genera among more highly organized animals presenting 
this same peculiar specific relation will occur to the mind of every naturalist, 
but this is, I believe, the first example distinctly noticed among Articulata ; 
nor can 1 find in scientific memoirs any allusion to a doctrine, which flows very 
naturally from such observations, viz : There are in nature genera so constituted 
that their division can naturally be made only so as to exhibit assemblages of 
individuals, which are multiple and distinct in their origin, but which are so 
closely related that any attempt to define and isolate them must result in con- 
fusion. The interpretation of so called geographical varieties, is obviously a 
portion of this doctrine ; but for the present, I must merely content myself with 
this brief notice of a view, which, whether it be eventually proved correct or 
erroneous, might ere this have exerted a beneficial influence upon certain por- 
tions of Natural History, where The zeal for creating irrecognisable species has 
been pushed to a prodigious extent. 

Div. 1. Silphales genuini. 
Trochanteres postici fulcrantes ; coxas posticce approximate * 

Necrophorus Fabr, 

A. Thorace convexo, tenuiter marginato, antice non impresso. 

1. N. m e d i a t u s , niger, thorace obovato, antice dense punctulato, lateribus 
et basi punctato, elytris macula humerali, altera transversa ante medium, 
tertiaque lunata versus apicem rubris ; antennarum clava ferruginea ; pectore 
abdonninisque basi ad latera auropilosis. Long. '87 -95. 

Fabricius, Syst. El. 1, 334 : Latreille, Gen- Ins. 2, 5. 

Southern States, Missouri Territory and Texas. This very distinct species 
diff'ers from all the succeeding ones by the epipleurae being narrower, less in- 
flexed, and less distinctly margined above. The posterior tibiae are very much 
dilated at their extremity. In the male, the anterior tarsi are only moderately 
dilated, and the yellow hair at the base of the abdomen is more abundant. In 
both sexes the rhinarium is triangular. 

Among the specimens from Nebraska are varieties in which the anterior 
transverse spot is divided; in some the outer part of this divided spot is efiaced ; 
in such individuals the posterior lunate spot is much reduced in size. 

B. Thorace antice transversim impresso, margine laterali anguste depress. 

2. N. marginatus, niger, thorace obovato, marginibus parce punctulatis, 
lateribus vix sinuatis, elytris lateribus, fascia communi ante medium, alteraque 
utrinque subapicali rubris ; antennarum clava ferruginea ; pectore aurapiloso. 
Long. -57 88. 

Fabricius, Syst. El. 1, 334. 

New York, Georgia, Texas, Nebraska and California. The rhinarium is red 
and triangular ; the posterior fascia does not entirely reach the suture, and its 
outer portion is contiguous to the apical margin. The anterior band is some- 
times interrupted towards the side, and sometimes one of its posterior dentations 
is prolonged so as to reach the inner part of the posterior band. The anus and 
margins of the abdominal segments are ciliate with black hairs. The anterior 
tarsi of the male are moderately dilated. 

3. N. Melsheime ri, niger, thorace obovato, lateribus subsinuatis marginibus 
punctatis, epipleuris elytrorumque faciis utrinque duabus dentatis rubris ; anten- 
narum clava ferruginea, basi nigra, pectore anoque flavo-pilosis. Long. '92. 

* This last is a character found in the whole group ; it is merely added here 
for the convenience of those who may desire to consider Scydmaenidae as a 
division of this, and not a distinct family. 


? Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 97. 

One female from Nebraska and another from Utah. Very similar in appear- 
ance to the preceding, but the anterior band does not reach the suture, and the 
posterior band is less close to the apex; the rhinarium in both specimens is 
black and triangular. 

Kirby describes his species as having a red trapezoidal rhinarium, but as I 
find great differences in this respect between individuals of other species, I am 
not inclined to consider this character as of any importance. Kirby's descrip- 
tions are moreover very faulty and difficult to use, as he has laid undue stress 
on variable or on universal characters, while the differences in form of the 
thorax and the extent of its depressed portion are hardly mentioned. 

The description ofN. obscurus Kirby (1. c. 97,) also applies to this 
species, except that the epipleurae are not " narrower than usual ;" that char- 
acter would assimilate it with my division (A), but from the want of a descrip- 
tion of the thorax, it is impossible to place it accurately. 

. 4. N. guttula, niger, thorace obovato, punctulato, lateribus sinuato, dorso 
subtiliter canaliculato, elytris gutta humerali rufa ; antennarum clava obscure 
ferruginea, basi nigra, pectore auripiloso, abdomine nigro-pubescente. Long. 
48 -70. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc. 1845, part 1, 53. 

California, abundant at San Diego, rare at San Francisco; also found at Sitka, 
according to Motschulsky, whose localities are, however, by no means accurate. 
The transverse impression of the thorax is very deep; the elytral spot is entirely 
on the base of the epipleur?E, and is sometimes very indistinct. The anterior 
tarsi of the male are dilated, and the rhinarium is black and trapezoidal ; in the 
female the rhinarium is much smaller and triangular; the anus of both sexes is 
ciliate with j^ellow hairs. 

C. Thorace subcanaliculato, antice transversim impresso, margine lateral! 
latius depresso. 

a. Thorace glabro. 

5. N. americanus, niger, fronte, thoracis disco, epipleuris elytrorumque 
fasciis utrinque duabus rubris, antennarum clava ferruginea, pectore flavo- 
piloso. Long. I'OO 1'35. 

Nicrophorus americanus Oliv. Ins. 10, 6; pi. 1, 3, (1790) ; Enc. Meth. 8, 154. 

Necrophorus graudis Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1, 247, (1^92,) ; Syst. El. 1, 334 ; 
Herbst, Kafer, 5, 152, tab. 50, 1. 

Middle and Southern States, abundant. Fabricius quotes Olivier, but for some 
unknown reason does not adopt his specific name. 

The rhinarium in this species is red, and very variable in form ; sometimes it 
is small and triangular, sometimes very large and trapezoidal. This difference 
at first appeared to be sexual, but with a larger series of specimens I found 
that both forms were to be found among the males ; although the variation is 
very great, yet after a diligent comparison, nothing was found to indicate spe- 
cific difference. 

6. N. pustulatus, niger, thorace subovali, subtransverso, marginibus 
punctatis, elytris distinctus punctatis, gutta laterali ad medium, alterisque 
utrinque duabus versus apicem saturate rubris ; antennarum clava ferruginea, 
basi picea, pectore flavo-piloso, abdomine griseo-pubescente. Long. '62 85. 

Herschel, Illiger's Magazin, 6, 271, (note.) 

N. hicolon Newman, Ent. Mag. 5, 385. 

Middle, Sourhern and Western States, not common. The rhinarium is red, 
triangular and moderately large ; the anterior tarsi of the male are strongly 
dilated. I have one specimen in which the lateral elytral spot is hardly distinct, 
and the two apical spots entirely wanting. 

7. N. n i g r i t a, niger, thorace ovali, lateribus subsinuatis, marginibus punc- 
tatis, elytris subtilius punctatis, punctis maioribus 3-seriatis impressis ; anten- 
narum clava ferruginea basi nigra, pectore nigro-piloso. Long. 75. 

Mannerheim, Bull. Mosc, 1813, p. 251. 

1853.] - 277 

California, at San Francisco and San Diego; only two males secured. The 
impressions of the thorax are very deep, the transverse undulated line is not 
interrupted at the middle ; the rhinarium is red and trapezoidal ; the anterior 
tarsi are strongly dilated. 

8. N. p y g m as u s, niger, thorace ovali, lateribus vix sinuatis, parce punctu- 
lato, marginibus punctatis, elytris distinctius punctatis, fascia utrinque dentata 
in epipleuras extensa, maculaque postica dentata rubris, pectore anoque flavo- 
villosis antennarum clava nigra. Long -4 6. 

Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 98, tab. 2, fig. 3. 

New York<ind Lake Superior. I have only males of this species ; of three 
from Lake Superior, the smallest has the rhinarium large, trapezoidal and 
black ; in the other two no rhinarium is visible. The impressions of the thorax 
are very deep, the longitudinal line is more distinct than usual; the red band of 
the elytra, although reaching the lower margin of the epipleura, is not dilated 

The specimen from New York differs from the other three in having the 
elytra more finely punctured, and the red bands much more bright colored; the 
rhinarium is large and trapezoidal, as in the first mentioned specimen. 

I formerly considered the large specimens as N. hebes Kirby, (1. c 96,) 
which by description seems closely allied, but is placed in a different division 
of the genus, with the "prothorax dilated anteriorly." 

9. N. lunatu s, niger, thorace subovali, latitudine vix breviore, marginibus 
punctatis, elytris subtilius punctatis punctisque maioribus 3-seriafim impressis, 
epipleuris, fascia utrinque angusta dentata, maculaque lunata postica rubris; 
antennarum clava ferruginea basi nigra, pectore flavo-piloso, abdomine nigro- 
ciliato, ano flavo-pubescente. Long. '75 '79. 

New York and Georgia. This species is named in Dejean's Catalogue, but I 
cannot find that any description has yet been published. The posterior tibiae are 
curved. The rhinarium is red and trapezoidal in two specimens ; in another it 
is scarcely to be seen. 

10. N. o rb i c oil is, niger thorace rotundato, marginibus punctatis, elytris 
distinctius punctatis, parcius pilosis, utrinque fascia dentata maculaque postica 
lunata rubris, antennarum clava ferruginea basi nigra, pectore flavo-villoso, ab- 
domine nigro ciliato, ano griseo-pubescente. Long. '73 '90. 

Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 5, 177. 
iV. Hallii Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 98. 

Middle and Southern States, abundant. The rhinarium is short, triangular and 
reddish; the punctures of the elytra are furnished with tolerably long erect 
yellowish hairs ; the tibiae are nearly straight; the posterior ones of the male 
are gradually broadly dilated towards the tip. 

One male from the Sault de Sainte Marie, Michigan, differs in having glabrous 
elytra, and much more dilated posterior tibiae ; the rhinarium in it is piceous, 
broad and trapezoidal. The hairs of the elytra may have been removed by 
accident, and the other characters seem scarcely sufficient for the definition of a 
new species. 

b. Thorace villoso. 

12. N. V e 1 u t i n u s, niger, thorace, pectore, epipleurisque basi flavo-villosis, 
illo ovali subtransverso, lateribus sinuatis, elytris distinctius punctatis, fasciis 
utrinque duabus, dentatis rubris, epipleuris flavis. Long. -53 85. 

Fabricius, Syst. El. 2,234, (1801); Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 96. 

N. tomentosus Weber, Observ. 47, (1801.) 

Common throughout the Atlantic States awd Missouri Territory. The anterior, 
tarsi of the males are strongly dilated ; the rhinarinm is red, sometimes large 
and trapezoidal, sometimes small and triangular; the latter form occurs in both 
sexes ; the former 1 have observed only in males. The club of the antennae 
is black. 

As the two names applied to this species appear to be equal in date, I have 
followed other authors in adopting that of Fabricius, as his work is of a more 
systematic nature, and much more easily accessible. 

278 [February, 

The following species are unknown to me : 

N. obscurus Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 97. 

N. he bes Kirby, Fauna Bor. Am. 96. Nova Scotia. 

N. maritimus Man. Bull. Mosc. 1843, 251; Chevrolat, Guerin's Icon. 
Regne An. 60, pi. 17, fig. 8 ; Sitka. 
JV. auripilosus^ Esch. (teste Motschulsky, ibid. 1815, part i. p. 52.) 

N. defodiens Man. Bull. Mosc. 1846, 13 ; Sitka and Unalaschka. 

In Illiger's Magazin (6, 271 note,) Herschel mentions N. carolinus Linn., 
but after a very careful search, I cannot find any such species in Linnaeus' 
works, nor is it mentioned by any other author. 

SiLPHA lAnn. 

The following arrangement of the species is the most natural that I have been 
able to form ; it must be remembered at the same time, that the intermediate 
coxae in all our species are moderately distant : 

A. Antennae articulis tribus ultimis longioribus. 

a. Antennae laxe articulatae ; oculi prominuli. 

1. S. surinamensis Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1, 248; Sy